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of a youth being saved {torn, an un-
timely and watery grave, by the cir-
cumstance ot his happening to have
in hi$ pocket the card which Dr.
Hawes nas published, and which re^
commends the proper naethod tobeused
for rescuing tlie sufferer from suffoca-
tion in vanous accidents. We think
we cannot do a greater service to
humanity, on this interesting occa-
sion, than by givine publicity to those
brief rul^s this physician and phi^*
lanthropist has laid down ibr obtain-
ing the laudable purpose of hisendea-
vours.— * ' 1 . In the case of drowning,
the greatest exertion^ should be used
to take the body out of tiie water be-
fore an hour nas elapsed, and the'
tesuscitative process immediately to be
cmploved. Cautions : — ^Bodies taken
out of tlie Thames, ponds, &c.—

1. Never to be held up oy the heels.*

2. Not to be rolled on casks, or other,
rough usage. 3. Avoid the use of
^t Hi air cases of apparent death.

What thou doest do it quickly.

The drowne4'
J. Coil\'e)rcareiullythe body, with
the head raised^ to the nearest con-
venient house. 2. Strip, and dry tht
body;-— alean the mouth and nos-
trils. 3. Lay^'oung children between
two persons m a warm bed. 4. An
adult : Lay the body on a blanket
or bed, and in cold weather near the
fire. In the warm seasoti air should
be freely admitted. 5. It is to be >
ffently rubbed With flannel, sprin«
Sled with spirits : and a heated warm-
ing part, covered, lightly moved over
the back and spine. t>. To restore
breathing — Introduce the pipe of a
pair of bellows (when no apparatus)
into one nostril; close the mouth and
the other hostril, then inflate the
lungs, .till tlie breast be a little rais-.
ed i the mouth and nostrils must then
be let free : repeat this process till
life appears. 7. Tobacco smoak is
to be thrown gently up tlie fun-
dament, with a proper instrument^
or the bowl of a pipe covered, so as
to detend the mouth of the assistant.
8. The breast to be fomented with
hot spirits ; if no signs of life appear,
the warm bath, or hot bricks, &c.
applied to the palms of the hands^



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t^e ana fteroic Actions bfScanderleg, Prince tfAllaniti.



n



and tales of the feet 9. Electricity
4arJjr employed by, a medical assist*
ant

Intense Cold.
Anb the body with snow, ice, or
Cobf'vater.^ — Restore waimth, &c. by
slow degrees ; and, after some time,
if nt»cessary, the plans to be employ-
ed for the resuscitation of drowned
persons.

Suspension hf the Cord.
I . A few ounces of blood may be
taken from the jugular vein, and cup-
ping glasses may be applied to the
bead and neck ; leeclies also to the
temples, a. llie other methods of
trdtment, the same as recommended
for the apparently drowned.
Si^JKoUon by lioxious Fapours or
Lightning, .
Cold water to be repeatedly thrown
upon the fiice, &c. drying the body at
kitenrals. — If the body feels cold,
employ gradual wai;mtli ; and follow
the ^ns of the drowned.
Intoxication.
The body is to be laid oft a bed, .
&c. with the head a little raised : the
neckcloth, &c. reraoved.—Obtain im-
mediate medical assistance, as the
modes of treatment must be varied
according to tlie state of the patient.
General OLservations.
1. On signs of returning Ufe, the
assistants are most earnestly advised
to employ the restorative means with
^reat caution, so as to nourish and re^^
tive the languid signs of life. A tea-
spoonful otwarm water may be giv-
sto ;— and if swallowing be returned^
warm wifte or diluted brand)^— To
be put into a warm bed, and, if dis-
posed to sleep, will generally awake
restared to health. 2. The plans
above recommended are to be used
for three or four hours. It is an ab-
sud and vulgar opinion to suppose
persons as irrecoverable because Hfe
does not soon make its appearance.
3. Eleatricity and bleeding never to
Be employed, unless by the direc-
tfons of the medical assistants.'*

We should be sorry to appear dic-
tatorial or presumptive 3 but we res-
pectfully recommend to our coteitipo-
raries the consideration of publishmg
tliese instructions and cautiohs, as
ve have done it for the benefit of those
vho, from the practice of bathing
ai this season of the year, may un^
cxpectedly fall into danger.



MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND HBROlC
ACTIONS OF SCANDEBBEG, PKINCB
OF ALBANIA.

" THE proper study of mankind
IS man,*' says Pope, the contemplative
British Horace, the prince of our mo-
dern lyric poetry. This is an apoph-
thegm, or manifest useful truth, which
caimot be reasonably doubted of;
and, as the judicious and ingenuous
sufficiently know, will ever tc foutid
in accordance with the language of
good sense and reason. All men are.
eager to satisfy, according to the
means which they possess, that strong,
natuial, inbred desire, which all are .
more or less affected with, not to be
ignorant of such memorable trans-
actions as may have occurred in the
preceding: generations, and in their
own 5 sudi transactions as contain the
most remarkable, important,, and in-
teresting particulars incidental to the
common humanity. Now, although
the knowledge of letters has in every
part of the world, and among the
most barbarous nations, been rightly
accounted all ornament and a blessing
to individuals of ail sorts and eyery
condition, yet the reading of history,
in particular, may be very safely pro-
nounced and recommended as the :
most rdtional recreation, as the great
tdork, and the proper study of 4 gen-
tleman 3 who, as excelling others in
the digni^ of blood and in the am- *
plitude ot fortune, and being better
furnished (or presumed to he so) with
all the requisite eifts of nature and
art, for me undertaking of great
actions, ought, more emuiently, to
love and favour the acquisition of this
kind of knowledge.

Historical trum introduces her vo-
taries into the prior councils of kings,
into tlie administrative oi^ces of com-
monwealths, the government of pro-
vinces, • and the nighest charges of
dangerous and hornd, but glorious
war. Cicero calls history the witness .
of times, tlie light of truth, the litis of
memory, the regent of life^ and the
herald of antiquity. The line of .
human Kfe is doubtless spun very
short-4>ut the use and benefit of
readuig, to Instruct us in the practical *
knowledge of our duties, by the ex-
amples and at the cost of others,
wimout acquiring dearly purchased,
experience (which an ancient proverb



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55 ' tJf&aniheraic Actiimsof Scanderbeg, P^incttf Allanid*

dslls tntstr^s of fools) at our own insertion in your valuable Mi sceUanTV
pToi^r peril, is of great length. if you consider it as perfectly con*

1 he following history is a particular sistent with your comprehensive plan,
^hd complete descriptive account of the fruit of my recent labours, in ool-
wJiat may be termed with strict pro- lectin^ from different historians of
priety, not only zjust and necessary * undoubted authority and veracity, the
W even a holy WAt of arms, law- high adventures and goodly exploits
ftdly taken up in the cause of sacred ot the invincible Scanderb^, and of
truth, in the defence of civil and re- his worthy and ffreatly renowned as-
llgKWW liberty, against a proud, cruel, sociates in sacred arms,
fbrniidablc if^e, against the circum- It was the fate of 'the valiant Epirot
cised Turk?, sworn enemies of the to have to contend (which he didsuc-
rhristian name and faith, in defence cessfully) with the Turks, 'when at
of a country and its cities, its altars the very zenith of Aeir fame, power,
and hearths, prestrved solely and ex- grandeur, and victories ; and long
£/?/j»w^, under the suiTOrilitcndance before their national courage ana
atod witn the help of the divine pro- prowess, their military dlsciplme and
vkleace, by its ottn proper forces. It virtue, had begun to exhibit any vi-
is the history of a religious, magnani- sible tokens of decline. In this re-
i&oas, and warlike prince, complete spect he was> unlike to that noost ce«
in all virtues civil and military, armed lebrated and extraordinary personage,
not only with a perfect well-grounded that impetuous homicide, Pyrrhus,
courage, and an invincible constancy his predecessor in the sovereignty of
of mind, but with a principle of truly Epims, who, during two or three
pious faith artd zeal to a degree almost campaigns, and in several veiy bloody
incredible, and wliose exceedingly glo enlargements, manifested the most
rkxis victories and essential sen^ices eihmeht skill and the most brilliant
t6 the christian church and common- valour in an offensive war against the
Wealth, are wortliy of transcendant Romans : but it was in the early ages
admiration, of eternal fame. It is the of their history, when Rome, after-
life of the great GeoagesCastkiot, wards the greatest, most, extensive,
sttmamed oy the Turks -, Scakder-: and most distinguished city and nation
tkOyOr TRBl/b&D Alexander, King of the world, had only entered into a
of Albania, who assumed and most state of adolescence, was then but in
justly <Jeser\'ed the name and title of her green and youthful years.
Athleta Chbisti, the soldier of As the supereminent qualities and
Christ; an agnomination infinitely merit which Scanderbeg' possessed,
more glorious and lasting than either were most fully dispLiyed m his ad-
that or Africantts, Asiaiicus, Germa- mirable MX)nduct of a defensive war,
wicus, or Btitanniais ; who above all (wherein lie is thought as- far to excel
the other champions of christiahity, afl the other noblest captains of both
shone con.^icuous and unrivalled iii ancient and modern tunes, as he did
his day 5 in respect of corporeal and the generality of those who are called
mental dexterity, the v^our of his christian princes, jin fferent zeal and
genins, tlie fertilitv of his exquisite unhypocntic^ de\'otion) an attempt
and versatile imagfnation,1n planning to revive the now almost extinct me-
martial schemes and stratagems, and nibry of his excellent parts, course,
an ahnost ineffable felicity of godd successftd conduct, &c. will, we pre-
fortune -, so that bis virtuous actions sume, be perused with no little avidity
and illustrious feats in arms, seem' to b^ tlie real amateurs of military po-
haVe surpass^ even his loflydestinieS. litics ; wfll be treated and considered,

A consideration of tliis, Sir, has in- not .as a matter of indifference, but as
duced me to communicate to you, fur a stibject both delightfiil and profit-

• The editor cannot'betp reniii<k1ng here, that he fears the terms «• just'and nc-
ccssarj',"* as applied to that great national calaoftlty, war, have been of late imich prosti-
tuted : at least, some van of our modern days ate not free from the s<rong,probablc sus-
picion of ^'«^ and having ^^ violently forced, as it wfere, upon the subject, in conic-
quenceof the depravities, prejudices, follies, pn'dc, and ambition of the princes and nilcis,
actuated by motives very differeni from what ar^' avowed, 50 f W att thejr fro^ ^
pedkxing obviouiily and naturally, just «nd neces;«ry.

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Sags, tSfc. m Paring and Burning in Husiptdfj. f I

aUe4>f3B aichas, suave mari magno, to their true cause.* Scieoce, in gc-i
ice. can find It a pleasure to sit at tiBral, is found (if apt superior to ejL«
their ease upon the land, and observe, perience) at least greatly to aid it.
ID perfect confidence and security. This it is which ha4 rendered tlie
tiniselves, how others are tossed up gentleman-farmer not merely a con-
tad down with the blustering winos sistent character, but at once an use-
upOQ the troublous seas ; who can ful and respectable one. The farmer,
cooleni|da^ with satisfiiction and con- merely as such, can know little of
tentment the constancy of mind in chemistry, and can have no very ea^
tbecxercise of unshaken, impregnable, access to it. The plain jog-trot f^r-
persevering virtue, wherewith otliers mer; surrounded by four or live sciea-.
tare passed through the fears and tific agriculturists, is left behind at a
liopes, the manj sunerings, the pains great distance, unless he quit the old/
aodadventuroos dangers, of a military beaten track. He discerns some-
life, &c. ^c. ^ thing more U^^n theory, than mera
(To be continued.^ speculative experiment, in what hit

neighbours are doiug; and though,

fOTS, &c. otr PARING AMP BURNING perhaps, he can save sometliing.m tho
IN HUSBANDRY. rate of work for hedging, ditching,,

THE practice of paring and lurn* and mowing;, he obser\'.es that lie is
tR^, or in odier words, of cutting up outdone in his crons, as well as in his
the turf or surface qf the soil, and by breed of cattio ana swine, by those,
file reducing it to ashes in die lieki, whgm he lias formerly been taugh^
has not been so gener<'dly adopted as to consider as iutiTiders in his way.
mi^t have been expected, from the So far back as 'about forty yearly
advantages some gentlemen have ex- very litUe was done in actual paring
perieoced firom it. While, on the one and burning; for the sfmply con«.
band, some persons are too enthusias- suming couch gr^s, and other weeds,
ficln the recommendation of aq in- collected in h<^ps by the harrow/ ia
vention, or a newlv revived custom,, dry weather, does not in any ipanner
to, on the other, toece arfi as many fiul un^er this xlescrlption. In cer«
who immediately an4 obstinately set tain districts, or spots of ground, as
themselves against every innovation on calcareous unproductive dow^
vhich does not accord witJ^ their own £or instance, it evidently increased
QotioQ of things. This, in a great their fertility; bvft as it is tlie fate of
measure seems to be the case in the: improvement, as well as of error, to
present instance. It is not denied, have blind vot^ies, many persons
Rowever, that while a fi;i'eat deal may possessing good land which wanted,
be allowed in favour ofthis species of nothing more than to be sown and
improvement to Mr. Boys of Bets- kept deao, treated it just as if it ha4
baoger, as well for his reasonmg, as been a fungous mossy or rushy soil,
for Oie examples he has furnished oi The efiect and produce of this new
its good effects; yet it is ppssible kind of labour and management,
there may be soUs where the same therefore, not answering tlie unrea-
tieatment imy- be altogether useless^ sonable expectation of those wha
not b say injurious. Those who adopted them, a check was, as might
Kad his treatise on this p^ of hus- be expected, given to a practice high«
bandry, at the end of his " General ly laudable under judicious hands. A
View of die Agriculture of the Coun-. person of no great extent of under-
Mr of Kent," must, however, lie. un- standing, may easily conceive that to
der an unconquerable prejudice, if treat the rich and rank soils in the vi-
tbey cannot discover its great utility cinage of Staines^ as tlie pent land^
vhere imurovement is most waptoa, about Bagsliot, would be absurd in
tiz. on soils but little productive, and the highest degree. Such absurdity
at a dbtanoe firom cities and. large has in some measui*e prevailed in
towns, where alone manure in abun- Qiore than one county, and given rise
dance can be procured. to reports of a supposed disadvantage

Clicmistry has done a great deal for in the practice. As a great m^y o4
manufactures ; it has not done less the best agriculturists of this t>ng.-»
uiT a^iculmre. It has taught its pu • dom are satisfied by the reaspn^nff an4
{iUand admirers to trace el^ts up experience of Mr. Jjoys^ and- ofi^rsn

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On Paring and Burning in Husbandry.



32

with respect to the utility of pariiig
and burning in certain land<? which
they describe j we confess our8elves
strongly disposed to wish i^ adopted
more generally than it is at present.

As Its success may be greater or
}ess according to the manner in which
it is performed, we will ouote a pas.
sage from the author we nave men-
tioned, where he speaks of tlie vari-
ons modes of doing it, first premising
a few words on its origin and pro-
giess.

As far back in antiquity as Gito
and Palladius, the ashes frombufning
vegetable substances ivas known to be
a goqd manure for the land. In the
thirteenth century, however, Cres-
centius writes expressly on the burn-
ing the surface in order to improve
<he whole soil. He says, " In tlie
groves of the Alps, the trees are.clear-
ed of tlieir small branches in the
months of May and June, whicli af-
terwards, when dry, are burned in
the month of August, and, when in
ashes, are pioughea in. Siligo (wheat
of a small sort) is sown upon them,
which produces that year a very great
crop ; then the land rests for seven
years, and is again sown in the same
manner. But, when tiiere are no
groves, the grass, with its roots, and
some earth, is pared off", and, being
dried, is burned; afterwards, upon
the ashes and dust of this, siligo is
sown, at the season already mention-
ed. The land is allowed to rest eight
years, and then the same work is re-
newed." Cres. lib. iii.' de siligine,
p. 90.

"Mr. Marshall, in his Rural Econo-
my of Devonshire, says, '* This ope-
ration in agriculture has been prac-
tised, in this western part of the
island, fiom time beyond which nei-
ther memory nor tradition reaches.
It has probably been imported from
the opposite shore on the Conti-
nent."

'• Mr. Young, in his Travels in
Frnnce, vol. ii. p. J 38, speaking of
Tour d*Aigues,lobserves, " that par-
ing and burning is practised G\ery
where : and, as m Ireland, in corners,
holes, wastes, and even ditches, to
make hcajis of manure for their cul-
tivated lands. They are now (Sep-
tember) burning every where. Ine
common opinion is very much against
it > but the Prcgideui remarks, mat it



has been practised here uninterrupt*
edly, probably for 2000 years, yet the
land is no worse than it has always
been/'

*•' The Marquis Tourbilly says, that
it has been known from an anti-
quity.*'

The implements employed in par-
ing the land are, 1st, the fen-plough i
2d, the breast plough ; 3d, the cob-
bing hoe; 4th, the common spade;
5th, the prong spade; 6th, the com-
mon plough. Mr. Hitt describes the
two first with accuracy in his Trea-.
tise on Husbandry. He- says, *' There
are two different instruments made
use of for paring: the one is a small
plough, that is worked with a pair of
horses, with which a man, in the feps
of Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, and
Huntingdonshire, will pare tyvo acres
oflandmaday,

'' These are called Rockdiff
ploughs, but for what reason I am
not able to say : the coulter of one of
these ploughs is a circular plate of
iron, edged deeply with steel: it
moves upon an axis fixed to the beam,
and cuts the turf about two or Uiree
inches deep when it is used in the fen
land J ' the ^hare is about a foot or 14
inches wide in the web or fin, but the
point is narrow ; it is made of the
same sort of metal as tlie coulter;
both of them are kept sharp, or else
they are not fit for use ; for the coul-
ter must either cut the turf extreme-
ly clean oh one edge, or else ilie share
cannot turn it over; and as the share
goes so near the surface, it meets with
many strong roots of grass that re-i
quip a sharp instrument to cut them.
This instrument is tlie most expedi-*
tious upon carr or moss land, but not
of any use where there are stones or
roots of trees.'*

The other instrument is called by
different names in different parts of
£n^land : in the north, a floating or
parTng spade 5 in some places a breast
plou^ 5 and in others, a denshiring
shovel, or denshire plough.

*' The parts which answer for tlie
coulter and sliare of a plough, are
both in one plate, about the thickness
of a scythe, and of as good metal ; tlie
flat, or share part, is somewhat more
than a fm>t broad, but the fore jjart
is made with a point ; the coulter is a
part of the plate which forms the
share i it is turqed scjuare, so ttiatit



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Boys, Vci on Parirtg ami Burning iti Huslandr^. 6 8

stands right up when the share is flat rough lands covered witli heathy furze^
upon the ground^ and cuts the edge brambles, bushes, &c. which, by the
tithe turf/ ^as the 'share does the hot- resistance of their woody roots in the
torn: there is a socket -at the upper soil, cannot be pared by the common
£02; into it is fixed a shaft of wood breast or downshare plough. Ihis
ahoat seven feet in length j at the implement, and its use, is described
upper end ©f which is placed a hilt by tlie Marquis of T^urbilly, in his
Mout two feet long, and not thicker wojk entitled, " Surde la Treche-
t(uo a man can conveniently grasp mens," p. 29. ]By hi« account, it
nith either hand, and by that he appears verjr similar to the adz which
ruidesit; and with strongly pushing coopers use in England for hollowing
loth thighs against the hiU, he causes out the inside of the staves of casks,
the plates to cut the surface of the A tool of this kind is used in this
bnd, and turns it over in pieces about counhr by the labourers for cuttina
three feet long ; the breadth of each up cakes of turf, from the surface ol
is about a foot, and the thickness one the heath lands, for fuel.
or two inches. It is excessive hard *' The common spade is frequently
labour; but a good hand will plough used for diggins turf from waste
about an acre in four days : the fa- banks on sicSnills, alpng hedges and
bourer has apiece of wool against highways inaccessible to the plough
each thkh they strike against. The from situation, or obstructions by
hflt of flie plough and their under roots or bushes 5 and the prong spade
lides are coverea with wool, to pre- is a tool in the shape of a spade, but
vent tbeir bruising the man's flesh." made with three or four prongs in-
Mr. Boys observes, that in the ste^dofa plate. This is used for dig-
eastera counties, on- chatiw^ soils, gingthe turf for burning on the ^ides
baling a mixture of flints, the breadth of waste banks, highways, &c. where
of the &B, or share, is somewhat less, the soil is too full of flints or stones to
or from 10 to 12 inches, and the admit readily the common or plate
pointed projection more angular; by spade. It is a vieiy useful implement
vhicb means the small flints lying in in particular situations, as it enters the
the turf are more easily displaced, ground with much less labour than the
In other respects, these imjplements, common spade, and raises the turf
he says, are the same as' before de- equally well. The turf dug by either
scriHed by Mr. Hitt. spade, is left generally grass Upwards,

"The usual mode of burning the ii cut early in the spring, until ther^
Jrfcut by the fen plough," pa^s Mr. be a favourable opportunity for dryr

ing, which is sometimes em



Boys, *' is to lay it up in small heaps ing, which is sometimes effected by
in the field, generally not more than repeated turnings 3 at others, it gets
ten or twelve feet apart, and then sufficiently dry without any removal ;
firing the heaps with a few red hot all which depends upon situation,
ashes taken from heaps that have been soil, and seasons. When the turf is dry*
previously fired. It is more conve- enough to bum, it is placed in large
nient to the workmen to get it toge- heaps, from four to twenty or more
ther in swill heaps ; but if the heaps cart-loads each, and flred by means of
were made at greater distances, and faggots of furze, or any other fuel
much larger, there would be more of that happens to be most convenient,
theinsidcj if properly attended, con- More or less Urine is required, In
yerted by the smothering process proportion to the kindliness of tlie
«»to a carocHiaceous substance. The soil for burnings of which an expe-
^sheswould then become^j as has been rienced workman can easily judge,
before mentioned, a more fertilizing Some sorts of turf are easily firedl
Qt^OHce; and to the want of this pie- with only half a pint of red hot ashe$
^ttUon, perhaps, may partly be attri- being thrown in upon th^ heap, and
^ted the mischiefs that some au- instantly.cotcredwitha pieceof turf:
thors have assigned to the practice while others require a faggot or two
itself. of wood, and no small degree of dis-

. "TTjeccobue, cobbing hoe, 01; beat- cretion in disposing it properly,
rag axe, is 9 tool made use of by the Chalky soils generally burn readily..
French, for cutting and raising up The best method of placing the turf
piecesofttirf growing on coarae and dug with the spade for burning, is t©
Vol IV. ^ ^ F'



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 6 of 108)