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i4 ' ioj/k, ff^* ^ Pariilg Mi Burning in Husbandry.

Hj if as dibit ds possible, in order to of turf burnt. TTiis same a^icultnr*
ke«p oat inj draught of air through ist obscr\'es, that, in some instaiices,
the neap, as otherwise the force of the he has made from four to ^ye bun-
fire is apt to escape outwardly, and a dred cart-loads of ashes per acre,
partial buriring only effected j but if . The priw Of diggilig and burning
theturfliescl6se,andthefir^ is kept turf in£ast Kent, a fertr years ago,
in by stopping the nlaees ^hete it was 6d. per cart-load of 30 bushels.
breaKs through, ana covering the btit now it is advanced to Qd. and
whole with fine mould and ashes, af- (Mr. B. observes) wher^ the soil is
ferthe heap is thoroUglily alight, it difficult to dig and bum. Is. per load
never feils to burn well : even iT great has be^n given. The price of down-
showers of rain fall, th6 great masd sharing with the breast plough, and
of burning matter will convert al* which includes paring and burninff,
most any quantity of rain into vd- is advanced now to about 40s. a little
pour. more or less.

*' The last implement to mention. The ad\'ahtages of this branch of
and perhaps in many Situations the husbandry are most conspicuous (as
best msirument for the purpose, is before hinted atj on old clialky down
the common plough. By using it, lands, sheep walks, and wastes cover-
the business proceeds with greater edwith heath, fern, and bushes. Such
dispatch, and is attended with less ex- turf is generally replete with the sperm
pence for tlic cuttiiig part, though of insects, and seeds of weeds, which,
more for burning ; but then there is instead of remaining a troublesome
the great advantage of havirtg much of nuisance irj the soil, is, by this brief
the soil, which is not burned, puh'er- And not expensive process, converted
Ired and prepared for the ensuing into a furtilizing manure. Such
crops, an advantage not attainable by heaths, downs, ace. when pared and
the breast or denshire plough.** burned early in the summer, and

Tliere' are various methods of twice, ploughed, become, however
ploughing turf for burning, an opera- poor, a fine tilth for turnips, a crop of
tion of the same nature with paring, which can hardly ever be obtainea Ofl
but a degree beyond it. On lands in- such lands by any other management.
fested with hassock grass and deep- It is needless to speak of the great be-
rooted w^eds, the benefit of the prac- nefit of these, botli to the cultivator
tice has been exceedingly great. The and the soil, W afibrding food for
best season for this work is when the sheep during three or tour of the
weather sets in dry irt the spring. Mr. worst months in winter. But that is
Boys recommends laying the land in not all ; for the land, before too light,
narrow ridges, about 18 inches in is, by folding or feeding the sheep oft
width, with the ttirnwrest plough, tlie ground, rendered more firm by
then slightly harrow it down, and af- their treading on it, and fiirther en-
terwards plough it in the same man- riched by the animals* dung and urine,
ner crossways at right angles, finish- and makes an excellent tnth for bar-
ing the whole by deaving with the ley or oats, which, if sown early, and
plough these last made ridges down kept clean from weeds, will, hi all
the middle. By this process the turf probability, produce a crop equal in
Will be nearly all brought to the siir- value to the fee simple of it in its ori-
fece, and afier a few dry daj's be in a ginal state. By the improved system
good state for burning. Mr. Boj's of cropping, it is well Known that a
says, he has frequently nad this work good piece of turnips will in a great
of burning done at a guinea per acre ; measure insure crops for several sea-
which includes the laying up the turf sons after j as the clover sown with
in heaps, firing it, and cleansing the the barley, by making a good lay>
hlils when burnt of the loose bits of offers, when broken up, a good pro-
turf from the outsides, which have spect for a crop of wheat,
escajxid the tire, and re-firing them on Many have asserted, that parin|
the crowns of tlie hills, so as to bum and burning old sheep downs, and
the wliole completely. Since the en- putting them into a state of cultiva-
hanced value of hubbandry labour, tion, reduces the number of sheep
thisworkhnscost from 3()s. to 40s. before kept on those lands; and that
per acre, in propoxtion to the quantity thereby the prodiice of th« wool^ (the-

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Boys, We, 08 Pi^ring <ii^ ^umin^in flusiamtrf. •$

Staple onpaioditj. of Soglaod) is le3^ was not laid \rj itself, bui to appear-
sezied. Nothing can bp more erron^*- apce seemed nearly equal in quantity
ous/y founded ; and we are of opinion to the first TTie rj-e-grass Uie first
with tfie author we bav^ before quot»- two years produced a great quantity
ed, tbat" there are no sheep-walk^ of sheep-keep, after which it annuaJ-
to be foimd, th^t may not, by paring ly declined fill about the year 1777,
and boraing, 9nd putting; 9 certain when the land was pared and burned
portion of them into 3 ^tatepfaration, again, and sown early in the iponth
be made tQ support or breed a far 0* Jiuy with turnips. Tins was an
greater qp^ntiQr pf sheep th^n they excellent crop; the turnips grew to
can do in a state Of old turf or an extraordinary large size, and were
heath.** fed oS the lapd by sheen lying in a

But as examples do more than rea^ fold night ana day. In the month of
soning, we conceive the best way tp February, the land was sown with
remove or oppose an unfounded opi- barley and sainfoin seed ; the crop of
nioQ and preiudice against paring and barle/ was gre^t, ^nd the quality exr
burning, will be tp cite two experi- ceedmgly fine and clean. The sain-
ments of the autlior who has treated foin was mpwn fer hay the two sue-
on the subject; at)d from the efiect ceeding summ^rs^ and a more beau*-
of these we trust the practice, tp the tiful piece w^ nevef seen. The crop
great benefit of the country at large, each time produced about thirty hun-
wUJ be more ^nerally adopted. dred weight of luy, when dried, per

'' Example L — In the vear 1760, acrej after which, it was eaten off
three acres, part of an old down or with a flock of sheep six. or seven
fiheep-walk that had been in grass a years, till it became covered with a
great nsany vears, were pared an4 tliick strong poor turf again, and tlien.
Domed for ll. $s, per acre. The in the montns of May and June, it
land was much over-run with a sort was ploughed about five inches deep,
ot coarse grass, nroyincially called and> when dry, the turf was laid up
hassock, (J^iuca aurissima) a kind in heaps about two rods apart eaai
that no animal ,will eat from such way, and burned the third time, each
poor land. The sub-soil, a pure chalk heap producing, on the average, fif-
rock, to within five or six inches gf teen two-horse cart-loads of ashes j
the surface -soil, which was a loose and there being exactly forty heaps
chalky mould, without flints, seem- per acre (the stools of which are still
in^y a compound of li^ht calcareous to be seen), made six hundred cart-
nodules of chalk, and a small loads per acre. These ashes, except
^ of v^etable mould, from the about two cart-loads in each heap^
^foi the roots of such plants as were carried out and sjiread on an ad-
the soil pnxluced, and, of course, some joining field ifor turnips ; what re«
animal matter arisine firom the dung main^ in the hills (eighty loads per
and urine of a flock of sheep, deposit- acre) were spread and ploughed m.
ed from time to time by them when The land being plouffhed up from the
feeding upon, but chiefly in passing sub-soU, or loose chalk rock, which
over^ £e field. The utmost annu^ beingmixedwith the remaining mould
vaJae of tlie land, at that time, wqs and ashes, formed almost a new sur-
not more than 2s. per acre. Tt was :&ce soil, was fallowed tlie remainder
pared and burned early in the sum- of the summer, and^ in the following
mer, and several tinjes ploughed, de- spring, in tlie month of February,
stroying each time a tliick crop of sown with black oats and saintoin*
charlock. Early in March, in the seed again. The crop of oats and sain-
fbllqwing spring, it was sown with foin were very great j the latter was
barley : some charlock which appear- mown for hay two years, and then leit
ed among the corn was taken out by for a sheep-walk, in which state it
hand« when in bloom, and the crop now remains, fit to burn again ; but
of barley amounted to six quarters being a narrow slip of Una between
per acre, including the tithe. The two pieces of arable, is left as a drove-
land was ploughed again early in the way for a flock of sheep to pass to a
winter, and, m the following spring, distant part of the firra. A slip of
8DUT1 with barley as before, and ije- tlfis piece, about half a rod in width,
^jrass. The crop of barley this time along the high road, was dug with a

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Boy$, ^c. on Paring and Burning in Husbandry.


spade, and burnt, in the summer of
1797 , j^d the ashes were carried away
for manure. This was the third time
of burninc this part by myself, and the
fourth wimin my memory : the pro-
duce of ashes was at the rate of 460
cart-loads per acre. This narrow
slip is now (1803) sufficiently cqver-
jjd with turf to burn again.**

Tlie author then observes, that his
father's success, in paring and burn-
ing these three acres fii-st, iq the year
1766, laid the ground-work of the
renewed practice m the examples fur-
ther related ; of which one more is
thoug^ht sufficiept in this place^, on this

" Example II.— Seven acres, ,part
of th^ same down last mentioned,
were pared and burnt in tlie nionths
of May and June, in the summer of
1768. The ashes, amounting to about
120 cart-loads per acre, were burnt,
spread, and ploughed in in the begin-
nmg of July, and sown with turnips :
the crop was rather thin, but the root*
grew to an immense size 3 some of
aietn were measured, and girted more
than a middle-sized man. The crop
was folded off with sheep lying con-
stantly upon the land, which was
cleared, ploughed, and sown with
barley, early m the' spring, as well as
can be recollected, dbdut the end of
February. The crop of barley ap-
pearing very extraordinary, was put
into a bam oy itself, and the produce
^'as found to be seven quarters per
acre, of the first quality. Sainfoin
having T>een sown among the barley,
the land, the three following years,
produced fine crops of that hay : the
average esfimatecl at twenty-five hun-
dred weight per acre; after whidi it
was fed off by flocks of sheep until
the summer of 1778» when it was
pared and burnt a second time, ^nd
cropped with turnips, which were
folded off as before^ and in the spring
following, was early sown with bar-
lev and ^eeds, viz. clover and trefoil.
Tnft crop of "barley was estimated at
about five quarters per acre, and the
seeds were fed qff during tlie sum-
mer by a flock of sheep tblded on thp
land. In October following, ' the clo-
ver lay was ploughed, arid sown with
wheat for tlie first time.* No man
Jiving had ever known 'wheat, or even
barley, on this field before. The
wheat:jyas a good crop, estimated at

full three quarters per acre. In the
following winter a collection of loam,
turf-ashes, and dung, was made,
which, in the spring of the year, was
trenched over, and when well incor-
porated, was carried out, and. spread
on the land after the .second plough-
ing, at the rate of forty cart-loads, of
aTOUt 24 bushels each, per acre. Tur-
nip-seed was now sown over it, and
the whole ploughed in very shallow,
by which the seed lav among the ma-
nure, which, in thfs dry calcareous
soil, was of great advantage to the
young turnips. The crop turned out
a tolerably good one, was fed off by
sheep as oetore, and the land sown
early in the spring with black oats
and seeds, viz. rye-grass, clover, and
trefoil. This made an excellent sheep-
down for the space of three or four
years, when it began to decay ', and
m the summer of 1780, was again

tared andbamt the thira time : afiout
ve acres was done with the conmion
downshare plough, about an inch in
thickness, for 30s. per acre 5 and the
other two acres were ploughed with
the common tumwrest plough, about
five inches thick : the whole furrow
of the latter was burnt, and the ashes
spread on the land, except about a
tnird part, which was carried 'away to
an a4)oining field. The land, as soon
as it was burnt, was sown with spring
tares, which, owing to an extremely
dry season, proved out an indifferent
crop. They were fed off in the sum-
mer by a>flock of sheep, to make a
wheat tilth, that the land might class
with another field. The wheat was
not so good a crop as before, bein^
only alx)ut 20 bushels per acre. The
land was dunged for turnips the fol-
lowing year, which proyed a gpod
crop, and then was sown very early
the succeeding spring, with black oats
and clover and trefoil seeds. Some of
these oats were drilled, and some
sown broad-cast 5 and in the follow^
ing harvest, a part of each was har-
vested and thrashed separate, to ascer-
tain the difference, when it was found
that the drilled oats were in the gieat-
est quantity by about ten gallons per
acre, and that the crop was five quar-
ters and two bushels per acre. The
seeds were folded off m the summer,
and the clover lay in October sown
with wheat : the crop was not laid by
itself, but estimated at three quartei^

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Mr. H. D. Symonds to Mr, John Lee Letvis,


per acre. The following summer,
the field was partly dunged, and part-
ly folded for turnips : the crop a very
good one ; they were folded off as
beftffe, and the ground sown with
barley and seeds earlv in the follow-
ing springs which produced about four
quarters per acre. The seeds were
^gain folded off in the following sum-
mer, and the lay sown with wheat,
which produced a good crop in the
sonmier of 1708. The land was
theh flowed for barley, and sown
again with seeds ; but from the clover
liein^ too often repeated, the crop
&i]ea in the summer, and in conse-
Quence the black coucl\ {a^estis sto-
lenifera) got possession ot the soil,
so that part or tlie succeeding crop of
"^eat, bdn? eaten by tlie worm,
was pjooghed up in the spring, and
tiiei^roand sown with barley. The
wheat that was left proved very in-

This advocate for paring and burn-
ing further remarks, that the crop of
tares, and the succeeding crops of oats
and wheat, were mu^h stronger
where the turf \^a8 burnt five inclies
thick, than where it was only pared
aboat an inch in the common way ;
and the succeeding crops, by tlieir
superiority, have ever since shewn
where it was burned of the greatest
thickness. In the year 1802, this
field was barley, but an indifferdnt
crop ; and in 1803, black oats, about
three quarters per acre. The land
having producea three crops of com
in succession, without any, aid from
manure, was then completely run
oat, and fit only for a summer fal-

It may now be asked, as the prac-
tice of paring and burning \? recom-
mended so strongly, whether it b?s
been extended to any considerable
d^;ree ? Tq which might be an-
swered, that, in counties where it
was almost unheard of ten years ago,
it has of late prevailed considerably,
and that, in the space of time above
mentioned, it may be affirmed, that
the quantity of land so treated, has
been more than trebled. The prac-
tice would increase in a still greater
degree, but for the prejudices of
some obstinate landlords, and the
want of leases^ but, above all, the
payment of tithes.

To the Editor of the Universal Ma^.

NO one can feel a greater regaid
for men of talent or genius, whether
living or dead, than mj^self, nor
would I, Sir, in the most distant man-
ner, attempt to depreciate the cha-
racter of any one who conducted
himself in an open and manly way ;
but the person who attempts to ar-
raign my reputation witJi the pubHCp
by false and malicious insinuations,
desenes not to pass unnoticed.

" He who robs mc of my purse, steals
trash ; 'ti* sometfatng, nothing :

*Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave
to thousands :

But he that filches from me my p)od name,

Robs me of that which not enriches him,

Aiid makes me poor indeed.'*

I am induced to reqnegt your in-
sertion of these remarKs, by having
seen in an advertisment to a work
just imblished, signed John Lewis,
Liverpool, and entitled "Memoirs of
Charles Lee Lewis,'' the following
observations : " Previously to my sub-
mitting the following pages to tlie
public, tlie regard which I feel for
departed talents, and the natural im-
pulse which induces me to exhibit tlie
claims of tliose talents to posthumous
fame and admira'.on, render it expe-
dient that I should explicitly inform
the public, that I have neitlier directfy
nor indirectl}r been connected with a *
late publication which has appeared .
under the title of'* Comic Sketches ;'•
and that I am wholly ignorant of the
means which were employed to pro-
cure the " light and minute trifles**
of which that work is composed.

" This declaration will prove the
degree of authenticity which attaches
to the publication above named ; and
I hope I shall stand justified for lia-
ving exerted my humble eiForts to
rescue the fame and talents of my de*
ceased parent from unjust depre-
ciation. '

Now, Mr. Editor, the plain facl is
this ; so long ago as the year 1 798,
Mr, Charles Lee Lewis waited upon
me with the manuscript of that very
work to which his son alludes, and
requested me to purchase it, which,
upon his first application, I declined j
he however again waited upon me,
land urgijd ine to take the work irom

38 The Reformer.

him, stating that he wa« in urgent Skctches/*extr9cted from the litrraij
necessity, and that if I woulcf furnish Journal, June, l804.
biin with a little money for the ma- '*This little volume contains a great
nuscript, he should consider himself deal of amasing matter, and may be
hii^bly obligcxl to me. Moved more pfoperly characterized by the appelt
b^ the account ofhh jwcf^silous situa- lation of a Droll Performance, such
izow, than by any preililection in favour, as might be expected from such an
of his work, Iiaving known Mr. Lewis Odd Fish I as the author : the satire
pcrsomily, for a number of years, I is keen, almost always entertaining^,
ai^rred to ^ive him ten gninens for ilie and perfectly free from ill-nature.*' ,
work, winch his <>on is pleased to call —

}i*^ht and minute trifles, and actually the keformek.-^nq. i.

did give him that sum, (as appears by StuUa est clmcntia

Lis receipt, still in my poiisession,) on periium j^rcere charts. JuV«

the first day of Aumst, 1798, posi^ Bcni(rffardiof advice on no pretence. Pope.
tively witliout, at that time, or for CI vIL Society is the very auin^
some years lafter, having the least in- tessence, as it were, and indissolnbte
tention of printing it ; nor did I even Ixwd of human liiej and it is impos.-
read it, but took the MS. entirely si '•)le for any one to succeed in the
upon his own representation. Having commerce of the world, as he could
stated this, I think I have fully ac- wish, to acquire a just, exquisite,
quitted myself of the tw^ /ire laid to arjd satisfactory knowledoje oi him*
mv charge. As to t\\i\ oi ignorcfncey self and others,' who does not cultif
which Mr. Jno. L. Lewis imputes to vate the talents, and study to polish ap4
me, perhaps it may not l>e so easy to form his mind and character with
clear myself from it, when I acknow- those accomplishments which con-
ledge I gave his father ten guineas, tribute tlie most essentially, to ouf.
in his necessities, for what I did not mutual innocence and delight, i^et -
think of making use of : but it is surely dom and advantage, as citizens of th^
unfortunate that a man must be ac- world at larije.

rused of malice and ignoi:ance because That species of virtue which is sor
his heart is not sutiiciently .steeled litnrv and private, resembles the re^
against representations of distress, in tijea and selfisli bird of night, which,
those whose merits, in his opinion, as unable to endure the day-light, the
desene encomagemcnt. ' bri^hmess which irradiates the face of

Mr. Jno. L.X.* states that he is plain or embellished nature, through-
ignorant cif the means which were outlier charmingand admirable worKf^,
' employed to procure this work ; which remains concealed in tlie darkest r&-
proves" only that he w^ unacquainted cesses, as if obstinately reluctant tp
.with his tatlier's transactions : but he see herself exposed in ner true, pro-
might have satisfactorily learned every per colours, as if blushing at her
particular of what is here stated, had own native ugliness and deformity,
lie in a candid and ingenuous manner Heaven never designed that mo*
applied to me for an explanation, ral, industrious man, the influence
There certainly had sufficient time and impulse of whose natural temper
elapsed between the publication of and disposition so powerfully prompt,
the two works, his father's " Comic and induce him to be conversable and
Sketches; or tlie Comedian his own communicative, should, like the sti^
Manager,'* having been published and cynical, the strange and trul/
upwards of twelve montlis before tlie pitiable Diogenes in his tub, in his
'appearance of his own. . austere garb of pretended sanctimo-

If Mr. John Lee Lewis still doubts, niousness, live to himself alone. —
I am ready and willing at any time. The noblest aud greatest desert and
to shew him, or any person properly worth, if latent^ only glimmer with
authorised by him, the receipt in ques- the faint lustre of a diamond, before
Hon. I am Sir, yours &c. it has received the nicer touches, the

PaUmaster Row, H. D. Symonds. brilliant ornaments and graces, froo)
July )3, J SO.). the skilful hand of some excellent

P. S. In addition to the above, you workman, some master eminent m
will oblige m<? by inserting the fol- his art, which render it so inviting,
lowing opinion of tile *' ftomic estimable, and JiQUPurable W pbjew*

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The Reformer, 39

fcdh as to stKlce the carious eye, and dry embellishments U'hich t\e daily
command the particular attention and see exhibited by the minions, of for-
admirarion of every spectator endow- tune and their servile copyists, aiYd
ed with taste and jaogroent. least of all in tlie finical and fhh-

Tliat virtue which is of a social and tastical alFeciations wherewith many
inblic character, finds its prefer bu- blockheads so over-act the part of
sness and fiiU employment, not the real line gentJemnn, as to trans-
only in the solid and durable en- form themselves into the complete t
pgements of disinterested friend- coxcombs ; but I mean that rare
Mup, bat in the still more laudable felicity of gentle good humour, ll^it
exercise and disolay of extensive ge- modesty ot sentiment, that ciuar-
Berosi^, in the Kind and condescend-* lulness of heart, that sweet, amiable
ing offices of courtesy . aftability, be- temper, and perfection of mind and
nerolence, and beneficence, and in manners, ui)ich is the ver>' life aiul
wsqlved and persevering endeavours soul, the bewitching cljarm of all
substantially to serve and oblige men civil society (which, like the learned
of all conditions and de^ees, ny giv- and judicious Aristippus of old,
ingthem our assistance if wanted, and whose accomplishments in ccnquer-
by gratifying their desires, such as ing the human heart were such,
may be thought itioderate and rea- that his personal converhation hiis
Sonable, whenever an opoortimity of been held out by the ancients as a
acting presents itself. Tliis is to ce- perfect pattern and wholesome mc-
Inent togeAer the tender charities morable example of universal civility)
of life— to bind, in the ties of reci- can reconmiend ilseli', widi a natural
prbcsal intercourse and aflection, the easef of address and manner, to \he
disjoined members of this our lower various characters tliat occur in real
world— this is to provide and secure life, in the vulp^r as well as the pa-
t large revenue, the accumulated lite; world — which, if nece.sstiry, can
wodoct, a more complete and- per- become a po/ulrouos, as was Cllys^jcs
rect joint-stock of mundane hapni- amongst the OrecKs, or all thhigs to
ness, which every individual of tne all men, as a sacred writer expresses

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