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Undc peqem proferre podor vetet, ant ope-
rit lex.'*

]\fajor Gordon has audaciously ascribed
to Homfr ten times more than .he has
ptit into the mouth of \'cpnias. For
instance,' his description of the phalanx^
and other particuUrs, of which we see
no tncei in Homer, and which are co-
piously eited by the critic, without ani-
madveirtuic upon these unpardoivible
liberties twen with him and with X«-

iUcaidn, our wthor has giren a short
Wi mistibtcd deicrtplion of only six of
the flraseies of the arm, althou^i there
arc aboA e fifty muscles belonging to that
member. On this occasion, every ana-
tomist would haT« joined witli the critic
and with' us in dissecting him. Instead
of fuereiainf; his oensorisn authority
tipon these just occasions, he oertihes,
that " tl^ obseniations on the bones
aod muscles of the arm» and on the
three different kinds of lever, appear to
him to be un<fzoeptional>le/*

llie author was, m our opinion, cnl-
pabfe ^fo in not introducmg his de-
scription of the fbrt and^ foible towards
the beginning, and pievious to the in^
structions for quarte and tierce, and for
neglecting to lay down rulrs for grace-
fully drawing, saluting, aod for return-
ing the sword. We pass oyer the de-
fects in the orthograpny : we presurae
not to find fiuiK with die spots on the

Although we disagree with the Ami*
jacol)in critic, in some resjjects, yet we
cannot dismiss this subject without
giving it as our opinion, that there ase
^cw critics existing competent to fimoish
Msch a criticism as he oas given upon
this norel and extraoidinary subject.
If he has erned in any portieolar, it is
pot an eiTor of either his heart or his
head. It resultf from haste, and a raul-
lif^city of business.

Although this Treatise is not free
from blemishes, j>ei we have no hesi-
tation in annovncing it to be by far the
'best we hovu aeu, and peHiaps'the best
ever written opon the subject of the
science of defniee, Jt is well trseod
vp to remote antiquabr : the demeostra-
tions arc mathemattcal. Tl;r idea of the



and of the utmost natiooil ittcsest; A^
like the Principia of Neirtosi, it wA
require time ana attention to be uadnr
stood. We.are only ap p eb sa a i wr» daj
in time it may mute its way
continent, as it will, if we o^
be translated into difibeoc
and cultiralad, not only by the
orders of the military* hut oy «rcnf g»
tleman of taste and erudiwn. 11»
illustrations accoBpan3nBg this W^A^;
(nineteen in nmnfaer). are noai thegr^
ver of &Ir. Smirk, jun. aod ^ive
correct ideas of m^iat they ace
to represent.

AaT.X. The Ufe and Pm^ficmie^

Leo the Tenth, by IFm. BmcBe^ m ;

four vols. 4io. CmdeU amd Dmm,


THE writn: of this vahuAie wvtkii
a gentlemaa of Liverpool, wbo hi^
prwiausiy to this publication, meritci ;
considerable literary renowii iar hift
nasterlv M-ork, " The Life of Lami-
zo de Medici^ calkd the Magnificcot"

Whatever mnrht have beat the di^
Adenoe of Mr. Botcoe with wapKt t»
the success of his first perfonnBOOB^
we camiot be surprised tD«t the cpsdit
he aoauired by it should have emboUi^
eued nim to undertake this new tMk«

Althouidi we do not tcnn^e to of
tbtt Mr. Rosooe*s leadeim wul, on the p
whole, receire less pkasore in the pe*
rusal of this perfornunoc tfaan in the
other, yet the caose is not le SMsdi
owing to the author as to the natoreaf
the materials on which he is exerciseii
The judgment aod language en^ioy*
ed in this are certainlv not niienor to
^oae exhibited oa the Life aod La*
hours of Lorenzp; both coasideted
and dulj s^preciated cannot Mi aa
plare tlieir author iq the ran^t wsdi
tl)e %3nl «Titen on European Hiaioi^«

Our hibtoriaOy in his prefiuja, wry
properly infenus the reader of tM
•ouroes whence be drew the ettratiai
parts of his work« After the ibrta*
oate access to the archives of the Va*
tican, which be obtained ]»r the
frieodlT interest of Joha JobasoBy
Eso. (tlieu on his trarels through Iti^)
Willi the learned Abate CT iictaaa Ma*
rini» its prefect, as well as of b» lite*
rary interoonne wilk tbe celebnied
Abbe Jacopo Morell^' lil»Briau ot£t«
Mmxk^ at Veaipe, be speaks witb b^
coming gratitude of those pecsous ia

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The L0e and PrnHJicoti of Leo the Tenth. iii

HrmrfteoiBntry wftohav^enabiedbim Paris, ^vhich possessed a copy irom
t» inform himself of ooch documents the oi^iginals in the Vatican y and thestt
u ^fcrt pdrticolarSj applicable to his extracts threw an additional light on
defligli} among those persons are John the singular circumstances attending
Wauer, &q and Mr. Planta, prin« the death of Leo X.
dpallibrarian of the British Maseum. Our historian obsenres upon on*

He derived considerable information peculiarity in his work, which he sus-'
Rspectidg the private life of Leo X, pects may be considered as a defect ;
as wdl as of h» predecessors Alexan- and that is the frequent introduction
der VI. and Julius IL from the diaries of quotations fi^m the poets of th«
cf Giovanni Bureardo, usually called times. Hie gravity c^ nistory may
Biiichard,andIWisdeGrassis,succes- certainly appear broken in upon by
unif oficers ©f the Roman Court, the intersi)ersing such passages very
iriio were styled masters ot the cere- often, but thej ought not to lessen oiir
monies of the Pope's chapel, and coo* confidence in the authenticity of the
sideied it as part <^ their duty to keep history itself; for we agree with him
a register of such transactions as oc- in thinking, that when such quotations
corred under their own eye, or came proceed ^om conlemporaiy antko-
otherwise to their knowledge. rity, their being in verse ought not to

?rom the narrative ot Paris de invalidate their credit.
Grassis, who succeeded Burchard as , ''Tothosewhoarepleased in tracing
usfeer of the ceremonies, and whose tlie emotions and passions of the huroau
dbryoommences on the l!^ of May, mind in all ages, nothing can be more
l504j and continues through a part of gratifying than to be informed of dxe
the pontitoite of Julias II. and the mode ot thinking of the public at
viioieofLeoX. it appears that Psris large, at interestmg periods, and in
de Graois waa a native of fioloena, of important situations. >YhiLst war and
a PBspartable iinnily. Hi« brotlier desolation stalk oier a countr}% or
Aehilws, was in the'year 1311 raised whtJst a nation is struggling for its lU
bjr Jolios II. to the dignity of the pur- berties or \t% existeoce, mt opinions<jf
pie, and was one a^ the rm«t learned men of genius, abilit}', and learmt^,
and respectable members of the col- who have been agitated with all ths
Ifge. He had another brother, Aga-* hopes and fears to which such eventw
namnoii, who in the year 1510 was have given rise, and have fret^xiently
■ilbassador from the city of Boloeim acted a persona] and important purlin
to tbe pope: on tliis our author them, are the best and^
tikes occasion to remark, that the ia- tive comment.'*
iwhr names <rf" these jpersonages seem As the autlior has, at a former
to hare been sought tor in Homer ra- period, signrfted a thought ot colti^
tfaer than in the books of the Old »d vatin? a still larger held of ii^quiry
New Testament Paris had se^-eral into Oie learning of a once famonr
diffiities conferred on him by Leo X . people, he now renounces it, by say mg,
wiwch pontiff he survived, and died '* With this publication, I finally ro-
at Rome on the loth day ci June, ringuish all intention oi prosecu'tins^,
J528. Mr. R. observes, that the style witli a view to the public, my re-
<)f Fans de Orassis, like that of Bur- searches into tlie historv and literature
ctod, has litfe pretensions to ele- of Italy." He concludes his prefot:«
gaaoe; but that it i» rendered int^ with the following well written pa-
Rstbig by its simphcity, which *nves ragraph, speaking of the sedutout
to his ninMio& a character of fidSity, attention it has been in his power to
and hfr adds, ** it rr net ttamiiusing to bestow on the work, and the proba-
observe tho importance which bene- bility nevertheless that miuiy defects
<)Bentiy attaches to hia offce^ and the may appear in it. '* That I nave de-
«w«rity wkh which he reproves those voted to its completion a considerable
n^kaations from the dignity- of his portion of time and labour^ will sulfi-
Wgb rank, in which Leo, oit one ciently appear from the perusal of tho
occasion, indalged himadf.^ - following pages 5 and it may therefore

Sevepsd ciunoua extracts from the be presumed that I cannot be indif-
vofnibliHhed part ef tlie diary of Paris' ferent to its success. But whatever
^ Grssms was obtained in the year inducements I may have found, in the
W2i from tfie- Biitk)flMl libraiy 0^ hope Gf coodl'iaung the mdulgcnce.

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Acwutti of a Kon^eScfipt Animat.

or the favoor of the public, I must
finally be |)emiitted to avow, that
motives of a difl'erent, and perhatw of
a more jaud^ible nature, have occa-
sionally conciured to induce nie to
persevere iu the present undertaking.
Among thciic, is au earnest desire to
txhibit to the present times an illus-
trious period ot society 3 to recall the
public attentiou to those standards of
excellence to which Euro|)e has been
indebted for no inconniderable )x>rtion
€jf her subsequent improvement ; to
tmfold the ever active eiFect of moral
causes on the acquirements and the
happiness of a people \ and to raise a
baiTier, as far as such cfibrts can
avails against tliat torrent of a corrupt

and vitiated taste, K'hichf if not pdli*
tlnuallv opposed, may once man
overwnelm the cultivated natkms oC
£urope in barbarism anddegradation.
To these great and desi^ble aims, I
could wish to add others, yet nxxe
exalted and commendable; to de-
monstrate the fatal consequences of
an ill directed ambition, and to de-
duce from the unperverted pag» of
history, those maxims of true bo-
manity, -sound wisdom, and politick
fidelity, which, have been too modi
neglected in all ;^es, but which an
tlie onty solid ibuiKiations of the re-
pose, the dignity, and the hapfrntes^

(To be eontdaied.)


Nox-DESCRIPT. fidence^ Whpn it overtakes ^ny. i{

Mr. JOHN ^N ART, Oiuician, has punctures their skin with its fofccps;
Ltdy published, in the Philosophical and aUer lacerating them, so as to fetck
Alu^aziue, a drawing, and a description blood, drags them towards its tiiouth,
of what iie considers <is a verv singular into which it receives the effusion. So
aqiutic animal, which he has (iiscovcred insatiably \*oracious is this aminal oT
Ksiduig in ponds, in which the frog is blood, that in the space of a few boun.
getKrratcd, troui the firj't rudinicuits or and that too diinus the night, out of
9pwn of the parent, and bruup;hi forth about eighteen, it nad either killed of
til the tadpole states in which state of much maimed no less than.eight ortni
being, the embryo iVog, the autlior ob- tadpoles, most of which were bigm
senses, becomes the prey of the said tium itself : and could it have madelbe
animal : without the persecution of same rapid progress in. the water which
which, he is of opinion, tliat frogs tadpoles do, the describer makes do
would al>ound infinitely more than what doubt but that they would all have
ilhey do at present. The unimal in fallen a sacrifice to this ^anguinaiy ty<
question is, says the author, of a most rant, who, with short intervals of if^,
curious construction, having six legs, after a full meal, is inftessaBtlyrmingiB
ivith the feet anned wiih talons, two search of blood. At first sight, it ap-
palpi, or feelers, and four antenna;, with peared to be of the binocular class j but
a bifurcated, plumated tail. The body after taking a good magnifier, Mr.Siiart
is divided into ten senii-^mstaceous observed the eyes to be composed of two
lobes, somewhat like tlie armadillo, ex- annular clusters, not reticulated, bflt <
elusive of the head and neck, (which each containing six distineC roundish,
form two more) by means of the joints bright, black orbs, at small distaoces
of which, he is enabled to inflect him- firoin each other ; the intennediate spi-
aelf iuto almost any ^>osture. The head ccs, as well as more considerable one^
IS flatted like- the scollop, and broad ;' in the centre of each lustre» being be*
the mouth is of the whole width of the mogeneous with the colour and textiiie
head J and proceeding from the sides of of the skin of the oihor parts of the
the superior mandible, or upper jaw, body, which, with some little variegated
•pung a couple of tentacula, like a for- exceptions on the back of the faepid;ii
ceps, which it opens or closes ajt plea- of a colour resembling the mud of the
sure J these arc curved and pointed like Thames water, of the texture of Uiaiof
those of the foriicula, or common ear- a common shrimp^ aiul like it, when
wig, and with these it seizes its prey, of alive, of a seini-transparent nature: in-
which the tadpole 5Cems to be the prin- deed, the divisions of the whole body
cipal favourite. /dthouAh tadpoles :uc are more like this, than any other «»•
frequently found much lara;cr than it, ture .Mr. S. has yet seen; butkscoi}-
yet this little cannilxd, or bloodsucker formations, in other respects, mi ^f^
will pursue tiiem with tlie grcaUj^t con* xn^« as js 2|bove fttaU^ ..\Vheii tjiii

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Extracts Jtom Foreign Journals.

inlmal seizes its prey, if exceedingly
vulnerable, like the tadpole, it lacerates
pr pierces so deep as to make the forceps
meet, and even cross in the punctures,
when it amuses and gratifies itself by
working them in and out, until the
Wood flows from the wounds, at which
time they are alternately withdrawn,
and applied to the mouth, as if to taste
the goie with the one, while the captive
is detained by the other; which if it ap-
proves, the struggling victim is drawn
there too— but ifother%vise, it contents
itself by repeated lacerations, until the
cneaiy, or imaginary enemy, is dead, as
%as the case with 1 common earthworm,
which Mr. S. threw into the water, and
likewise with several flies, which were
never drawn towards the mouth at all,
while the tadpoles are completely ex-
hausted of their blood, until they be-
eome a mere skin, with a small por-
tion of gebtinous matter left in it ; for
dieir adversary seems not to have con-
veoient organs for entire deglutition, or
he would, no doubt, quickly destroy
the whole subject. But from the nar-
row compass of the neck, and its crus-
taceoos texture, the oesophagus is inca-
pahle of expansion to any considerable
degree ; yet this incapacity, on his jiari,
is no security to the other, seeing they
ate almost cut in two by their being
brought into so close contact with thf
mouUi of their destroyer, and quite
drained of their very Vitals.

l\m formidable non-descript animal
seems made by nature to thin the race
of frogs. Jt may be further obser^'ed,
that he is so tenacious of his prcv, that
hariog once fastened on, he will bear
to be drawn quite out of the water, and
held for some minutes, suspended by
the hold, ere he will let go nis victim,'
^id so hard and undaunted, as to bear
to be lashed with a small twig, without
appearing to sustain any injury. The
opening of his forceps seems to fascinate
his victims : they become, as it were,
transfixed by torpor, and rivetted to the
spot, though naturally capable of swim-
ming much fkster than their enemv.
One particular more- it may not be amrss
en notice, which is the ebbing and fluw-
itig of the blood— whi^h blood does not
appear to circulate through all the parts,
(utby a kind of undillatory motion, or
lather pulsation,^ proceeds and recedes
towards ajad froia the head, to about
Uf way down the body, lu one entire
ibass Although, wimottt doubt> the '



whole frame is visited by this vital prin*
ciple, yet it is in such small quantities
as to elude t^e most minute inspection ;
and if the quantities were not, indeed,'
very minute, it could not but be visible
through the semi-transparency of the
body ; for it is not tempered like water,
but is of so sanguine a tint, as to give
the middle part of the b6dy a black ap-
pearance. The author docs not venture
to determine what class of aquatic ani-
mals the subject of his description ranks
in, because it participates of several, or
aX .least seems to possess members and
faculties in common with two or three.

M. i>ERON.

M. PERON, late Naturalist to the
Expedition for making Discoveries, in
wha^ the French now term Australasia,
and we New Holland, among other ob-
servations in his account of the vo\-age,
makes the following: That the most im-
portant, and perhaps also the most inex-
plicable circumstance to be noticed, ia
proceeding from Van Diemen*s Land 90
New Holland, is the absolute difference
of the two races who inhabit these two
remote islands. If we except, indeed,
the meagreness of tlie extremities which
is observed equally among the inhabit-
ants of botli countries, they have scarce*
ly any thing common in tneir manners
and customs, in their rude arts, in their
implements for hunting or fishing, in
their habitations and pirogues (canoes),
in their arms or language, in the whole
of their physical constitution, in the.
form of tne cranium, or ii^ the propor-
tions of the face. This absolute dissi-
milarity appears also in ihe colour, the
inhabitants of V'an Diemen's Ijamd
being browner than those of New Hol-
land : it appars also in a character hf-
therto considered as exclusive, namelv,
the nature or properties of the hair.
That of the inhabitants of Van Diemen's
Land is short, woolly, and curled ; that
of the New Hollanders is straight, lank,
and stiff". Another zoological tact tends
still further to confirm tne above dis-
tinction, if not primitive, at least a very
ancient one, between the aforesaid two
regions. The dog, that animal so va-
luable to man, the faithful companion ^
of his niisfortunes, his tjavels, $ind dan-
gers, the indefatigable instrument of his
distant hunting excursions, every where
so common on the contirtcnt of New
Holland, and which wc find ou all its
coasu, BXQong the different hordes we'

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Extracts frwn Foreign Journals.

had an opportunity of obsemns, (these
are the author's own words) aoes not
exist in Van Diemen's Land ; at least,
Mre could discover no traces of this ani-
nial. We never saw any of them with
the inhabitants, notwithstanding our
daily intercourse with them. The case
was the same with M. Labillardiere,
during l)entrecastaux*s voyage ; and it
does not appear that any other traveller
has ever seen any. The English whale*
fishers, whom the author consulted on
this subject, confirmed the circum-

Another obsen-ation made by M.
Peron, is« that the summits o!* the
mountains of Van Diemen^s Land,
New Holland, and the island of Timor,
tvere formerly covered by the sea. lo
Van Diemen's Land* towards the bot-
tom of the North liver, M. Pteron dis-
covered, at the height of 6 or 700 feet
above the level of the sea, lai^ge masses
of petrified shells, all belonging to the
Hme gemu of Liamarck, and constituting
a species, to which he could find none
living analogous, in the same places.
pn several joints of the east coast of
the island Maria, there are seen regular
horizontal strata, consisting of a kind of
whitish, shelly, free-stone, resting on
mnitic rocks, at the height of 4 or 500
feet above the level of the sea. At
)[aitgaroo Island, those of* St. Peter,
and St. Francis, and that portion of
the continent which is situated behind
them, the author, n^ade similar observa-
tions: he alwavs found some remains
of petrified shells, at a greater or less
distance, in the interior of the countn*,
and at heights more or less considerable.
During an excursion which the author's
ixiend, M. Bailly, made into the interior
of New Holland, aftcendine Swan's
river, for about 20 leagues, ne found
every where the ground covered with
quartzy saiid, mixed with the remains
of shells. At the Bay of Seals, this
phenomenon occurs with still more de-
cisive char4cters. The whole substance
of the barren islps of Doni, and that
of Dirk-Har^of^, consist of free-stone,
sometimes reddish and sojpetiines whit-
ish, filled with shc}ls of difiecent kinds.
Iliis composition becomes still more
s.triking »t Timor. On the summit
of some of the mountains, already
there is found at the height of mora
than 15 of 1800 feet aboire the level of
tlie sea, a great number of shells, in-
i rusted \s\ (lie wi^^i pf th^ madrcpiic

masses which thej. ibrm. - Most tf
these shells are in the siliceous state -,
some of them, still in the calcareofu
sute, are more or less alteiedand firiaUe.
There are some of an enomums 01
monstrous size amongst them. }A,
Peron has seen several individuals,
and every person belongirg to tht
ex[>edition might have seen Uiem ako,
which were not less than four or fire
feet in length. All these lai]ge sbdis
evidently bdonged to the geoeni kippaft
and triaacne of Lamarck ; and what is
more important, the fossil indtvidoah
have such a resemblance to those of ths
same genus, found alive on the la
shore, at the bottom of the mouutains,
that tlie author considers them as the
same, in the remarks whi<^ compos
his general topography of the bay of
Coupang. Even tne giganric propor*
tions of the fossil tridacnes are found in
the living ones. Hie author himsdt
saw a valve, which served daily as s
trough to five or six hogs. In the
Dutch fort there is another^ in which
the soldiers of the garrison wash thor
linen. The absolute want of colour,
common to the fossil and the liring
tridacnes, is -another reason for tbrir
identity. The case was the same widi
several kinds of xophytes, which exist-
ing stall on the coasts, seem to be so
identic with some of those that fonn
the mountains ofthat part of the island,
that the author did not hesitate to cud-
sider them as such. Since his renira
to Europe^ however, having had occa-
sion, in examining the beautiful collect
tion of M. Defnnc, to remark hov
easy it is to be mistaken in this respect,
he freely confesses that he can no loii|^
venture'to warrant tliis identity, how-
ever probable it may appear, as bis
observations were not made with that
minute attention which the subject <ie<
serves, and as whole specimens are not
to be found in any of^ our collcciioni.
While the autlior regrets that he suf*
fered so valuable an observadon to
escape him, he marks out Timor as the
most proper place for detemiiiiinjB; the
delicate and interesting question, in K-
gard to analogous living animals, at
least in the last classes of the ^nijiial


Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, Professor,
of Mat^ia Mfdicas Natund Histor>,
jmd fiotapy^in the University of Pezuit

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Ej^ractsfrom foreign JoumoJs.


tylvanU, bas lately published a letter
to M. Lacepede, of Plris, which treats
of the Natoral History of North Ame-
lica, wherein he observes, that within
die. last three or foar years, se\'eral new
species 6f quadrupeds or mammalious
animals have been discovered in the re«>
tnote regions of that immense continent,
and that the boundaries of human-know*
kdge, in respect of other species, have
been considerably extended. Two pretty'
complete skeletons of the mammoth,
as it has Tone been called, have been
discovered of late years. One of these,
die author observes, has been sent to
Earope, (this is the mammoth which
Mr. Peak, jan. after having exhibited it
in London, retumfd with 10 America,
without visiting Ptois, or any other part
of the contin^t of Europe,) and he
makes no hesitation to refer it to the
jenus elephas. Judging from the honey
iabric of this monstrous animal, which
the author conceives to be an excellent
foundation upon which to construct
^^eneric characters, the American mam-
moth must be a true elephant. If in the
form of his grinders, the curvature of.
his tusks, he differed considerably
from the living elephants that are
known to us, those differences, says
the author, only prove that the Ameri-
oin animalxonstituted a species distinct
from the living elephants of Asia and
Africa. The American species is un-
que^ionably lost. — It may be further
observed, that the skeletons or hones of
ftome other laroe animals, more or less
allied to the family of elephants, have

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