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On the Management of the Affkirs of the Poor;. 3Q7

QQmfbfts of their families, are by no were not to be compelled to go to
meafis equal to their earnings. 1 heir the school, for.tliey might have work
leisure hours are wasted in sloth, or to spin at home, and a peilson to
vicious activity 5 and tlieir morals are teach them. *
Licentious and abandoned. The un- I'he managers of this new inatitn-
thiDkiDg and disi-olute part of them tion, were to pro\*ide a proper stock
consider the workhouse as their last ofherop, flax:, silk, thread, cotton,
retreat, and they commonly call it wool, iron, leather, and other mate-
going home, rials, to employ the children ; and
In the year of scarcity at Birming- they were to carry on trades, and
ham, they had 1100 persons, from mysteries, notwilhtstanding anycus*
dire necessity, crowded together in torn or usage to the contranr.
their wojpkhouse 5 and the dyhig, the The bringfer in of this bill never
convalescent, and the dead, were in entertained an idea that there waji
the same bed. To such great distress any knowledge necessar}' to cariy on
were the poor reduced, that many who business on such an extensive scate,
were received upon the representn- as to have warehousemen to take in^
tions of others, died upon the stairs, and deliver out unwrought; and
in the arms of those who were carry- wrought goods,
ipg them to their ward. Many were Wh;it could lie think, that^ justice
reused for want of room, and died -, of the peace, in an obscure village, or
though great ea^ertions were made to the heir apparent to a country esquiiie,
preyfent itl or an overseer, should know either of
If the monopolizers of the necessa« the quality, or the price of the arti-
rjes of life are to be suflered to con- cles they were directed to purchase,'
tinue their nefarious practices without or when or where they were to apply
restraint, workhouses must not only for tlie best market ? Without thte
be enlarged, but their number*- in- proper knowledge, and a considerabks
creased, or Uie poor must p^ish in capital in hand, "they would have por-
the streets. chased withor secured one third pro-
Did the firamer of the act consider, $t on the goods j .an<l the public
or did he even know any thing of the .would have paid severely for it. Ex-
state of the poor, when he ordered perienccv- would «oon have taught
schools to su])ersede the use of work- thein» that the value of the labour
boases } The act directed, that the would not iilwaf s compensate for tlie
different counties in tlie kingdom loss u^x)n the materials, when bought
should be divided into districts, at the to a disadvantage,
discretion of the magistrates assem- Where there must have been a suc-
bled in sessions ; ana two of them cession of children always learning,
were to govern in each district. A and others going off before they had
house w^s either to be purchased, or learned any tinng perfectly, it could
built, for a school ot industry for not be expected that they would pro-
poor children^ and visitors, guardians, duce any articles fit tor a public
wardens, overseers, stewards, "and market. Instances may be produced
servants,. were to be appointed under of ^oods being manufactured at ■
the du^ection o{ the two magistrates, \vorkhouse, aiKi offered to tlie pa-
to superintend the school. Ware- risijioners fbr home consumption,
houses were to be erected^ for the re- and they combined together, and
ception of unwrought and wrought would not give the price of the raw
.goods j and warehousemen placed to materials. Aspecukitive man, with
each, to take them in, and . deliver a small portion of real knowledge,
them out, and to keep an account of may hivent projects ; but it mayx)©
each artide. veiy doubtful, if they jcan ever be

The preparations for teaching a few made to answer a gooa purpose,
children to spin, were nearly ecjual to In the 2^th report ot the managers
a Manchester manufacturer's oegiu- for increasinff the comforts of the
ning business witli a capital of one poor, it- is acknowjedged that every
hundred thousand pounds ; and rfter expedient must fail, which is not
all this parade, and' expence, which founded in the melioration of tl»e
would have ruined most .of the pa- morals, and the religious thiracter of
fishes in the kingdom, the duldren the poor. This is a rational and a

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SgB On ihe Management of the JJmrs of the Poor.

wi«^e remark ; hut if we Jook back a publications, which have Issued frooi.
few years, we .shall find but little done the press within tiie last tweoty
to promote so desirable an end. years, or of reading the debates in a

1'hose who move near th6 first certain place, tjtey will discover how
jTtnks among men, seldom, if ever, much tiiere hath been done to di-.
^appear at any place o^' public worship,- minish the influence of tlie clenj?,
aiid their very habits of Hie, necessa- and to place them in an unfavourable
riJy conftne their servants the whole l»glit, m the eyes of the lower order
of the Sabbath, to their domestic of the people. What are theclergr
tasks. Is this the way to establish to do, when the precepts they incul-
rel igious principles in the lower or- cate are not attended to, and when
ders of the people, or to pluck them insults will be offered for private ad*
up ? monition ? Can the clergy stop the

The bulk of mankind are led by infiuence of many pernicious ex^
exanaple ; and almost every one is amples, which are public, and noto-
endeavouring to ape their superiors ; rious, and even sanctioned by com*
and we have seen a general disregard mon use, and cannot fail of tainting
of all public worship, descending the vouthful mind ? Can they draw
from those who are considered the the Boundary line between the irapti*
fehiohable classes in society, down rity of tlie master and the servant,
to the lowest, as the oil from Aaron's and say, thith^ shall the infectioQ
beard down to the skirts of his cJoth- come, but no farther? Can they,
hig. The seeds of irreligion, which like another Phineas. stand betweea
have been so profusely scattered by moral depravity ana moral puri^*,
the hand of infidelity, have flourished and stay me plague ?
kixurianUy, in the genial warmth of When the deat adder refuses to hear
that zeal which hath been continued the voice of the charmer, it is time ta
with unabated vigour, for training haverecourse to the strong aam of the .
volunteers to the use of arms on tlie law. The bulky volumes of our
Sabbath,- and dnring divine ser\ ice. statute books ought to be exammed a
This practice will very probably erase and if the acts they oontaiii be found .
ihe famt traces of religion from the insuflScient for the suppression oi v*
mmds of many, not only of the pre- religion and vice, every one who is
•ent, but of the rising generation ; for wishing to see good order preserved
the young and unthinking of both in sociS)', will deem it expedient thai
^aexes, have been drawn fi^m tlie tliey should be revised, and incoipoi
church and the meeting, at the sound rated into one bill, for the use of the ,
€f the drnm, to follow them in the church-warden^ overseers, and ma*
fieki. If we are to juc^c by tlie con- gistrites, with pains and penalties, to
versatipu of many, we are to con- be inflicted on all those, who, in their
elude that 'religion can "be . laid down, official capacity, are to put the laws in
and taken up, with as much cxpedi- execution, and omit such an impor-
tion and ease, as we take off and put tant part of their duty. At present
on a garment: but experience will theJaws against Sabbatli-breakers, are
prove to us, that time will be required of no more use, tlian a sword resting
lo check bad habits ; and the prophet in its scabbard and valued olilv be-
miglit well say, '• when the Ethiopian caase it hath descended from rather
cJiangcs his skin, and the leopard his to son. •

!Rpt>ts, then may he do good, who If it! be allowed that arefbnnatioQ
hnth been accustotued to do evil.'» of manners be the first thing- neces-
When the moral principle is deprav- sary to insure success in the ar-
cd, evil will be producecl by it. lliere duous task, in regulating the aili^rs of
aie some who foresee this, and fear, the poor,, why should we eodeavoor
;?nd are apprehensive of ill consp- to substitute paltry expedients, instead '
^ueiices: but they seem blind to the of it, whk:h can never answer mj
sources from whence the evils sprinor; salutary or lasting purpose ? Ihere
and they impute the cause to the are beside all this, many abuses lo be
Hjjxi-residence, the inattention, and met with among men jn public sta-
the ncdect of the clergy. If any tions; and they have reached to those
one \» iil be at the trouble of looking who govern the aifairsof a parish .: and
.©-•cr liie periodical, and the othw I may probably develope some of thaft

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Mswer to the Inspector for June tdsU



^99



h mv iiitiine comnranications, if time of corruption, wickedneiw^ traitorism,
'riioiild permit - j t t „i »..*_ -.c. u^ :„ ^



Nyctophylax.
answer to the ihsfeotor for

JUms LAST. •

To the Editor of the Universal Mag.

StB,

I WAS not a little pleased and en



and shame, Lord- Bute- ifit be in a
mo^e self-satistied and comfortable, a
moi*e enviable and glorious situation
now, than when the riot* ot" London
existed; (credat Jvdaus Apella)
—I say, if I could believe all this, I
could also readily believe that we
have extensive and undeniable rea-
tertained with most «f the remarks sons, like the papists, to worship ma*
jnad^ by a correspondent of yours, terial bread and wine as our s])iritual
(whose letter is dated from Warring- s^iour, and to believe that, in the
ton) in pur verjr valuable Magazine mass,with our corporeal mouths, we eat
fbf the month of August last, in an- Jind dririk the very body and blood of
iwer to a periodical paper called the Clirlst, the son ot God ; in which case,
Iiwpector, which appeared in your (detur venia verbvj we should further,
•pWication for June ; yet I must beg methinks, pray to the Lord, that he
leave, at the same time, to declare \rould present us with a new system
myself for, indeed, from.being "very ofsalvation. Did the last bloody strug-
much pleased'* with even any part of gle, the last burdensome, unsuccess-
tbe paper in question, and concei\«e it tul and ruinous war, make any addi-
<obe altogether replete with notions tion to our national. power, security,
that are jequall^ erroneous and fl/;jK7rf. ease and confidence? AVas not the
I am lost, Su", in astonishment, to last or the present war (for I have al-
all kifents and purposes, when I con- traj/s looked upon the late patch^ up
template the high degree of political pence y tS^'tntemied by mbu stars iorwo-
infaraation (which unless my olind's thing more than a suspension oi kosli-
ne be very ^prossly bedimmed) is IHie^iJ moi^ detrimental to the coun-i
therein so glaringly predominant, and try, than any in the memory of man,
f reaUy do wowfer that any person of tliat e\ er preceded it ? Was it not
a s()ber mind should be so far depriv- conciucted by time-serving, sel film-
ed of memoiy and reason — so for . portant, speech- making,aiid low-in-
Winded by prejudices (tantamount I triguing statesmen ; with that great
Aad almoit said to insanitv or stark- apostate, that king oi sophistry,
•taring madness,) as gravely to assert, that ringleader o^ political prostitutes
or sincerely to think, that the " latter Mr. Pit^ at their nead, who are com-
part of his present Majesty'^ reign, pletely strangers to all, even elcnien-
tas prwen tea a brighter prospect I han tal ideas of strict, political integt'ity;
the Dcginning did. ' The author, in who hate the very mention of the
confirmation of his position, proceeds pame of freedom, of the glorious and
to observe: " We need only re- delectable mountain nymph, sweet
fleet, for a moment, on the disastrous , liberty — and who, therefore, cannot
tvento of the American war, the ad- but be uniformly adverse to the true
ministration of Lord Bute, and the principles of the constitution ? who
tiots of London, which conjointly Ve- are treacherously subservient to all the
Aiced thw nation to the brink of niin, pernicious counsels and unpeacetul
from which it wag, in a great mea- measures of a (/fr/y, gross, rotten, ty^ -
sure, retrieved, by the s^endid ta- rannical, groveUihg, injurious, insult-
lents of the present minister.** ing, ^nd completely unvirtuous fac-

If this country could be justly con- rioK, skulking clflndestincfy Baiiifijy
tidered as actually rescued at the pre- the throne ! — ^and who, to borrow
lent time — ^if its constitution be radi- the memorable language of our great
ttUy more sound, robust, and prospe- patriot and truly public-spirited, ih-
'0U8 now, — teres attjue rotundas — corruptible statesman, Mr. Fox, have
tfian at the time of, and at the conclu- '* added more to the burdans, and in*
lion of the American war— rif our ii- croached more upon the liberties of
berties and properties be more secure the people," than any. set of men to
now than under the baneful admini- whose care a government was ever
itnrtion of that most odious and exe- intrusted. Let any temperate and
cmble character, that arch-imitator of reasonably-minded m^, every honest
liadiisn'el, that horrid system-maker Iriend to his country, ezamme the

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400 An'^wer to the Inspector for June la^i.

total amount of the national dobt, as hjT>ocrite— and pray what lailreb; tf
it stood prior to the late frantic war, niilitar}^ trophies have there been fur-
flndasit has been since, magnitudi- nished, to decorate the dejected brow^
iiously accumulated to the present pe- of Mr. Pitt? How many splendid
riod— the enormous weight of taxes achievements can we recollect, »
imposed upon us— the attempts which subiect matter of Fabtaflfian triumphs,
hav« been made to depri\ e us of our jn the' Senate House ? Noi^e ! none 1
liberties, by filching and by frittering none !• That our stocks, (the baro-

them away — the various extravagant

^ums that have 'been levied upon us, * It may seem almost superfluous to
for tlie support of foreign aid, in con- observe, thaX when the abov^ waf writ-
tiuental quarrels^ which Englishmen ten, no accounts bad arrived in town,
are but indirectly involved in ; the of tiie late most signal victory obtainol
ridiculous expeditions, destitute of by sea ; — ^an action displayidg such a
even ordinary prudence, to Quibe- bright blaze and expansive scenie of
ron, Ostend, &c. and afUT so many glor^' as is sufficient to excite a hi^ de-
luillions of nioney expended, and so gfce of raptuie and of enthustasft^ af»-
maiiy thousands of poor mens' lives (>Iause in every British bosom — an ac-
)ost, not a single object accomplished tiun which deser\'es to be recorded ia
by the inglorious peacxj, which was ktters of gold (and indeed, AdxniiaJ
adopted as a principle at tlie com- Collingwood has done it in his late
mencemcnt ot the war ! And above ^wll written official dispatch to the Ad-
all, mark the Janu«-iaccd duplicity of miralty, which yields both credit and
conduct which has so detestably ac- celebrity to the elegant pen of that ac-
companied the tergiversationary mca- complished gentleman and scholar, no
aires of ministers, as we call them, less ihen to nis sword.) But while' we
in tlieir sh.imeful breach of the late r<^idily admit that this immortal actioo
treaty (tlie very treaiy itself beit}g and service to our countn-, reOecu a
grounded on conditions tnat were ipso still nobler lustre on the exalted chaiac-*
fuclo, inerecutallej'^-^xid then consi- ter of British seamen and mannes (a
der Mr. Pitt, acthig as chief jui^ler, corps which has ever ppo\-cd itself inily
.behuid the scenes, at the head of all ionnidable to the enemy — while it
tills guilt, tliis waste, this bloodshed, renders the courage and skill of ihoec
tills mibcry-r-Kin established fact wli ich unrivalled ornaments of their |xofe^«ion.
Very few will noiv hesitate, in tlie still more conspicuous, — let us not, in
least, to acknowledge, and to point tlie glor\' and exultation of maritiinc
'<}Ut, and to publish? conquest, lose sight of the real objecb

Well! do these crimes and these of our unbounded admu-ation and ap- i
rnibtovtuiies produce am' worthy sub- plans©. Let every honest Briton, cfcry J
ject Ibr exultation ? Can we* for a one who deiights'to da justice to rare
moment, rejoice at the unjust and roerir, confer his heari.est ihaniii oa
unnecessary war (at least appearan- that distinguished man, and onthcdit'-
ces are strongly against it) lately ini- ferent captains, oihcers, and crews, *bo
posed upon this countiy and Spain ? have so long been braving all ihefuiyof
Can we feel pleas\ire for being de- the cai^ricious elements, and who Mve^
frauded, by tlie late grievous and dis- lately [x^rformed such an unparsHeied
honourable treasurer of the navy, of service to the sons and daughter of
roch considerable sums of money,. Great Britain and Ireland ! Ourpuiil-
through tlie channels of peculation ? lahimous and cowardly rul«^ with
And can any true born Englishnian ibcir accustomed cflrontery> will doubt-
f jrbear from shrinking* , witli a/ certain Ips be eager to sound the trumpet of
degree of horror, to witness an igno- fame, for a iresh ** horrid alaruiu of
ble j)eculator, saeened as to his paJ-' war," in a |K>mpous testification of
try iniquities (as much as any how de- f AtzV stupendous valour, and peat
centiy can be done) and supported by, matchless conduct and inimitable skili;




upon t
prod;;tx\l a sfigma upon tliat hi^hiy horse ;— and whiie, wi^i pious g»-
criiiAmal person, tliat seliish^ kisideuuiB tliud?, wc acknowledge the Utc wo»



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Answer to the Inspector for Jime last. 401

&:ieeer of p&blic -confidence) are nn- . are egregiously hard, and with great

comxi^ouly low— that our burthens difficulty to be borne, and that our

,^ public debts are aggregated in a inas«

beyond all teasiblCx bounds, and are ,
d€Tful benefit, as an additional instance 5^»" "^^^^ terribly accumulating ; ar«
and eiwiinple of the divine favour, ^^^.^ ^^'^^^^^^^ "^^ all the venal, the niis-
inouT behalf. Utua also, with honest chievous sons oi jgnoranceand etfron-
fceling8,ascnbeiherealmerit8ofthisgreat ^^^V> ^^^^ fven presume to controvert
Andgloriousaction,nottoouriiny minis- ^^' ^ much as to call m question \
tcrs, but to a well-tried virtue, whi<ih , Conceivmg the above to be the long,
has been excellently supported and main, dull, dreary, unvaried viSto of our
lained, in many a prior combat and sc- real situation ; the wide, unbounded,
Tcte conflict, and whose best efforts ^ipleasing prospect of despair and
have, on the late glorious and yet cie- solitary exclusion that now lies befor©
Wncholy occasion, been most 'favour- ^/^ ^^ "a^st be absolute weakness in
ably crowned with conquest and success. ^® extreme, or the spontaneity of
We should forget the duty which we tree, intrinsic and complete wicked-
owe to our country and to' the gcncial ness— either fine-soundmg nonsense
cimse of mercantile mankind, did we "] 4^Vn ^^ abstract, or an unprinci-
not declare, that we consider it as a sub- F?^ fellowship wiUi corruption and
ject of the most general regret and la- ^^'»tli falshood, against the plain die-
mentation, tha? with such gallant *f ^^^ of conscience and exi)enence,
chiefs, such highly resjjectable and in- that can sit down coolly, and in defi-
telligent officers, most eminently calca- ance of decency and common ^ense,
Uted, by long observation and experi- boldly say, that "the present miiii-
er^cc, to brave and resist all tlic dangers ^try^ has, in a gycat measi^e, retrieved
and severities to which they are expos- the country. ' Such a dogma is au
ed in war and on the ocean— and with >nhnity of paradoxes m one with a
• such hearts and such hands of superior witness .

strength and activity as our most valu- ^o lar "'on^ having promoted any
able tars possess insomuch that we- "^®^s tp save the nation from miscn-,

need not hesitate to place them in ho- wrongs" and affliction, and to render

hpurajjlc mention, in preference to any ^t great, happy and flouiislnng, every

other body of seamen in the world; to "^^ act and bill, every manoeuvre

express our opinion confidently, that ofsuch a tricking, perfidious, gall and

Britons are upon the sea, what the old wormwood politician, is pregnant

Romans were upon the land, invinci- with tiie true touches and charac-

fcLE) ; that for the full j)eriod of two tenstics of a criminal misuse of pow-




importance in our possession ; a con- . i i - ^

cession which will be readily granted to trate, on the neck ot an indignantly
us on the part of e\'erv honest man teehng, and of a/r;///;/^r— but not vet
throughout the kingdom. Britons, J^^f'^i nation'!— nil ^^hu:h, \uih otl;.T
when fighting their own batdes. on their existing calamitous circum:>tancvi5,
own pro)y;r element, will always exert _ - _^
themselves, most zealously,in the cause, .

the interest,and the service of their coun- ral mourning, and ihe bnivc men who
try, and not unfrcquently l^ irresistible sened under his command, en tluu
in attack, achieve great and splendid tri- great day, when aiid wliwc *'e\ery
umphs, and obtain signal, complete, and individual appc^art^l a hero," He wholly
glorious victories ; but let us not hear /and solely entitled toil) ll\cprai&svvhicii-
of the valour and skill displayed by mi- is wholly and solely owin^ (uiider th»
•nisters on the late occasion. Let the superintending providence oi thc.gopd
immortal Nelson, whose death is so Gud) to their touJ and correct conduct
much lamented, from a sense of' the. — to their keen courage and souridjudg-
Jnany virtues of his mind, (omitting the meut, and to their real, solid, extraor£-
cousideration of his eminent public set- nary, vast and tiattsceudent pori^nai
*vicps) and which well deserves a g<;n«- mwits !
Vol.rV. ' 3'F

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Cn Populaf CrecktStf.



402

must irrecow.iMv terminate m the
d«^u•uction ot lii itish liberty, unless
timely prevented by a miracle of di-
vine providence, in tke introduction
of a less ilnpvinnpled and avaricious,
aitew and more lionest, and more
pure, and more ertecttial system of
goremment. There is no medium,
no alternativ« now left; either the
jwtion shall, once for all, master the
faction, or the i ights, tiie justice, the
IwDOur, the judL;nicnt, the life, the
energy, the majesty of the nation
must be now over-reached and ulti-
mately mastered by the faction.
If, Sir, you conceive these reijuirks
as entitled to a plate in your next
number, or anv succeeding one, of
your truly independent, excellent,
and impartial Miscellany, you have
mv full liberty to insert them. Yea,
it Is even what I devoutly wish tor,
hopinjj in this very delicate and par-
ticularly interesting crisis of public
atfnirs, that, at least, they will be
productive of serious k*v lection 3
to merit which praise, I should cer-
tftnlj tliink a most desirable object !
I am, Sir,
Your constaiu reader.
Somersets kirc^ J. C.

Sepi,2h 1805.

ON POPULAR Cft^DJOXlTT. •

To the Bailor of the Universal iMttg,

SIR,

A RESIDENCE of some continu-
ance, in an obscure part of the coun-
try, has aSbrded me niunerous in-
stances of that s^iperstittous ci^duUty
which still makes a stand amongst the
secluded ami illiterate. The man who
forms his judgment of the ])resent
state of society frono the inhahitants
of an opulent city, can jscarce ]y su])-
pose there to exist persons willing* ro
renew, if thev had the powtir, ihul
persecution of wretched old wiimeu,
pre "jumed witches, in which two cen-
turies back the bigotted. James inu sa
oonspicuous a figure. Soch» bow-
ever, is the case < and it is well *that
the refined spirit of tlie more busjt
oia'ises of life renders these enthwsi-
ftsts objects of derision, r;\ther than
ftlarni, to tiieir aged neighbours.

"But zslany of our provincial fellow-
iKlaadtTs,- though they may not deem
every old woman wiih a Hooked nofle
« Nnrcb, m^ still subject, to foucies as
gioundiessandabfurdaD themv^terks



of witchcraft. If a trareller happcs
to be mounted on a pie-bald horse, it
ii odds but he is stopped, and request-
ed, wkh tr(»*nmlous eagerness, to men^
tioxiwbat is a &t ii^icibe tor the
hoopiog-oough. In \:^tla he iuforou
tlie enquirer of her mistake i aBsures
her that lie is oot aa apotiiecary ; she



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