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vessel had lost her fore- top-mast, and commodQie [jut hiniself at their head,
heceived such considerable damage in exclaiming — *.* WestnainsJtcr Abbey or
cr sails and riggii^g, that she was very glorious victory V\ Success in a few
yearly rendered W5 </a coOT^fl/. A most minutes crowned the .enterprise i the
. igor'ous fire was, however> kept up on Spanish comma nd€;r pmstrated himself
^le commodore's new opponent,, who before our gallant hero, and delivered
*vas vriihin pistol shot. The commo- up his sword.

doreV n^en ;iow dropped fast, and from It lias been vory properly obstT\cd,
the staXe of his vesst^, a further conti- that in estimating' the scrvlous of this
nuance of tlie contest appeared impos- lamented hero, it is not a single achievo
^iblc. (Commodore Nelson's energy ment we admire, in which, perhjijjs,
.was strengthened . by his perilous si- good fortune had at least as great a shar^
tuiation; he resolved on a buld and de- ^s good conduct, but in bis lii'e we trace
osive measure, and determined to at- a series of bucce2>aes, for the greater part
rtempt his oi)ponen,t sword in hand." planned with asmuchjud«cinent as spirit.
The nccessar)' steps being taken, hi*i Commodore Nelson siiified his ten-
ship w]as laid on board tlie enemy, her ^ant on board the Ml nerve, and trom
4pnuail yard passed over tbe enemy's thence to the Irresistible, Ca]jt.iin Mor-
poop, hooking in her. mizeij shrouds tin, his own aiiip being incapable oi •
The word Board ! being gi\en, tlie oiFi- /aih her. service liil refined. As soittr
cers and seamen destined for this peril- reward for his gallantry ,'he was invc':te4
ous iuty, headed by Lieutenant Bwry, with the ins'^;t^la of the urder ut t\\\i

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SieicA ofikt Ufe ^tht Rt. Mm. rucmmi Kdsm.



Bath, and the gold medal from hU So*
vereigQ;'and was also piesented with
Che'freedom of the city ot London. But
the most pteasing reward this great man
found, was in the univertalappkusa and
admiration of his countrymen.

In April, 1797» Sir Holatio hoisted
lus flag aa Raar Admiral of iha Bluo^
And waa detached to bring doMrn tha
f^rrism of Porto Ferta^. On thp 27tli
«of May, he 'shifted hi$ flag to the The*
ac«a« and waa Appoint^ to cannaa4.d
the inner squadion at the bkwkade of

• Cadiz. During thia arduona atrvicov
his jaersnoal courage shone with full
Itistrcl In. the attack on the Spanish
i;im boats, on the 3d of July, ]7p7, h^
was boarded in his barge, which con-
tained only tea men and the coxs^vain,
aocompanied by Captain * Freeman tie.
Don Mi^'l Tyrcson, who commanded
the k>panish gan boats, in a barge rowed
liy twenty-six oars and thirty men, made
« most despemtc cflbrt to overpower Sir
JFioratiorann' his brave. companionis. Tlie
contest was lon^ donbtfal; they fought
iiaud to hand with tlieir swonis, eigh*
4cen of the Spai^ianls being killed, the
^uramandant and all the rest beins
iwou tided: the rear admiral . succeeded
in carrying this superior force. Sir
John Jervis, in his letter to the admi-
nlty on this su^ect^ says—" Rear
'Admiral Nel<ion*s ^unions apeak for
.thcmsekesi ; any praise of mine wduld
fall vary short of nis merit l"

Thougli the enterprise against Santa
Cruz did iiot succeed,- his Majesty's
aruis acauired great lustre, and greater
ittuepidity was never sl^own by both
ofiicers and men. ,Hereit was the gaK-
iant admiral lost his Hght arm by a can*
Hon shot, llie liie ot Sir Horatio was
proTidcntially saved by his son*in-laWy
lieatenaiil J^'efbit, on thenit^t of the
attack. The admiral received his \^ound
^on after the detachment had landed ;
and while thiey were pressing on with
the usual ardour of British seamen, the
^hock caused him to fall to the ground^
where for some minutes he was left to
himself, until Mr. Nesbit, missing him,
bad the presence of mind to return ;
when, after se^rciiing in the dark,* h^

'at length. found his brave ikther-in-bw
weltenpg in his bloodj on the -ground,
l^-ith his arm shattered, and himself ap-
|]Arentiy lifeless. Lieutenant .Nesbit
louaediateiy applied his nccKkerchief



to the admiral's arm, to stop the fir*
ther effhaioD of blood, atid cmd
him to the beach, wheie, with the »
iisuoce of some sailors, he coiwmd
him into one of x\\t boau, and put'off
to the Tbesctts, ui»der a tremeiMloix,
though til-directed fire. The nest dtf
after the rear admiral had lost hu am,
he' wrote to Lady Nelson, and in nar-
rating the foregomg transactioiis, ssjs:
** I lcnttw.it will add much to your
pleasure, in finding that v^r son, Jo-
aiahi imdcr God*s ^ro%-idencey was i^
atrumenfeal- in saving mv iife.** lliii
•ame night, at ten o^otock, theadmiiah
arm was amputated* on bodrd- the T^
aaas : he immediately il^^ bmo Ui
4>flicial letter, and finished it by<£vao.

On Admiral Nelsoti's return to I^
laitd uftertbis Mittrpfise» it Wa^ not dM
the l^th of DecemMr» that thesuigeeot
ntonottnced him £t for scnice. On
liis first jippearance at <:ourt, his sovv
leign received him in the most grKiom^
mamier, and expressed his regret ^
his »tate of health and mutilated penoa
•woiald doubtless deprive the nattan of
his future sen-ices. Sir Horatio te^
plted,»with a dignified emphasis, '* Mif
Jt please your^M^esty, -I can nkw
^ink that a loss whi<*h theperfomunce
of my duty has occasibned ; and eA ^
long^as I hare a foot to s^d on, I #01
combat for my king aUd countiy.*
Shordy after die -gajknt'adftinl, as
some small reconraence for harBig<l&'
voted himscif hittierto to the seim
•of his country, and 'as a compensatioA
for the hardships and \%'diinds which
he had receivacf in that service, \i»A a
pension grafted 'him of one* thoosaad
pounds- per annum.' Pmieus to the
issuing of this grant, a custom required
ii0 should state iiis services to his Ma*
je«ty.. '

- litnamting the een-ic^ and life of a
character of tliiis natsure, our readers wS
not be surprised to hear, that we find it
bitterly impossible to do justice- to hii
fubeeqnent career; within tfiose linati
we are constrained toobserve. Wethoe^
fote defer, till'our next, ^ completion
of our memoir, a dclaV ifrhich our rsA
deri) will have less reaion to ttfpif ^
•it will enable as to^avail ourselves of die
information of those, whose feeUogia'ft
too poignaxft to allow them to eosKSV^
Bictfte it at this idi0mtnt.%



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39^

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.



ON THE CONTINENTAL WAR. uiidertakcrt for his destruction, mi
To ihe Editor of the Universal JH^Iag, much a war for liberty, as the pui-siiit
SIR, oi* a lion, or a tiger, concerns the ce-

TH£ political department, or State ueral safety. Can any rtjan deny that
t>f Public Affairs, in your MagaziaCj the further extension of his power
has frequently puzzled me not a lit- will be destructive of the liberty, and
tie, how to account for the strong dis- happiness of mankind 5 and tliat every
approbation it expresses of tlie present atom of territory he acquires, is only
"w^ar ; ^nd I find no means of recon- subjecting so many more human be-
etling It to the general spirit of liber- iugs to the arbitrary will of a tyrant ?
tj', which pervades your wliole pei"- Is there any thin^, social, or amiable,
iannance, but from the author's aver- in his authorityl any thing which
5i<)n to the present premier, and the promises well for posterity ? or rather,
rest of tlie ministerial junto* I too is not every thing connected witli his
bold diem in utter detestation, and government, bot^i gloomy, apd fero-
have ever considered them as tlie ene- cious ? The French, indeed, enjoy re-
'tnics of Ireedom, and the unprin- pose, but it is the repose of despotism,
cipled plunderers of the nation; who, not tlie tranqu'd security of liberty y
to gratify tlieir own ambitioa, or ava- viewing him in tliis light, is it not td
ricse, have neither spared the liberty, be desired, diat a general, vigorous,
iior tbe property of Englishmen > but and honest union Hiould be formed
in the heat of my indignation against among the ft'ee states of Europe, to
^Gia, I have not forgot tliat they are resist Lis further progress, and eniau-
at present casually connected with the cipate tliose nations \vhich are already
tause of liberty, ag-ainst a tyrant of subject to his dominion ? Hiat English
their own creation; and as most gold >hould ever be spent, or English
things are great or little by compari- blood should ever be shed, for an/
son, so tlieir guilt, great as it is, va- base, or dishonest purpose, to gratiiy
nislies, when compajed to thegigan- the selfishness or avarice of any go-
tic aml)itioH, and enormous wicked- vemment whatever, every English-
ncss of Bonaparte. They have only t?ian mUst undoubtedly lament 3 but
sought to subjugate a nation ) he has he is a shallow politician, anj a nig-
attempted to enslave tli'e world : but gafdly subject/ who wouJd gnidge to
tlmdiSerenceisrathertobe imputed to pay his quota of taxes, to effect the
-tjheir situation and talents, than to any wise and generous purpose of emanci-
ditterence of disposition; and if they pattng every part of Europe, fi-om an
nave not done all the evil tliat he has odious tyranny, which, it miresisted,
done, it is because more was not in may finally enslave either the present
their nower. The spirit of these men race, or our posterity. To those who
IS in all respects opposite to the spirit deny the danger to be appreliended
Of the constitution -, and as much as in from Bonapaite's ambition, no argu-
thcm lies, they have endeavoured to nient can be offered of sufficient
destroy its vital energy, by all the di- weight, to justify the present war j
abolical engines of corruption and but of those who ddpit the position,
force;, tlicy liave carried secret in- it may justly be demanded, how is it
fluence to a more dangerous length to be restrtiined ? by vigorous opposi-
than open prerogative, and frittered tlon, or by tame acquiescence ? Let
away tne most salutary provisions of them remember that the ambitious
Magna Charta, and the Bill of Rights, projects of Louis XIV. were ovei'-
By gradual and legal encroachment, turned by thie judicious interferehc«
Though I thus heartily detest those of this country, and his power hum*- .
men, whom I never can cease to re- bled by a spirited continental alliance,
gard as the most dangerous enettjies Wh^' should not the same be attempt-
of my country, I will not thc^refore ed in the present instance, when the
worship, or even lessen my abhor- danger is much more alarming ? Such
rence of tiie monster, to whom thfey a waf is not to be considered as the
liappen to be opposed; nor will I ^ar of the ministry, but tlie war of
cea^to consider tbe war which is the<:ountty} i ^^-ar o^ Jliberty against
Vol. IV. \ 3E • ^

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394 On the Continental (t^ar.

slavery, an<^ uniyet^al dominion ; for milies ; bat when thet are not sirf-
even tlie little liberty which Mr. Pitt fered to proceed to any Violent length,
has left us, is worth contending for they serve to keep alive that spirit of
against him, and against his mighty emulation and competition, without
foe ; and without a vigorous onposi- which neitlier nations nor indivkln^ds
tion to both, we shau inevitably be can arrive at excellence. The har-
$ubdued by one or tlie bdier. Be- mony of nature is preserved by contra-
cause I applaud the ministers for ^heir rieties, and without balancing the
attack on Bonaparte, it does not follow jlroperties of one snimal against those
that I must approve their attacks on of anotlier, they coiild not exist togo-
the constitution. The one is the mere ther — winds and tempests are requi-
result of chance, the other involves a sit« fo preserve the air and water from
dereliction of those principles which stagnation, and to^ive motion and
have formed the glory ana prosperity Exercise to plants. Tne whole system
df. England, and without' ^yhich she of the world is a system of opposition,
W'lll cease to flourish, or exist. Placed and without the destruction of some
in circumstances of no ordinary dan- tilings, others could not be preserved;
gcr, it.' becomes the friends of the p'erhaps even wars are incispensible,
constrtution to unite, for the most m the natural and ttioral government
glorious of all huiiian purposes, tlie of the world, and in this light, even
destruction of tyranny, botli at home t^Tantsmay be iiseiiil 5 but when they
and abroad, and the support ot regu- proceed beyond a certain length, so-
la ted liberty. I rcnuin, ciety must interpose to maintain its
Your'a, ^c. W. B. rights, and restore the due ecjuilibri-
tiartford, near Ahrpuih, um. ITie contest wliich now invoheg

Sept. \Sj 1805. the ititerests ot Europe is, of the na-

ture J u^ described — it is undertaken

To the Editor of the Universal Mag. for a legitimate purpose^ acknox^let^-

.. 81 H, ed by all the laws ot civilized nations,

. HAVING already troubled j'ou and sanctioned by the soimdest prin-
wilh some of my reasons for the nc- ciples of reason and utility. A man,
cessity of a continental war, permit endowed by nature, with an uncom-
nie to add a few others, and speculate mon capacity, and favoured by fortune
oiv the probability arid the conse- with uncommon success, has abused
<jiuences of its success,— The balance the gifts of both, b^ violating the
<>f power, when considered merely as rights of nations Bnd individuals, and
a stmggle for superiority among the arrogating to himJseif an authority
different slates of Europe, is a savage, over the civilized world, incompatible
unjust, and barbarous contention: wi tlf general liberty ;• for a long time
such it has Jiitherto been, and as such the rest of Europe viewed his progress
deserves 'to be ranked among the with silent apathy or fame forbearance,
'bloody strifes of uncivilized tribes on England was the first to regard his pro^
the CQutihcnts of Africa, or America, ceedings with suspicion,anaresistthcm
Biit M'hen that balance is regarded as by force, and for a long time she
rt?giilating the Just quantum of power resisted alone— but tliere is a po'mt of
which every state ought to possess, -in depression from which even tne dull-
proportion to its valour, its virtue, and est souls will rise to resistance, and
lU resources, every attempt to re- the nations on the continent seem
store it, when destroyed by the exor- now to be awakened from their k-
bitant ambition of one state, or one thargy. The gredt scheme of univer-
ihdividual, is to be considered as an sal empire is now disclosed, and can
effort for the general good. The com- ginly be rendered abort Iac by the sac-
munitv jof civniaed nations niust be cess of a vigorous coalitiori. The na-.
regaicfed in thelight of a great family t t ions of Europe are now placed in «
"sj'hose menibers,tli6ugh not always at desperate crisis, and a continental war
union \^dih each other, ought never is tiie last hope and resource of insult-
to be so far at variance, as totl>reaten ed humanify* Should that be suc-
the general safety. Diversity oi in- cessful,* the power of Bonaparte may
teresls, iJimUarity of pursuits, and \io- be restrained, even though the Bour-
Teiice <ft detiii'es, create animosity bons should not be restored. And
aiid divi^iojis/ iyenin the Iwppiest fa- should it fair, Eutdpe will not be in a

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OtttheCmtinenlulWar, 3^5

worse $Uuation tlian by Ume acqui- tlier the one nor the otlier— she U not

escence in the pro^^ess of tj>e tyrant -, threatened with beii^g 4isAneral^*r^d,

for by force, or byiraud he is detei^- and portioned out among tjiediticrent

mmed to be En^peror of Europe, if states of Europe, but her legitimate,

not of the world. Great Britain will power is agknowledsrod and her ten i-

fallthelastinthestruirgle, butshew'i// toriallimits accurately defined. She

felljjf success attends tlieannsoiFrance is in no dan^r of being blotted out of

—she will fall however with the glori- the map of Europe, and having her

OQs satisfaction of having attempted to very name etiaced from the list of ci-

rescue the civilized world from slave- vilized xiations ; she has a commoi*

ry, and of having been the first to re- cause with tlie powers with whom sh©

§ist, and the ]astto yield to the power is nominally at war ; for tliat war ia

of the great usurper. A period never not against her,but gainst her rulers ,

did arise when so much depended on against despotism and its vile agents j

the issue of any war as tjie present; against the determined enemies of hu-

for considering tlie advance and state man happiness and liberty. Could

of civilization, and the certainty of the temporizing policy of Prussia, be

relapiiing into a state ot barbarism on nursed into manly opposition, tho

the success of Bonaparte, it is tlie confederacy of. independent s states

most important contest in which the would be complete, and the prospect

nations of the world were ever in- of their success considerably bright-

volved. ened j their forces headed by a patriT

The probability of a war on the con^ otic monarch, and animated by z jast

fluent being now not far* distant, the sense of civilized liberty, would add ^

probability of its success, is a subject weight and give a spirit to the cause

of momentous encjuiry — and this will wljich seems wanted to make tlie co^

depend not only on the means of the alition complete. Report aunouncei

alhed powers, but on the manner in that some of the allied soverei 5; ns ara

which tbey are employed j and also expected at the head of their armies |

on the Btate and disposition of the should their example be followed by

French people, and the French army. Prussia, and the princes of the Ger-

Of the talents exerted by Bonaparte, man Empire, tlie effect of such 9

ior the ma'mtain^nce of his Enipire SDirit will be incalculable. Indiv^du*

there can be no doubt ; all that hu- . ally and collectively, these mouarclii;

man power can call into action he may be all Inferior to Bonaparte \n

will display, but all will be to no pur- talents ) but combined and directed hv

pose, it tlie resources of the allied na- able generals, their presence will add

tions are properly directed, and the a vigour to their' cause, which even

disposition . of the French such as the whole power pf France, headed

might be expected in such a contest^ b^' Bonapatte, willnot be able to re-

The present coalition differs in many sist. When kings take Ihe field iqi

material particulars, from tliat which person, it shews they are iji eiyrnest j

was formed in the last war for tiie de- and their aruiies, animated by 5uch

struction of French liberty ; the difte- commanders, will make a coramoi?

rent powers which cojntiposcd it were cause with tliera, and fight with the

disunited by a variety of interest, and spirit of men, rather than the mere

by a want of ability and honesty regularity of machines. The physical

among themselves. Many of those fcrce of armies is weak, compared ta

stales have now changed tiieir gover- thepowerful influence oi moral causes.;

oors, and are directed by men of and when were these ever ^oxnr

spirit and integrity, instead of subtle bined in a greater degree than at pre-?

and selfish politicians ; and the danger sent ? The war in wliich Europe i&

to be apprehended from the French about to be engaged, is the most im-

power is now of a more urgent and portant in the history of the world*

serious nature ; it may be seen, and and cojisequently a greater variety ^f

better understood ; before, it was dis- resources will be brought iiito action,

taut, visionary and doiibtful. The case than on any former occasion. The

with France too, is materially altered ;* contest is between liberty and (Jespo-

before, she contended for the shadow ti^ni, civilization and barbarism, pufOr

of liberty, at least, if not for the sub- fligacy and morality.. The sacrifices

^^ance. JsTow, she co«tpnds ior nei- on both sides >* ill be great, and tli^

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sqS



On the ManagemfinfoJ the Affair$\ftke Po&r^



result on eltlier side incalculable. It
is not a contest to be decided by the
e\^nt of a battle, or even the result
of a campaign, but by a superior vi-
gour and perseverance. Though a good
cause is not always triumphant, • y^t
it seldom tails but for want of pru-
dence. The present contest must be ul-
timately decided in fovour of that par-
ty which empfoys the greatest vigour,
talent, and unanimity ; these, on the
side of just ice, cannot tail of success,
and even against her they will linally
prevail ; but nothing can resist the
force of virtue and energy combined.

Your's, kc. W.B.

Hart f&rd, near Morpeth,
Oct. 2, 1S05.

ONTlfE MANAGIIfG OF THE AFFAIRS
OF THR POOR.

Letter II.
For the Universal Magazine >

SIR,

WHEN a person, high in office, is
desirous of influencing the public
imind, in favour of a ]7roject which he ,
Ti'ishes to ha\ e passed into a law, it
is curious to observe how many there
are who volunteer their services to
promote the desijjn'; and they will re-
commend it as the bcbt, and only re-
inedy, to nrfevent an expcnce, or
checK an evjl.

This remark liatli been verified in
many instances, and especially by
those writers who continue to 'force
into notice, the leading clauses pro-
posed in a late intentleaAct, «* for the
fcetter Support, arid Mnnagempnt gf
Uie Poor j'* which was rejected by
the honourable the House of Com- .
mons, at the first rending j and it was
deserted like an illegitimate child by
Its parent, who blushed to own it.

Though the bill x^^ai irretrievably
lost for the time, yet some of th«
supporters of it, are still endea\T)Uring
to re-ill troduce the two principal
points,* namely, tlic giving a weekly
'hllowanrc to a certain description of
^oor jxtmous, and eitlier to abolish, or
renc^T work-hou«cs useless.

As the pHl)lic canpot know much
Cf an net, \rhicli may be said to have
been stningled at its birth, I shall of-
fer a ieu' rcmiu-ks on the Iwp loading
' lieads ; |or it will be absohuely ini-
possible to consider it as a wliole,' as
It is as incomprehe;isib}e, as it is ab-
' gurd and voluminous ; and if the wri-
ters on tlie management of the po6r.



had a zeal tempered with kncm-ledge,"
th^' vv^ould let it sink into oblivion,
and rest in peace. This they certain-
ly would do, if they were but once fo
reflect, that neither parish officer,
vestry clerk, or magistrate could, ever
understand it ; and if it should ever
pass into a law, it would, like some
othtr stattites, require volumes, and
appendixes, to explain what is intend-
ed bvit.*

The bill beoins with wying, "any
fartlier complying with,' the condi-
tions of this act, having more than two
children part of his family, and unable
to maintain tberasdves, and any i*t-
dow ha^•ing more than one child,
shall liave a weekly allowance of nc«
less than one shilling for each child/*

lliis idea of a weekly allo^'ancc, !<
founded upon a supposition, that vo
have no poor ii> the kingdom but
cottagers, whose morals are as sim-
ple and pure as tliose of the golden
age, sung by the ancient poets j for ve
hlut seldom hear of any other men-
^ tinned.

The wishing to dispose of puWic
money in such vague and indefinite
words, shews as much ignorance d
human nature, as of the corruptions
of manners in the lower order of the
people of tlie present dav J^et those
Mho are desirous of making laws to
prevent poverty from entering the ha-
oitations of men, go and' observe the
Indian iii his native woods, when be
returns from hunting ; will he not
eat, sing, dance, and sleep, till fein-
^er impels liim to hunt again ? Simi-
lar habits may be discovered in social
life, if they will go and obsen-e the
customs of the different mechanics
in Birmingham, Sheffield, or Man-
Chester, or in any otl>er large or ma-
nufacturing towns. There a slight
observation will teach them, that
those who can earn as much in four
days, as others can in six, are general-
lv'intojf.icated the other- three ; and
u^^y are the first who entail a burden
upm tlie parish . Their intemperance
soon brings on disease, po\ert}', and
wrefc^hedness j and the allowalice of
one shillipg a week for each childi
'\\ ould give tliem another day of re-
laxation from labour, and hasten a
prematur^ death! ITieir habits are
not above pne reinove from tlie lileof
an Indian. Wc are informed by one,
who hath mnde obserratious or their
mode of living 'ou the sppt^ that th^

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