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So delicately plump, so bdautifbUy nice,
I resolv d — and away it was sent m a trice
To my worthy friend C r \ wte^

Ustc I well knew
To a gift of tbe kisd wouU raukr its do^

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Modem Duawiriei, wid Imprwtmmts in Arts, Sciences, tS^c. 3$3

pf soltabJe oookin^, and wines of nre For no slattern of mail with looks petrific4#

merit. Came dismal to tcU that the baker had lied ;

With companioQSy a|>oiindii]^ in wit, mirth *' Or that it isli out, that the negUgetit
and snirit : , slordn,

The hour Beings appointed, all seated to dine, " Had •'hut out the pastry, in shutting the

\f — c— r^ L-*-t — oa — r, others, the comple- oven."

ment nine. More genial our fesfst, more fortunate our

With appetites keen, when in came the band,

feniton; We partook of the pasty, and haiPd our

Aod beliere me, a bishop might hare dear land,

thought it a beaison. As friendship's abode, as liberty's isle,

£e'n Ooldnnith him^K^^i poor Goldsmith 0*cr which may the blessing of Heaven still
been tbere^ smile,

Would rather haye prai$*d, than complain'd Giving joy to the joyless, contentment to
to Lord Clare; Ji—

No cause would hpVe had to grumble or Not forgetting the— ^0/ii;r^the good Car-
frown, dinall.

Oo the Jew, or the Scot, or the man of the
town:



MODERN DISCOVERIES,

AMD

IMPROVEMENTS IN ARTS, SCIENCES, AND LITERATURE 5

fFUk Notices respecting Men of Letters, Artists, and Works

in Hand, tffc. tSfc.

[Spedfications of patents are requested to forced out of the frame, the mcald-board

be?enttothc Editor before the i8th of taken off, and the tile laid on the floof

the month, if an insertion in the first ^r stage made for the purpose. When

number is desired-J ^he liles ar« sufficiently dried, they are

pATENT to Mr. William Wilkin- dtest on a horse or stool, resembling the

son, ofNeedkam Market, Suffolk, mould-board, proper allowance being

fir improved Pantiles, for covering made for the striking of the files. A slay

tfouses and other buildings. Dat^ or beater is made use of for dressing, flat

August 9. 1805.— The following arc on one side, but a little hollow with re-

tke particulars of this invention : Tlie gard to the length on the other side : the

wwer rilcis fottned so thit the greater or flat side is used for the face of the tile,

jceiving end may admit the less or the hollow side is to beat up the edged.

?nppingend of the next tile above it. Patent to Mr. Ralph. fVedgwood of

"JJ° "5 cavity, after the manner of thfi Hill, in Burslem, Staffordshire,

W)u«;hsleadine into each other. A per- Potter; for his ncwlif invented com-

toration is made at the greater end of position for making Glass vpi,^ netv

mwtile, through which a clout nail, or pr'inciplus. Dated April 3, l/u;. This

Jrtnerfastemng, may be passed in the newlv invented composition is made of

U i?'** supports It. Mr. Needham, the following articles : Alkaline salt.

ftas adopted the following process for pieces or parts of china, or earthenware

inanufacturing the tiles though it is pitchers, pieces of baked clay, old plaster

probable, that trifling variations may, in moulds, or calcareous earths, borax,

practice be necessary, according to cir- silicious earths, and terra ponderosa.

cumstances; Mr. N. considers his in- These articles Mr. WcdgwoTki uses in

venuoa to consist in the tiles when pro- the following manticr ; the alkaline

nffk' *"ri °®^ *" ^^^ manufacturing salts and borax, cither in a stale of

a/u L ^^^^^^^'^^^"^ made fast on powder or of solution; but he prefers to

* wble, by k staple and wedge, or other- use these aiticles in solution. " When,"

S!!flj u "*0"*^-*»*«* »"^ fr^^"^« ^ says Mr. Wedgwood, ** i use the alka-

P«ced thereon; the moald is then fill- line salts in solution, 1 cause to be

^ with earth, and struck off in the mivJe a solution of alkaline salt in wa-

ttsual manner-, a small auantilvof sand ter ; and into this solution I cast pieces

Ll^"^ on the foce- of the tile. Tlie or parts ofcbina^ or earthenware pitchers,

Zl ^1? i*"^ mould-board a^ then pieces of kiked clay, the same bcin;?

lite ^a^^^ **^°^' *"^ "^*^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ' ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^3
e lae downward, placed on a hand- plaster moulds, or calcareous earth, first

^^^ > me lik aad mould-bodfd are ulackine them in a solutiou of b«rax in
VoUV. Z 2 r- 1

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314 Mcidetn Discoveries^ and Imprwemmts in Arts, Sdeaces, &c*

water; whenluseborax in solution, I also completed thb ail* b cxtrtLded; tbir'
add silicious earths and terra ponderosa; (nore perfect the operation will be. The
all of these articles I cause to be ground manner in which the same is performed,
tQgiether, and then dried over a slow is the foUowing : The cotton - yam
fire. . When I apply the alkaline .salts which is to be sized, is put into a vessd
and borax in a state of powder> I use called a receiver, and which most he
them in the same manner as they are made perfectly air-tig^t« by fastening
now used in making of glass. When down tne cover, to the aperture through
these several articles are ground together which the yam, is put into such receiver,
and dried oxzx a slow fire, I put the Then, by means ofacopamonair-pomp
whole iif a melting pot, and cause it to connected with the leceiTcr, or by so}
be fused with an intense heat ; and when other means by which a vacuum may k
iri perfect fusion, I pour it from the produced in the receiver, the air most
melting pot into cold water. The qua- be extracted from the receive^, and from
lilies of the several articles will depend the yarn contmned in it/ The size must
on the quantity of glass intended to be then be introduced into the receiver frooi)
madej and the proportion of each article another vessel, called the size- vessel, ty
must successively depend, in some de- means of a pipe ; one end of which pice
gree, on the quality of the respective ar- must be immersed in the size, and inc
tides, and also on the hardness or soft- other end must enter the receiver. In
ncss of the glass required. But by at- this pipe is inserted a cock, which pie^
tending to all or any of the following vents the size from entering therectivcy
proportions of tlie several articles so to before the air is extracted j and when the
; be Ubcd, my composition \viU be made." air is extracted, the size U admitted L^
To make the solution of alkaline salts in turning this cock. Wh«n the size is
water,takc of alkaline salts from 10 to 50 admitted into thereceiver, it cnlcrsviDta
pounds, and all the intermediate propor- the yarn, and impregnates it very rapidly.
tions; and of water from 1 3 to /O quarts. In order that the yarn may iweive no
und all the intermediate proportions ; injury from the rapid manner in which
piccc»; of China or earthenware pitchers, the size enters into the receiver, cither
from 30 to 150 pounds, and all the in- the size should be introduced very sk)w-
termediate proportions ; of baked clay ly, or the yarn should be packed in bas-
from SO to 100 pounds, &c. To make kets, cans, bags, or vessels, or otherwise,
the solution of borax in water, take of to prevent the yarn from being tossed
borax from 3 to 10 pounds, of water about in the receiver, by the motion of
itom 10 to 50 quarts,, of calcareous the size. W^hen the size enters the rei
earths from 40 to 100 pounds, of sili- ceiver, it causes the small quantity of
cious earths from 50 to 100 pounds, air which was not extracted, lo rise to
and of terra ponderosa, from 5 to 20 the top of the receiver. To prevent the
j)0und8| and all the intermediate propor- yarn from rising above the size in the
lions. When the alkaline s^Jts and bo- receiver, the baskets, <ans, bags, orves-
lax are applied in powder, use the ar- sels, containing the yam within the re-
ticles' in the same proportion as when ceiver, must be fastened down,» so that
they are used iq solution. By attending the same cannot rise higher than the
to tliese j)roportions, it will be made to size in the receiver. If it be desired to
greater profit and advantage, than is the give a greater pressure to the size after it
j>rcsent mode of making glass, and with is adm^ted into the receiver, than that
great saving, and health lo the labourers of the conunon atmosphere, the commu-
employed. nication between the receiver and the

latent to Peter Marsland, of Hea- size-vessel must be closed by turning the
ton Nor Y is, in ike county of Lan- aforesaid cock, and then one cud oS, a
caster, Cotton-spinner, for certain forcing-pump may be inserted into the
improvements in sizing Cotton yarn, top of the receiver ; and by this means
Dated July 1(), 1S05. — The nature of a quantity of condensed air may be
this inyeniion consists in the extraction forced upon the surface of the size,
ofthe air from a vessel containing the After the yam has remained a lew mi-
cotton-yarn, which is to be sized, or the notes nt the receiver, it may be taken
principal part of such air, and conse- out, and placed in a thin cold size, to
qently from the cotton-yarn itself, and prevent tne size, which lias been ap-
aj>nlving the size to the cotton-yam, plied in the operation, from draining out
while the air is so extracted. The more of the yarn, sfcs well as to prevent its

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Modem Discoveries^ and improvements in Arts, Sciences, ^c. 355



gprowlng hard upon the surface of the
jram, until the yam undergoes the next
CODunon operation in the couTse of its
manufacture. The «izc answers best
when it is made thick, and introduced
into the receiver at» or nearly at, the

^1110^ temperature. The process inay
iacuitated by heating the yarn (pre-
viously to its being introduced into the re-
ceiirer, or after it is introduced into the
X^cciv'er, anud before the receiver is closed
up, for the purpose of extracting the air
therefrom) to any degree of heat, not
exceeding that of boiling water. It may
be heated very eonveniently in the re-
ceiver* by inclosing the bottom and
sides of the receiver in another vessel,
and introducing the steam of boiling
water into the space between the tvro
vessels.

Patent to Mr. Thomas Rowntree,
«/* Christ Church, Surrey, En^e-
maker ; for a new invented Axletree
and Box Jbr Carriages, on an improved
construction, which he calls his Mobile
Collar, Axletree, and Box. Dated
April 25, 1805.— The above invention
consists of an improved axletree, box,
and mobile collar. To the axktree there
is no nut at the end. of the arm ; conse-
quently the friction of that is done away;
nor can a wheel accidentolly come off
by this method.

The advantages to be derfved in . this
improved manner of constructing axle-
trees and boxes with a mobile collar, is
^fety in travelling, and much less
draught to the horses.

Mr. Abraham, master of ah academy
m Sheffield, is now engaged in prepar-
ing a Spelling Book on a new principle.
It is his intention to arrange the prin-
cipal words in common use after the
following order ; first the root, and in
the corresponding columns, the deriva-
tionr, — a plan which will have the
.double advantage of giving tlie scholar
an insight into the language, and furnish
him with a clue to the proper spelling
of words. -The title of this work is the
Analytical Spelling Book. .

Mr. Lawrence, has been engaged
^nnng the late spring and suannei,
in the investigation of those maladies to
which corn and other vegetables are lia-
hie from changes of the weather, and
has by daily inspection, from the
first appearance of the blade, ascertained,
beyond further question, the cause of
the wnut in wheat, andof that defect
k v/luch the keruds arc called pepper



com wheat, hitherto erroneously sup-
posed to^ have arisen from a promis-
cuous generation of bee,ds. His obser-
vations, made in the course of this in-
vestigation, will appear in* the work
entitled. The New Farmers' Calender.

ITie Third Part of Mr. Britton't
Architectural Antiquities of Great Bri-
tain is announced for publication by
Christmas next, and will contain a
History of Round Churches, with il-
lustrative plans, views, &c. of the Tem-
ple Church, London, and the two
Round Churches at Northampton aqd
at Cambridge. ^

Dr. Gregory, the author of the Eco-
nomy of Nature, &c. &c. has announced
for publication in February next, a new
and corhpendious Dictionary of Arts
and Sciences, to l)e compressed into
two volumns quarto, and published in
twelve parts, at 98. each

Mr. Hunt will shortly publish an
heroic comic poem, in five cantos, en-
titled *« The war of the Bridal Ring."

A very small Concordance is in great
forwarrlncss, designed to be bound with
Pocket Bibles, ^c. to be entitled the
Diamond Concoulance.

*/ The Parish .Qflicers Complete
Guide,*' and the ** Laws of Landlords
and Tenants," by the late John Paul,
Esq. Barrister at Law (worlcs that
have been so justly admired for their
perspicuity and correctness, and which
have been for a long lime out of print)
are we understand, undergoing a revisal
by a gentleman of eminence in tlie law,
who will introduce every thing on the
subject which has taken place since tile
publication of the last editions.

Alex. Mackonochie, Esq. of Baly-
poor, near Calicut, Malabar, proposes
publishing a lara:e work on the Theory
and Practiceof Naval Architecture; also
Political and Commercial strictures on
the conijwrative state of N.\val Archi-
tecture in Great Britain and India, di*
vidcd into three parts.
First, A View of the present state of

Oak Timber in England, and the

caiises of its scarcity.
Second, A View of die Timber Trade

of India, with a ])ldn for its improve^

nicnt, so as to ob\ iate the increasing

scarcity in England.
Third, A View of iJie present srate of

Kaval Architecture in India, shevving

in gnncral, the vast resources in

Naval Staples, contained within the

British domioious iu that country 5

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356 Modem Discoveries, and Imprwemenis in Arts, Sciences, t^c.

from the due caltivation of which, it been lately foimed in hk dmninioii;

is presumed Great Britain might be with a proviso, however, that theyshaU

rendered elTectually independent of not disturb the state, nor theexcraBeof

the northern nations of Europe, for other modes of worship.

the means of supporting her navy. Wc took notice in our last number,

J. Jamieson, D. D. Fellow of the of Certain fishes that are launched b?

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and volcanoes, in South America ; and m

of the' Literary and Antiquarian Society quoting this curious phenomenon, as

ofPterth,has issued proposals for printing related by M.Humboldt, we inserted

by subscription, in two volumes quarto, an explication which we thought ht

frice three guineas, an Etymological had given. But it appears that we havi

)ictionary of the Scottish Language. not rightly understood his meaning. He

The Historical Review of the Nloral, does not think, as we reported, that the

Religious, Literary, and Political Cha- Pimeiides exist in the interior of the

jacter of the English Nation, from the crater, at the same height ?.t which they

earliest periods, by John Andrews, LL.D. are seen to proceed: on the contiarr,

so long expected' among the literati, is he considers this supposition as not

nearly completed, and will shortly be very probable,* by reason of the high

announced lor publication. temperature to which the said aninaJs

A mineralogist of Viennai in Ger- would often be exposed — In his m*-

vtanv, has now in his possession two moir, he has explained himself, at large,

precious stones, considered as unique m on this head, and we ought so much

their kind ; one of them is a sapnhire, the more to regret our not having «n-

whiph weighs 302 carats ; the otner is derstood it, as we drew up our notice,

an aqua marina, that weighs SgO carats, from the memoir itself, which he po-

Thcse two precious stones, formerly litely communicated to us for the pui-

belonged, it is said, to the jewelry de- pose. It is to be wished that all tbc

partment of the crown of France. The other journals who have copied our

sapphire was valued at the Customs, at article, would, likewise, have the ean-

940,000 florins or 350,000 livres, and dour to insert the above as an tfrrafn.

the aqua marina at 3C0,000 florins. Signed I. B. in No. 1?, of La Brnt

They have been offered, it seems, for Philosophique, Litteraire et Politique,

sale, to the court of Vienna. the 2d trimestre, or quarter, and 30 .

There has been published at Munich Ventose or 1 1 March, 1805.— See also

in Bavaria, since the beginning of the Universal Magazine, pag^ 2t)l> of our

year J7d4,a new Jouraal,destined solely last number.

to the cultivation of literature and the The Literary Society of Mamfdd,

arts ; it is named the Aurora, and selects having come to a resolution to erect a

its materials, by preference, in the monument to the gloiy of Luther, for

Southern Gemiany. the year 1817, the anniversary of the

At Stutgard in Suabia, a new Journal Reformation from Popery, has obtained

has been lately commenced, particularly letters of authorization, for this nuipose,

set apart, for the propagation of Ian- from the king, with a purse of a nundied

cuagts and of ancient literature. The fredericks in gold, as a contribution to-

nrst number, (being a volume oi 216 wards the charges of the erection. Thi«

pages) containing several learned dis- monument, which will be in the fonn

sertations, among which, one of M. of a colossal obelisk, will be constriictwl

Bardi, on the passage from mythological in the heart of the country, and in the

id«is to metaphysical ideas, relatively finest part of the same. — A subsciiDtion

to spirits and demons, is entitled to very has been set on foot to accomplish the

honourable mention. design ; and the names of the subscribeR

The king of Prussia has lately as- will be engraven on the base of ^

signed a new stipend of 15,000 rix- monument.

dollars \^r annum, to the University of The Dr. Montueci, of London, has

Hail, partly for the establishment of a ' received from Rome, a coHecrion of

rjbinet or museum of nhvsics, and 1200 Chinese volumes, which arc now

partly in augmentation of the' salaries of to be sold, and aic open to public in-

Ihr Proi;css«rs. spection.

The lUeotor of Baden has lately is- The British Museum has latelyn»<lc

iiued out a warrant of protection toa new the acquisition of the fme collection of

sect, coiled the Siparatiiti, which \m English biWos Ittc ia the posssssioo «*

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be did not see*



Modem Discoveries, and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, t^c. 357

Dr. Combes. It is the only complete searches by which M. Cuvier, has, at
collection of the kind now extant in length, been enabled to discover and to
England. re-establish completely, the skeletons of

5utien Bonnafox Demalet, doctor of se%'eral fossil animals that have beeii
medicine, in P^s, has lately published found in the quarries of Montmartre ;-
a treatise on the nature and manage- of which the analogous animals are no
mentofthc pulmonary phthisis, w(^erein longer to be found. The method by
the author has undertaken to combine which he operates this sort of resu'rrec-
into one bo<ly of doctrine, the whole of tion, has lately received a striking; con-
the science relative to the pulmonary Rnnation, by the discovery which he
phthisis, to the ^management of which has made of a skeleton tCdnarigve -, an
lie has particularly attached himself. It animal the genus of which is now ex-
is a work absolutely novel in its kind, clusively proper to America. All the
iti which the author pursues the malady bones of this skeleton, and especially
throu^ its diflFerent orders, contemplates those which characterise^^ it most strik-
it in its general and .analyzes it iii its ingly, were not absolutely discovered ia
species. By lon^ practice and frequent the stone ; but the relations that M.
observations, he is oecome convinced of Cuvier had before recognized between
a terrible truth, long ago published by the different organs, or as he himself
Sydenham, that the fifth part of the words it, the.** laws of zoology," en-
human race perish by the phthisis ; but abled him to judge, b
near at hand, we read this consolatory what he saw, of all that
assertion, that the phthisis is noi an in- Such is the certitude of these relations,
atraHe disordtT. ' The knethod adopted that M. Cuvier could tell beforehand,
by the author appears to be simple, that in opening the stone, there would
exact, and luminous. He begins by ah- be found the two cliaracteristic Iftones
stract considerations on the orL;aiiization of the genus, those which serve to su]>-
of the lungs j from thence he proceeds port the borders of tlie pouch where tlie
to eflFects,and at lencth, teethe symptoms sarigucs carry their young, for a long
of the phthisis. Tne remainedcr of the time. Experience lias confirmed wka
woikis distributed into two parts ; the had been foreseeiviu theory. This fact
first relates to the management of the is no less embarrasing than curious for
phthisis in general ; and the second in- geologists. M. (Hivier observes, that it
oicates that of each s{x:cics of the subverts almost all tlieir svitcm^, as to

C'lisis. In this respect, we are yet to what respects fos«Jil aniiiutls. ** llither-
as to the .different systems of cure, to," says he, ** in the w silo of the
which are so various and numerous that north, it has been bclicvt d, that thertf
the practitioner is left in uncertainty, were only the aiumuls of Asia. It was
It was not sufficient to condcuin ac- also taken for p;rantt J, that the animals
credited errors, to demonstrate the dan- ^f Asia liail [.as:ed into America, iind
pr of the methods in vogue; it wa.s had thcic been burled, at leait, in tl\e
lurther necessary to propose a better and north; but it \va<> ihon^'.ht thai the
to place the true remedy next to the A"^<^rican ^>;inera l;:^d prcccLdt-d Thjui
complaint; this the doctor has per- their oun soil, aiid that Lr.ov had nt;«'r
fomicd* Wishing to omit nothing, the spread thr()u;,^h the coUmrici whirli
question hitherto yet undecided, to wit, novv fcrni the diicitni cuntliiC iit. H j:
v?hether the pulmonay phthisis, what- I have dlicovcied a sccouu ^lootio the
•^ermay be its genera and its species, contrary, tavs M. C'livi-jr. — oco ihe a^:>
ooght to be considered as contai>ious, nals of the Mucuui oi NaUiral Ilisioiy
is otcided here, in the affirmative, by a of Paris.

•etaiementof facts; although, ho V* ever. The germ of modern Encyciopc^liai.
there are not wanting contrary f«oL3 In the yvdir l310, Hcrmaai-ui 'I orujiV-
which m^ be opposed to thes'f. M. nus, of the town of Zv\on, In the Du'^h
Pincl, a aistinguished professor in the provi!;cc of 0\cr>5?cM, printed iit ILf!'-
School of Medicine, of Paris, iias passed nan in GcrrnariV, hi&aluhibctic d-.ct;o.' .■.■',
• very favourable judfimcnt as to the cntitjcd E/mtJariUi L\-nuKnu}n r: //,•'..-
feal merits of the above work, and us riarum. An u'ig,nKi.fv-t]iJiiioii u{ :!.:"; ^'^is.
to the learned manner in which the vvus published at i'.iris, In \\\: \c n 1 ^o',
lubject is handled. undtr the nt;.- of Dlc.'-or.cir.i. " 11 ■ •'-

The British public is not unacquainted c*.'/, Onj^iraiK.ruri P f.'.ci^'-.', a:i.\.-c C.\ h
^i^ the profound and ingtuiou* re- ^SVc^:- iu»i; ; x.hi^-.i iijct.onai) met ^^J.th a

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f5B Modern Discoveries, and LnpravimerUS in Arts, Sciences, 6e*



very extensive sale and circulation. In the
year 1677» tbc learned HofTman edited his
universal dictionary, entitled Lexicon Uni^
vcrsaU, On a still more comprehensive
plan, was Harris's Lexicon Tccbnicuniy
which pretty much resembles the subse-
quent attempts of this kind ; but it was un-
Questionably Chambers's Cyclopedia which
rst suggested the complete plan, and
which has imposed on other works of this
description, tne name of Cyclopedia and
Encyclopedia.

Some naturalists have maintained that
elephants will never copulate in a domes-
tic state ; this, however, is denied, and the
contrary decisfvclv proved to be a fact, by
experiments that have been made, of late
years,by some of the British officers in In-
dia. At Camillah, about seven years ago,
a male and female elephant copulated in a
domestic state, ai)d the period of gestat?on
was about twenty months and nineteen days.
' The officer who communicated this ac-
count, in a letter to his friend in London,
lately received, and dated from the camp



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 64 of 108)