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at Furridore, in Bengal, Jan. 17, 1800,
thus describes the young elephant : " In
a few days the cub becomes brisk and play-
ful, roilg^ about in all directions, runs at
the keepers, and sucks with the mouth,
jis trunk coiled about the mother's breast,
which is situated on eithcr^side>the sternum
as is the vagina centrally Get ween the hind
legs ; where also is placed the nialc^ or-
gans,of proportionate size, within a sheath;
wlicn denuded, it curves backward. This
bnimal has no scrotum. ^

M. de Humboldt, h correspondent of
the National Institute, in a late siuing of
the class of physics and mathematics, read
three memoirs on the voyage which he has
executed in concert with M. Bom p land, in
the intei ior of South America and Mexico.
In the first, he traced the observations
mSde in the Atlantic ocean, on the cimex,
or summit of the peak of Teneriffe, and in
the province of Nc»v Andalusia". In the
second, he- indicated the operations exe-
cuted in the province of Venezuela and
the plains of Calobozo, where he made
some curious experiments on the Gymnotus
EUuicus. In his third memoir, he pre-
sented an abstract of his navigation on the
rivers O.onoko and the Kio Negro ; a
very dangerous navigation, undertaken in
order to determine astronomically, the
communication of the Orinaro with the
river of Amazons. These memoirs, which
embrace whatever is interesting in those
countries, in respect of geography, hota-
nography, mincralo^' and the moral his-

tory of man, \r\\ shortly be jprin^ <d
convey to the public a correct idea in mi-
niature, of this expedition, until such time
as the observations of his larger work will
be ready to appear. Engravers ha\|c been
already set to work on several of the je«
signs of M. de Humboldt.

A series of engravings of the antiquities
of Herculaneum (executed in the first style
of elegance and talent) is now publishu^
in numbers, at Paris. Thomas Piroli is
the engraver, and the brothers F. and P.
Piranesi are the publishers. The same
artist is likewise executing and publishii^
in numbers, eogravings pi the antique mo-
numents in the Wapoleon muszum, with
a classical explication of the figures by
Lovis Petit Radel.

M. Palesot de Bcauvois has lately pul)-
lished a Prodromus of the Mosses ai d tbc
Lvcopodes, or of tlie fifth and six families
of GEtheogamy, which work is stated to
be the result of more than 25 years of
studies and obsen'ations, and it is an ab-
stract of the diHercnt memoirs read suc-
cessively TO the academy of sciences and to
the physical and mathematical class of die
National Institute. The above plants,
which hitherto hare been but ill obsencd
and little known, are here treated of, agree-
ably to a new theory. The author hi
distributed them into natural genera, \h'
characlcrs being always evident and easy
to perceive. The work is terminated by
a synonymic table, the nomenclature of
which is well conceived, and may ser\e as
a model in other Branches of natural his-

Mr. Crabb of Bremen, is at presest
engaged in compifin^ a new critical gram-
matical dictionary ot the German and En-
glish languages, the leading object of
which is, to define and elucidate, by ex-
amples, the various acceptations of Jul tbc
words extant in the two languages, respec-
tively ; as being intended to serve as a
more accurate guide and instructor for ik
choice of proper idioms and exprcssioa^j in
translating from either of the two languages.

There has been lately published at
Madrid, under the sanction of the Spanish
Government an account of a vopge of exa-
mination to the straits of Fuca, perfornied
in the year 1 7o2 . It is preceded by an in-
troductory explanation .

A German Atlas,as indicating a!I tbcdiT-
fe.ent changes which that country hai late-
ly undergone, inconsequence ol the French
rei'olutionary war, has been recently pub-
lished at Lcipzic, in 30 sheets folio.

The 6ih part of Tischbicns trjly cx-

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Modem Dhcbverih and Improvefnehfs in Arts, S(;UnceSj &c, BS§ ^

cflleotand capita] eognivinfis after Homer,
\s now nearly ready for delivery, there
being only one platd wanting to conoplcte.

Mr. £. Donovan intends shortly to pub^
lish aa epitome of the natural history of
the insects indigenous to New Holland^
New Zealand^ Nev^ Guinea, and the
island of Oiahcitc, and other of the Indian
ainl South Sea islands.

Gamerin in his 35th ascent from Mos-
cow, reports that be observed, for the first
time, an image of his balloon formed in
the clouds, in very bright prismatic co*
loan. When he had ascended to the
height of 30,000 feet, he galvanized him-
leli, and could plainly discern flashes of
listening hovering and playing about


Mr. Ncwenham, in his statistical en-
qiiirv into the population of Ireland, a
work lately published, calculates that
each Irish square mile contains a popula-
tioQ of 197 persons, being 8 more than in
South Britam ^ and that the population
of the whole island amounts to 5,400,000
individuals ; of these, he estimates the
ptotestantsat not more than 1,080,000,
which leaves a majority to the catholics in
the proportion of four to one. Sir Wil-
liam Petty calculates the catholics, in his
time, in the proportion of eight to three
protestants ; and we learn from a return
that was made to the Irish House of Corn-
moos, intbe 3Karl73l» that the number
of catholics was not at that period in the
woportion of even two to one ; so that if
Mr. Newenham -be well founded in his
calculation, the catholics mnst have more
than doubled their proportion in the space
of the last 70 years-

The same author relates as facts pretty
correctly ascertained, that between the
yean 1^1 and 1/45, that is in the space
of 54 years, 200,000 inhabitants *mi-
{T^ted from the sister island to America
and the West Indies ; and that during the
same period of time, an equal number
passed over into England ; while, if en-
tilt credit may be given to the Abbe
Oeoghegan, (although this latter calcula-
tbo seems considerably to exceed the truth)
Qot kn than 450,000 Irishmen perished
ia the service of France. — Mr. Newnham
fi«rthcr states, that in a circuit of 7^0 miles,
lljCTc are no fewer than 66 noble and sc-
curc harbours indented round the coasts,
which coasts are for the most part so sale,
^i they may be approached without dan-
ger ia the most tempestuous seasons. The

following are the capital havens which af«
ford safe anchorage ror large ships of war,
Bantry, Beerhaven, Ballynakiel, Black-
rod, Broadhaven, Cork, Crookhaven,
Gal way, Killery, Loughfoyle, Lough*
swillv, Newport, Shannon, Shecphaven.
For frigates, Baltimore, Belfast, Carrick-
fergus, Carlingfbrd, Dublin, Dunmanus,
Donegal, Kinsale, Kenmase, Kiliala,
Killybegs, Long Island Sound, Mulroy,
the Rosses, Sligo, Strangford, besides 35
harbours for merchant's ships, and 24
other places where ships may iind ponve-
nient shelter in stress of weather.


The 27th, 28th, and 29th numbers of
the Voyage PUtoresque de la Syne, &c. each
composed of six plates, has been lately
published in Paris. The 27th No. con-
tains a plan of the Stade, and of a portion
of the grand gallery of Palmyra : the en-
tableture of a tomb destroyed : a plan of
the grand vestibule of Joseph, in the castle
of Cairo : the restauration of an Egyptiait
temple : (this monument is situated near
the ancient Pelusium) : the developement
of the middle part of the temple : certaitr-
Egyptian temples,with all the kintls of ac-
cessory offices with which it may be sup->
posed that Egyptian magnificence decorate
cd these great monuments. The 28th No.
contains plans and general elevations of
the temple of the Sun at Palmyra ; also a
ground plot of the mausoleum of Tambli-
chus ; an elevation of the monument called
the mausoleum of Elabelus ; plans and
particular elevations of the sepulchral mo-
numents of the kings of Juda; a general
plan of the three monuments represented
in some acts or plates mentioned, and a
plan of the greai church of Bethlehem.
The 29thrNo. contains the temple of the
Sun at Palmyra ; the geomeiral of the gate
of the alia ot the said temple ; a geomo-
tral restauration of the emableture of a
tomb destroyed ; the temple of Jupiter at
Balbcck, vNth a plan of the edihce; a
view of the ancient aqueducts of lyre ; an
aspect of Mount Tabor, in Galilee. The
view is taken from a situation adjoining ,
the road to Nazareth ; and lastly, the so«
lemn entry of the Ba!>haw into Grand

De Mui^R.

Christopher Theophilus de Murr has
lately publisheid atErlangen, ip Gec-
raanv, a vjrork, entitled ** Supplements
for tlie Arabian Literature," forty-seven
pages in quarto, with three plates. This
author has been advbintageously known
by his difiereat wiltings on the subject

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ddO Mbdern IHscoveries^ and Improvtments ifiArU, ScUaea^ ^<l

of the Arabian literature, which is in-
deed a vast field but little cultivated,
and where much remains to be ga-
thered. The Arabian9 are doubtless
one of the mosl ancient people of the
nnivtfse. From the most remote ages,
divided by wandering tribes, subjected
to warrior chiefs, they have preserved
their manners, their character, and
their independence ; their lan^age is
amazingly rich and copious. VVhen the
ta&te for literature flourished amongst
them, they particularly applied them-
selves to the study of astronomy, chro-
nology, .and to the interpretation of
dreams. Among the Moors established
in Spain and Portugal, letters, and the
fine arts were culiivatcd successfully ;
ihey had universities and academies at
Cordova and at Granada. The study
of this language, therefore, is highly
interesting, and is very useful, instruc-
tive, and learned in antiquarian re-
searches. The above work of M. de
Murr contains seven articles, the first
of which is a letter from the learned
professor Tyschen, relative to a Cuiic
Kiscription, 'found in the cathedral of
Cordova. This inscription was com-
municated, to him by M. Ignatio de
Assa, the Spanish consul atBourdeaux.
^n the Latin translation,- which M.
Tyschen gives of it, he renders the first
four words of the fifth line, by multitu-
difu iuna'ttarium et magnifico Prejiyleto. It
is the Arabic word almdr that occasions
tlie obscurity. This word rendered by
Propylsum, is not to be found in any
dictionary ; but perhaps the true read-
ing, says one of -the authors of the
Magazin Encychptdique^ b almandratki ; a
wo-d which answers exactly to the pre-
ceding one, annuari. Agreeable to this
eonjecture^ we should translate tlie pas-
sage thus, multis /umniAus el magnifico
ctuuUlabro^ and perbaus if the origtnal
be carefully exurainea, this conjecture
'«-ill b& found just. The second article
contains also the explication of a Cufic-
inscription, found upon a patine that
has been, used for the oifice of the ca-
thedral, of .St. Cassien, at Imola, in
Spain. It is rather remarkable, that
none of the levqcd have paid attention
to this Inscription. Pastrozzi con-
ceived it to be partly Hebrew and partly
Arabic; Paoli thought .it Etruscan;
Assemanni Mazocchi, . and Mansi,
were of opinion, that these characters -
had no meaning, and that they were
(^ly ornaments ooade. to jcsibelli&h the

patine. The third letter U an Afibi6
tetter wxitten by the holy Viigm Maiy
Xfi the inhabitants of Messina. The
origin of this letter is curious enough.
A certain Ignatius Andreas, patiiaicb
of Antioch, made a present, in the be-
ginning of the 17th century, to one of
his brethren, the bishop Athaaaniit
Saftar, a Syrian by nation, of an Arabic
book written in Syriac characters.- This
book, among other letters, contaned
the above letter of Mary,, which she is
stated to have written in Hebrew, to
the inhabitants of Messina, when at
the age of 42 years, after the btrth of
her son. Ignatius Andreas had ce^sA
this letter ol Roman ancient codes; a
similar codex vir*as .found in the con-
vent Dei Padn di S. Antonio Abhait^
situated on Moiuit Libanus; and die
vicar general of this convent. Ban
Mickddt Metossita was in the habii of
reading it frequently to the fiuthfiii.
This Syriac codex was wriitea dpoo
parchment* in Chaldaic characters; and
It is pretended, according to. the tradi-
tion, tliat St. J6bii me £van«Bst
wrote it with his. own hand. St is
moreover asserted, that the celebiaded
Syriac and Arabic historian At^Jer&»
dasch had translated this letter into his
idiom. This pretended letter of Maiy
is written in new Syiiac charaoleis,
called karsckanes. The translation which
M. de Murr has ^ven of it is veiy just,
and his observations upon it are foy

The fourth article contains the expli*
cation of a Cufico Arabic • inscripdoo,
read upon the figure of a lioness of
bronze, now. in the Museum at Cassel.
The fifth article contains some reflec-
tions on the Arabian Tales, called " A
Thousand and One Nights.'* ]>. Bus*
sell, lieutenant Capper, and other voy-
agers, report that these tales are in
the highest' estimation throo^oot the
East: the Turks, the Arabians, sad
the Persians, pass whole nighls in reaii
ing or hearine them, with a degree of
transport. Ihey are not only dxawn
from the Nataka of the Indians, bot
also from the PatKraka^ a collection in
which a great number of similar histo-
ries occur. The sixth article abfMiods
with ob3er\'atiohs on certain shells or*
namented with obscure sentences in
the Arabic language. A coUectioii of
similar shells, to the number of V£f
pieces, has been found in a demolished
Qwsque^ at th^ foot of Mooat C»uca«

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Moigm ZHtcMmiacndJFKtfinmminifin Arts, Bdmm^ 4k


»Hu M. TfQhmn tm <m^ in fail ^os-
seuion.which he lias commmiictfted to
M. de M«tr, who marks, that the
Arabs call these obscene designs dscAu^
iattt, choMkdUi, Sioiilar deserq^ons,
says M. de Marr» are to be foiKid in
the 3d vohiOke of the Arabic aiid Per-
siao History of $aadi, pnbRshed »t Cal-
ctttta, in the jear I7p^> ^ ^oKo. The
work of Stadi is y^eh known through-
out the East. This assertion of the
author. Is, however, controverted by
(he French critic above-mentioned, who
aven, that the obscenities of itedi have
m^bing in ' common with the shells
which M. de Murr speaks of. Ift the
nsttonai itbrary of France, th^rcf is a
MS. of the obscenities of Saadt. In
the seventh and l&sl artiele, M. de
Mwr treats of the Arabic literature
in PortQgal, in S^in, and at Affram,
and fdfes a wett-fonnded exaHcaiion of
the drflefent monuments <m the Am-
kians found in those cooiitms.

Thcfe has been lately found h> Norfk
Carolna a mass of natif e goU> weigh**
ing 28 pounds avoinlopois ; and at
Rhode island, in a qttaifj> ^ome beau-
uYal grey serpentine. Dr. Micehell, of
New Vork, ttos now in his oossession
some sallkle of white barytii, heavy and
▼eiy beautiful, foond very lately in I^ew
Jcney ; and he has received from Terra
Tmtii a piece of native pMna, about
IS diick as a finger^s end.. The same
leimed chemist (author of diese three
observations) represents that be is more
awl move convinced that alkaline salts
^ the best antiseptics tn nature ; that
tlie use of them may gmtly ooptribute
to annihilate infection in the United
States, flond that acid fumigations Ara of
littte value.

In a memoir recently published by
tkc Ute $am\iel IVj^ge, esq. P. S. A.
and intituled, •• Anecdotes of the En^ -
li^h Lmguage,*' the author has the fol*
Wing observations upon thts word
Apod^ry. " Henry Knighton, who
Iked about 13g9, had the wmd J§p9^
tkcariks. Dr. Johnson 8aT9> from
j^oiketa, a repository; aifo that it
means a man whose employmeni is to
keep medicines for sale. In Greek
AnOium. Chaucer, who wrote before
the introduction of Greek, writes, * Po-
tliecaiy.' Chaucer died in 1400.
(N.B. Grade known in England 1453.)
In the liber Niger Dom. Reg. An-
^f temp. Edward IV. who reified
irtKu 1461 to I4d3| il it mitten >«f^


toy. 9«bvens's'Diictioniiyyh4J^wilt»
and derives it fitom Bott, a gaRipoi,
Baka is * a shop* in' SpaoMl, (JKren^h
kmteque), but emphatically the shop of
an apothecary. The A mky ht our ar-
tiole, whrfrh use has aidded to the word,
togather with the article cir, which is a
nieonasm. Per tmtra, we have appeK
tatives, which by withdrawhi| a letter
from the word /er aphansin, in the ar-
dole, has absorbed ity as from tfa iutran^a,
wo have foro^ «a otangi, AifanruL
we call a /an, which shouUl bo termed
tfn thfon 'y ttom AM, we m^ a Ufy\ so
by dropping the A enthely, we hav6
made sallton from afsaftMn, all from tho
Spanish. Not content to say a Boitcanct,
ot Anglic^, BoHkaty, but we must dou*>
ble the article, and say, an Ahtkary,
Junius calls it voe<ibulum sumptum e^t
Gneco, bat adds minm ummod€\ and re-
fers us to Vossius, lib. i. de Vitiis 8er«
moAis, c. 32. Apothecaries anciciKly
sold wine and cordials. " The Eihne-
rox is somewhat amended, as hU reti^
carte saith.v A bookseller, who keeps
a shop (a BiHibtktea) might as well be
called a Bibliothecafy. Perhaps the Po^
tkary ox Botipario vf^ so called, to dis-
tkignish him from the itinerant medi-
cine monger. In the comedy of the
Four Fs, bv J. Haywood, published
150Q, one of them is the PotUary ; and
I nei^er heard tliat he was arraigned by
the critics, for pseodoMphy. They
are the Potkary, the Pedtar, ih9 Paimer^
and the Pardoner. Mr. Naies says,
that Poticary is very low 5 and so it is
to our ears at present. You might as
well sav, diat perwrig is Greek, from
wtft circfum (Graece), and on^g Anglicc ;
whereas it is onlv unfortunately a cor-
roption of the Prench peruke. The
Boh'cario (or Poticar}') was perhap to
the Quack, who carried his medicines .
about for sate, as the Siaiwrih-ot shop-
keeper was to the hawker and pedi*.'*

Mr. l^homas liarbcr, ^oemaker, of
Wallingford, in Berkshire, who fa-
voured us last month (See Univ. Mag.
for Sep. p. 2600 with ah improvement
which he has suggested, and which
appears to be well worthy of public no-'
ticc, respecting the present cramping
position of shoemakers, while sitting at
their work, has further communicated
to us a circumstance, which he says
be forgot to mention before. His words
are as follows : *' Having got a shoe
ready, and leawng it to my son, be
mounted his stooli sad* m the Hwdins

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1 yX Ai<4em DiscovHies and Imprwements in Arts, Sciences, J&e.

pcwtifre, wtf^ enabled to. sew the fore*
piece, ne^^rly as well a§ I, coii]4 have
done myself, the. posiM'on being so
much easier for sewing qr stitching'
.than the posture of sitting. It is also
much more natural.; so that women
may perform that pvt of th? work with
as much ea^e, an4 escecute it as-wQJly
as any man, without sitting, in a
crouched or curved figure as heretofore.
My son is only eleven years of age,
and has not yet finished his sphool

The state of Ohio, in North Ame-
rica, has lately concluded a treaty with
''the Indian tribes or nations, by which,
to the amount of 1 ,200,000 acres of
productive territory have been added to
the sovereignty of the United States ■.
this grant has been ceded for an annual
compensation in perpetuity of 826 dol-

A curious instance has lately occur-
red in the literary world, in the coinci-
dence of the publication of two poops
on the saine subject, * The Sabbath."
One by James Graham, of Edinburgh,
^nd a member of the Scottish Churchy
^nd .the other by William Cockin,
member of the Church of England, a
native of Cumberland, and a friend of
liomney, the painter, who passed the
greater part of his life in the unambi-
tious occupation of a teacher of writing
and arithmetic. This pleasing votary
of the Muses died in the ye^r 1801, a"t
the age of (55. The following passages,
qn the stillness of the Sabbath Morning,
are specimens of both the poets, and
shew striking coincidence of thought
on the same subject.

-A stillness reigns

Of solemn form, far o'er the lengthy

en'd vale.
For now attentive to the sacretl call,
Which saiictities the wonted day of

• Stay'd is the hand of toil, and busy

care ;
The teim» the scythe, the loom, the

anviPs beat,
Anu ah 13 beeml^ silence and repose."

Cockin, p. /.
How still the morning of the hal-

low'd day !
Mute 18 tiie voice of rurpil Jabour,

The jplou^h-boy's whistle, and the

milK-maid's song.
The scythe lies . glittering in the
. dewy wiealh

Of tended grass, mingled with {adiBg

• That yester-morn bloomed waving io

the'breeze :
Sounds the most faint attract the ear;

the hum
. Of early bee, the trickling of thedcw,
The distant bleating, midway up die

hill ;
Calmn^s sits throivM on yon un-

moying cloud.


Mr. Grahame*s poem, which he calli
"The Sabbath, and Sabbath Walks.''
has no>v come to a third edition ; but
tliough it was the first published of the
two, we have reason to believe it was
not the first written. Mr. Cockin'i
poem, wbich h£ entitles, " The Runl
Sabbath,** was written, as it appean
now, many years ago; and if, as her;
^e may start a very natural question,
whether Mr. Grahame had ever seea
Mr. Cockin's poem ? Admitting ihia to
be the case, ne certainly must yield
somethit>g of the plan of originality.

The business of unrolling the MSS.
found at Herculaneum, is canyii^ oa
at Portici under the direction of M.
Hayter, with considerable activity and.
success. One hundred and thirty MSS.
have already been either actually unrol-
led, or are now unrolling, and M. Hay.
ter entertains hopes of being ^le to,
decypher the .60Q MSS. which are still
extant. Eleven young persons aitcoar
Stan tlv employed in the act of unfoldiM,
the MSS. and two others ai« employed
in copying or drawing them, all under
the direcuon of M- Hayter, and at th^
sole expeqce of his Ro^'al Jlighnebs the
Pp nee of Wales . Besides another work
of Philodemus, which contains a treadse.
u|X)n the vices which border on virtu«,
a work of Epicurus has been discovered,
also one of Fh«drus, one of Demetrius
Phalaireus, and a work of Colotos; tl^
last is in reply to Plato^ on the subject
of Friendship. Amqng tlie Latin MSS.
M. Hayter has fpund an historical work
written in the style and manner of livj;
and among ^e Greek MSS. the cduk
works of l^picurus, in excellent pie-

In a recer^t notice on the labours oC
the members of the University and Aca*
demy ot Gottingen, we find tbe 2nd vol
of a work entitled, leschicht? der
EnUehun^ end Entwkkelung dcr kokenScku-
Ur unsers ErdtAtls, or a history of die
fQondati^n) and gradual consttuction <4

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State of Public Jffdrs.


(he Universities of Europe. This vol.
is composed of two books, which in-
clude the history of the institution and
flf tlve privileges of universities. The
fourth book IS divided into the seven
.following sections. 1. The history of
academical jurisdiction. 2. The his-
foiy of the law, or rights of * making
statutes." 3. The history of the law of
decting superiors, functionaries, subal-
terns and Its professors. 4. The his-
tory of academical dignities. 5. The
Iiistorv of the dignity of a Count
Palatme, f^coTms Patatinus) and of his
privilege. 0'. The history of the pri-
vilege of safe conducts, and of the tax-
ation of dwellings, of the right of hold-
ing small and great messengers^ or post-
office, particularly of the immunity of
fniposts, and of public charges. J. A
history of the law and right that uni-
versities have to take a part in the deli-
berations on public affairs ; of the right
and of the freedom of censure ; of the
right of patronage and of Roluli Nomina^
amm\ of the right of the chase or
hunting, and of that of establishing
apothecary departments, and of taverns
or public houses. In a late silting of
the Society of Sciences, M. Meiners
read a memoir, intituled, ** Commen-
tatio qua; Historiam maneris canccUa-
liOrum academicorum in Universitati*
bus Gallicis ti lialicis pertractat.** The
lesearches which M. Meiners has been
obliged to make, in order to write his
history of Universities, have induced
him to examine more aitentively the
histojy of the dignity of Chancellor in
the Lniversities of France and ItSly;

and it is the result of liis observations
tv'hlch he submits to the society, in a
particular memoir, fonning a kind of
Section of his great work on univer^

The hydraulic engine of M. Mont-
ffolfier has been recently executed at

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 65 of 108)