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persists in her iuteiTogation, aad at
length reoihids him that the-preKrip*
tion. of a person on a pie-bald slekt
possesses a sacred charm, mysterious
la its oneiatioa, but uaavoicubly b^
neficial m its elieots !

I observed, svs I rambled some i'lays
back through a sequestert^ part ot'thai
neighbourhood^ aii elderly tismale €e«
garoing, with wistful looks^ a gqu{^
of donkeys^ which wet^ quieuy
bcowaiog on the heath. By the anx-
ious manner of the womau I im^g^i*
ed something more than ordinary was .
goiu^ fbr^-ard. She did not aliov.
nae time for any variety of caojec-
tures, but 4H>i'^<^i^^ with many
opologiesy presented a pair of scissars,
and begged I would cut a small por-
tion ot hair from* the back of the aoiy
nial, and bestow it cm her. I did is,
she requested ; and then desired to-
be inarmed wby slie had chosen my
hand for the o})eratlon, in prefereaoe
to her own r . She replied Uiat hec
son. was extremely ill, from a wound
he had received ou his arm > that au
afiplication of hair. Mo/en tiorn the
back of an ass, was an infallible re*
medy tor tliemost ol^tmate wounds ^
that as the animals were her sole pru^
pcrty,..f^ could not be said to steulia
depriving them of a part of their
clothing^ aiid that tlieretore she had
prevailed oh me thus innocently to
violate die eighth commandment, ibr
which, ^ tlie intention was charita-
ble, she humbly hoped I should hnd
due forgiveness .!

Num<;rous cases of similar -absurdi*
ty miglit be adduced, 'llit'se may
s'uflice as a key to that part oiljiitory
winch disjii^ys the rapid progress of
every tiresh o^uion in religioa, iD'
which my aeries and wonders are de<->
tailed with a liberal hand. "We nEod
not feel sur(»ised at the sixxess of the
itinerant emluMiast^ when we perceive
that the bulk of mankind admits mo$t
tAiikdify the propriety of those ieueti
which ace tlie mo(>t iocompreiicusi* .
We. ^

NiX art the cmnor prejudices of.

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;On'ihe Fastickdus A&icr^iretii Cet^ml^y, m Cathttkal Churclies. 403

^Riperstltion confined io the illitemte ok the fastidyous auhehe-ncb to
^nd untbinking. Tycho Jiraket the ckremony, in cathedrai.

'Celebrated astronomer, wm tlie slave , ' chukches.

of judicial astrology. If lli is great To ike Editor rf the Universal Mag.
jnau belield a h^e cross his 4>a3i \ti sir, .

fthe commenceinei^ of. a journey, Jic IN the course of a jouriKjy through
>in<taiulyretarm;dj thisbemgitseenw "Wikshire, I latelv piiid a viiit to
-an unpropitious onien ! Ih old .wo- Salisbury cainedral. The external
roen he hadihe atitipathy usual to the beauty of this structure cannot tail to
-»«apentitious ; il'an agetf female were strike the stranger witii awe aud ad-
-^he iirst object to encounter his eyes miration. The magnifkence of its
^ip tbemgrning, lie shut himself up arches, the chrLste sublimit)r of the
ibrtim day, harrassed with a thousaud spire, thet^eneral harmony of its pro-
appreheuiions. portions, unite to render this cathe-

Dr. Jobustsn, it appears, so fiU" in- dral one of the n\osf pleasing speci-
-dulged fl superstitious reveretice of mem of sacred aidiitecture in the
rltiysler}', that he dc'emed it most de- kingdom.

'^irably hicky to commence walking Tne great pains and industry em»-

'With the right leg, and to finish bis ployed, through the course vt 43

ipcnimbiilatioa by a step with the years, in its toiTOation, naturally .recur

•same limb I to the spectator } nor is tlie reinecfion

This laipen table error of judgment, accompanied by those melancholy
in men of unquestionable strength of sensatioiis wiih- which we are often
dntellect, roay in some shape apolo- cOmpeUed to survey the labour of
^Siac for the delusions ofti^ uniotornw a^es fiinking to unheeded dissolution'.
«d, while it tinfjes with a bhish the Tiiis structure, which has stood up-
•pride of human reason. No doubt wards ot live centuries a splendid mo-
Jthe wiles of priestcraft* have in past nument.of the piety and ingenuity oi'
«ages materialiy tended to mislead the our forefathers, promi^^es to remain as
iacnilties of tlie subordinate classes of nauch longer, a record of the venera-
.fiociet^; but the dread of oniens seems tion of successive generations. Ti*?
the l^itimate oihpring of frequent internal display ot the catlicdral ii
JBisfortone. Depressed by calamity, highly ca|}tivaung. A caviller might
the anxious mind views tlie operations contend that tlie decorations* are
iofiitte in exery trivial incidoit of lite, somewiiat too gaudy and theatrical,
T'he Victims of disappointment, there- but tlie grandeur ot their efi'ect for-
^bre, cannot be too carefully on their bids the judgment to exercise too
guard agaiiHt this insidious and fiat- rigid a controul over tlie enchanted
•Coring assailant. Such a sj>ecies of imagination.

^Ujxrrstition not only deprives the As it was Sunday, I entered the car
iHmcl of its native vigour, but robs it, thedral without the necessity oftliat
at leoetU, of that sober and confident fee which,* to the disgi*acc of our
.depenaiOKe which may be - placed on country, is so essential ajretjuisite from
ih&iaterpo&itkniof asuperitiF power, tlie inquisitive stranger, who would

The necessity of admoiiiiioft on this enter- the most oelebrated temples of
head is the nK>Ee twgent, since supel*- worship, on other days. The strains
MitiOD, like the adder, giitles ip si- of serious mu^ic, joined to the solemn
lence and iti ambuiih, and inflicts a meafiures ie which the choir chanted
^i^mid dtj^tructive of the whole the responses, interested the feelings,
system. I am, Sir, although tlie ktter may be deemed ra-

* ' ' - • ' Ydur*^, ^c.- tlier incongruous with the dignified

89U/tk 8toks, Ox<m. R. Ti simplicityofprotestant worship. The

^__ ^' splendid transparencies, the rich attire

'' r— — — ^ -^ of ilie attendants, the distances of sub-

• It w« ttdirAtaiMd by the <afK' Ro- • ; ^

aAisk duicah, that the tphits of the

dead fi^temted the eonsectated spots * Executed under the directions of *
in whicHi the bodies wew itUfirred. Mr.. VVvatt, an architect justly ths
iUmoty ijitolM^y, that tmditional bdiel boast of his covmtcy, bvt who certainly
At n}^pawiiiort», fmUm fo ihi f^rofiatH is not in the habit uf holding too strict ^
9ii(?4Mr. . ' abia.onthaeiGux^fliEsof lonej.

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404 A Biographical Sketch of Dr. FrankOn.

ordination preserved by the clerical ranee, and left conscience to breathe a
dissociates of the cathedral, all con- free air. His condition was obscure :
spired however to convey the idea of but it was glorious to rise out of that
B full-dress audience, rather tlian a obscurity, to be at the head of his na-
%veekly prostialion of humble pro- tion, after it advanced itself to be at
lessors of Christtanity. In this con- the head of the human race. He,
jectiu^ I was soon confirmed, for on who was to be the founder and presi-
the entrance of a jx^asant, with a dent of the Philosophical Society at
small bundle in his hand, a verger Philadelphia, the creator and the soal
advanced, and with an aulhori- of the Ahierican Congress, was at
tative air bade the "greasy rogue,** first a manufacturer or candles. A
withdraw ! As the man was of a trade so limited> and which presented
sober and decent appearance, I really no object to develope his nund, was
"was much astonished to find that the not suited to the' genius of Fravk-
circumstanceof carrying a small par- LIN. Printing was then scarcely
eel under his arm should be deemed 'established in America : he tamed
a sufficient reason for denying this his views to this tine art, with whicli
poor fellow access to the house of his are connected the great destinies of
God ! . tlie human race ; he ser\'ed a labori-

I would with deference submit, ous apprenticeship to it, first at Bos-
JVfr. Editor, to you and your readers, ton, afterwards at Philadelphia, an^
the manifest improprieiy of so scru- then at London : where, while he
pulous an obser\-ance of' exterior ap- was perfecting himself in printing,
prarances. If I might addi'ess tliis his mmd, always contemplative^ ac-
Siscerninff master of^ the ceremonies cumulated, in silence, by nis observar
on the reJigious correctness of his con- tions on the vices of the English go-
duct, I should remind him of the vernment, the means of maEing thii
meek humility of the author of our art most useful to his country smd to
religion. In lowly simplicity he niankind. On his returii to the ca«
"wandered homeless round tne world 3 pital of Pennsylvania, he set up, direct-
^ addressed his beneficent discqurses ed, and even himself worked at, the
to the unfortunate and the '* heavv presses, from whence was to issue the
laden ;'*— and, behold ! in a church knowledge which would be the fore»
pr()iessing the purest reception of his runner of the great day of liberty,
doctrines, tlie prayers of a fellow English America, in the eternal
christian are forbidden — because he views of providence, aiid in the alrea-
Js meanly drcsscJ, and is subjected to dy ripe combinations of Fbanklik's
the inconvenience of a small bur- ponius,was destined to see arising from
tl)en ! I'he impolicy of such conduct its horizon, that sun of justice which
appears at a single glance ! would, progressivdy, shine on all

I am. Sir, your's, &c. parts of the world. The cdqnies con-

^ ^^ sistedofmen ^x4io did not feel them-

_ V lATOB. selves sufficiently free in England j

■^ who sought nature, unknown m Eu^

A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE rope ; wbo wished tofbUow, inreli-
LIFE AND CHARACTER OF DK. giou, hcavcn and cousciencB onlv 3 in
FRANKLiN% EXTRACTED AND tftoir manucrs, civil equality and the
TRANSLATED PROM THE ELOGE lawsj in the enjoyment ik felicity,
OP THE ABBE FAUCHBT, DELI- domostic society and the Simplicity of


MUNEOF PARiSi juLY^il, 1790. Pe^n, departing from the soci^

cliios, in which the nations wepe then

T?^^ *L^ TT ' J nr pluiiged, fouudcd Philadelphia, a

For tne Universal Magazine. ^^^ |^« ;V,^/,,,,, . ^^j ^^,^^^ j^ser^^d

HE was borii at tlie beginning of tolje called, in addition to the name
• the ISth century, at Boston, tlie ca- whicji it has well supported, thtcc^k*
pitalof New England. His fiithfer, tai of the Jiuman race. It is open to
persecuted at London for his religi- mankind, witliout restriction : for the
ous opmions, wtis a refugee to the law, which excludes from an admis^
new world, whidier English presby- sion into this iraternal city, the atheist
fenaxuspi couid not extend its intoler and'tUe beggar, as not being men, aj>

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j4 Biographical Sketch of Dr, franklin. 405

cording to tlie fine observation of him, he led him back to his tent, ke
Franklik, is. nothing more than a treated him with friendship, and sent
mere ineificient threatiiing :* '' Since, him away the next day with preserits..
if there exists an atheist in any part of Another 'allegory of Franklin *s>
the world, he will be converted on ^ derived from his art, affords a good
entering into a town, where all ^re testimony to his belief of the irpnior-
virtuous 5 and if, being born there.he taJity of the soul, the purifications of
were lazy, having always before his another world, and the resurrection of
eyes the three lovely sisters, riches, the body. If is an epitaph for himself.
Mence and virtue, the daughters of " My body, like the covering of an
labour, he would soon iail in love old book, the inside of which is torn
with them, and ask them of their fa- out, has enclosed a work which is
tlier." This is a delightful thought, not more to be met with : but it will
worthy the wise philosopher, the ob- be republished, new covered, and cor-
rect of our reverence ! It paints, rected by the author.** This is admi-
witfa one stroke, Phiiadelphia and rable ! The language is concise, but
Franklin. full of sent iroait ! The fhith of the

^ That reli^on of (virtue, which con- gospel, the hopes of religion, are
Sists in the love of God and man, and idisplayed in it. It creates a live^
which, according to our sacred scwp- ly sensation of the design of this
tares, alone is pure and without spot, life and of the value of virtue,
dwelt in the heart of Franklin, and Franklin, likewise, in his peri-
breathed through his works. He odical works, which had a prodigious
.preached it in those works which he run in the Englisii colonies on the
composed and printed at Philadel^iia. continent, with mildness asserted and
There is in them a simplicity, a can- supported the sacred principles of so-
dour, a good humour, and yet an in- cial morality. He is not less ininii-
telligence, a sensibility, an happy calm- table in his illustrations andapplica-
ness, which seize the soul. He ex- tfons of this morality t9 the duties of
celled in those sacred parables, of iriendship, tp general chant)", to tlio
which the gospels furnish such' pleas- good etFects of kindness, to th6 ne-
ing and sublime examples. Permit bessary combination of private with
me. Sirs, to cite one of his against in- public good-, to the advantages of in-*
tolerance and persecution. He de- dustry, to a coratbrtable life— pro-
scribes in it, after the ancient style of ducing those amiable virtues, that
the book of Genesis, Abraham exer- render us satisfied with society and
cisiiig hospitality towards an old man, with ourselves. '* The proverbs of old
who reftised to join in the prayer and Henr}% the knowledge of virtuous
benediction, which the patriarch of- Ricliard,** are in the hands of the ig-
fered up to the Most Hign God, the norantandthe learned. It is thef sub-
creator* of he;iven and earth. The Jimest morality, in a popular form,
stranger declared, that he adored the foi^ common use. It is the catechism
GodM"his own family, nor would he of happiness for all men.
partake in any other worship. The Franklin was too deep a moralist,
teal of Abraliam was kindled, and he and knew man too well, not to consi-
drove away the man to wander all der women as the arbiters of our man-
ntht in the desart. . Soon the voice ners. He applied himself to perfect
"Of God was heard, '* Where js tlie their empire, and to engage them to
stranger V* The patriarch answered, embellish the sceptre of virtue witJi
" Lord, he would not worship thee, all their graces. This grave philoso-
1 have driven away the infidel." And pher'knew how to diffiise through' his
God said, " I have borne with him conversation with the sex, those
these eightv nine years : I have fed charms of wisdom and those fine sen-
and clothed him, notwithstanding his timcnts, that won their affection, in-
lebellion against me : and thou, a spired a relish for domestic employ-
linner, couKlst not bear witb-him one ments, and show the value of unspot-
night ?" Abraham cried, " I have ted honour. He taught them by ap-
sinned. Lord, let not thy anger break plication, first to the nursing of in-
cut." He arose, he ran to the desart, fants, and then to tlie education of
^ sought tlie old man^ he mot with menj to discharge the debt of nature.

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4^ A D'aquiskton on Instinct*

and to answer tlie e^ip^ctitions of so- to found and'&^tab]is!> H^n 8Qiii£<£aY
ciety. more solid and durable than mere

Fr A NfcuN neglected no means of theory- Tlie principle which the
iisdulness to mankind, ood of service Doctor grounds nb Adtions upon, yix-
to society. He addressed himself to tliat the nerves are the means of «&•
all ranks, to both sexes, and to all veving inibnnation to the seat of inr
ages, lliis amiable moralist descend- tefligence, has long been univ^'sal^
^a, in his writings, to the most simple admitted : all we have to do, tberefoie,
details^ to the most ingenious ^nd fa« ^^\i relates to the present subject, is
rniWar elucidations, to die first prin- to trace out «nd ditittnguish, a&hrm
^iplcsjof agriciilture, comm^ce, policy we are able« the earliest period wbeft
dnd patriotism, to conversations with they first begin to operate, and te
children end old nien» full of sound conu^unicate notices to the soul^
jind mature wisdom, and to the expla* bow the piocess is con^ued hsyaai
nation of the obscure, as well as th^ the next hnk ia tiie chain, that is, di^
easy ^nd pleasing virtues, by an bar- brain, of which the nenes ace pro-
nionious combination, of which the. ductionsj respecting this, let us, I
virtuous man is formed. He also gave S3.y, not presume to ask, nor to build
dn inconceivable weight to his modest chimerical towers which shall readi
lessons, by the reputation he had ao- to heaven, lest we ^ overwhelmed
.quired of oeing the tirat natural phU jn a Babel of our own making, or lost
3osopher in the world. He coutrouled in a labynnth or endless rasoe of ooor
nature, at once, in the heavens and in fusion. Let us set out, iberefon^
iiie heart of man. In the tempests from a given point, viz. the opeiatioa
of the atmosphere he directecT the of the nervous adections, .^nd the exr
thunder. Amidst the stoi'ms of so* istence of a sensitive or rational &ciii*
ciety, be commanded tlie passions, ty, a^.spihtnal existemce, or a powerflf
Conceive, Sirs, wilh what attention, tliinking .superadded to matter, ^igr tber
<iocilit)% and religious respect, tliey infinite power and wisdom of the At
Jisleijtd to thekind voice of this plain mighty: for as Loc^e, the Eng^idi
man, preachiiig happiness, when they Anstode, obser^^es, it is as easv wiv
iieiiectcd that it was the voice of that to conceive ftat God should add t
^cat man who governt^d the thtmder. power of thought to matt^« as thtt
jTi.ey pi'wnitted iiiin to electrify con- ne should create a 8|writ 5 for afi tk
<«ciai(^e, gently to extract from it the purposes of religion ai:<2equally'^ecuEei
formidably fire of vice, as he electri- on either ;6uppoation, as it must, of
tfied the nea^cns^ to charm into peace course, be competent to the Supcemt
the terrible iire^of tlie elements. He Being to conimue that power «f

cxerdsed the power of wisdom and thou£lit and consciousness, in
genius, two attributes of the divine subtiiieed parts df matter. Let spirit
lining, Beprcsent to yourself this sage^ then b^ attributed to man, and tfaa
"with heavenly countenance, with a power of thought to brates; or let
serene and dignified aspect, uniting spirit be ascribed to both : for wJm
in himself an authority over the natu- can suggest the means of proving t
n\ and moral world : does he iK>t re* nejgative, via^ tiiat brutes have not «
«ernble a benevolent Deity descend- spiritual sal)Staniie within tltem ? Aod
ing ^ipon earth, to CKtinguish the analogies of 120 im^ nvoment tend to
VTiith of heaven, and to teach virtue ? sunport the aiKniwIive sumoaitioiu
{To Iw contmutcLj Allowing iatelUfgw^ theretoe, 01

sensibUity to the whole aminal ions;

A nisauisixroN on instinct. dom, it will ^ipeur mdeivabfe oa tnc
(Contzitimdfrom page ^W of our last J slightest obserYaliiQQ^. thfit- the paroef^
. LET sucji as a^e in the habit of tionof simple ideas must tflfasf^aee at
niaking experipaents in that, newly a very early period. Dr. I>8rwiifr«p»
discovered power, caUed the Gabiamc, ppsQs thut some ideas, 90ck m tbcM
principle, ^ and wlio at the same tinae of waitnttu ^^ Mftnen, and finditf^
n^ve a predilection for ei^ouiri^s of fi'ocn tbe*>M4ter acoood it» are enter*
tlds native, examine ^ell what l^t tain^ by. the ^/«5, or aoferyo child
h ins^' seem, lileeljc to thr^w oa iJjr. in the wonih^ Tb» organs pi seiMe,
HarUey's system, jq.fiivouroif w^ich. however, ^ttl^taU^ooutiioTOTy, bet
if may possibly csLibit iiacts^ tending gin to poform their p^rts^ammediate*

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' ^ DFsquisiiwh on Stsiinti, 4^-

kaiiiKr tilt llrttt Kas taken place; tind ih consecjaefDce of ^e perist^tic racw
me constant repetition of the sanie tion^ ati acute sensation arises there-
impressfonB ffom surroimding objects, irom; joined with a pressure from the
must prcxkux a l;»tinff effect, and af- diaphra^, and abdominai muscles j
fbrd a proper grQund-work for ide^s fifom which conjunct influence, the
ef reflection. For we ought not to nerves on the one side begin to grate
ittppose a pro^ssVre growth of sou],- agaiiist those of ttie other, so as to ge-
Mfie that of^all the ]3arts of the nerate an unpleasani and almost into*
lo(^9 bat ratiier conceive of it as lerable sensation.
periaGt at once, although not yet for- Hie seat and origin of tbiret lies^
aiisbed with tkose ideas of sensation we well know, in the tongue^ the
nd reflecttOn> which it can only gain, fauces, the cesophagits, and the sto-
at it l)ecomes more and more accus- mach. \VlM»n these very sensible
tened to t^ use and. numagement of parts, whioh constantly and naturally
fliose kitets, the senses, that circum- borrow their moisture from the mn-
scribeit Bswidiiathewaikof aprison cotis and salival juices, and which
house. ^w dry from a deficiency of these or

A sonroe of ideas, of pain, and plea- similar numours, and being now no
• iBie, » derived, also, from the internal longer secreted from the constant ex-
iensatioDS of hunger and thirst : the halation of the unreplenished flukls>
AlBligh^|r, m a means <^ supportmg an irritation will be the necessary con-
and prolodging our terrestriaf exist- sequence : and besides> there is a re-
tooe, has wotideriuily contrived and dundance of muriatic or alkalescent
ifbeia/bsA^ certdin stimuli in the inte- salts lodged thereabouts, that will pro-
nor pftrlB, "which- bring the difierent duce a sense even more intolerable
vttomi into action, or compel the per- than the former on^^ tlilrst. being^^
ftrmance of their proper functions, justly considered as still more dan-
vilhoQt any co-operation of our will gerous than hunger. Both these ter-
•r assent. Hy these means, the whole rible irritations of the nerves first af*
process of nature's fabric, necessarily fected, are ftirtber propagated by the
conducing to the support of life, is nerves along the whole body of th9
earned on, as it were, mechanically, illimentary canalr upwards, sfimuiat-
«ich as digestion, respiration, and the ing, moreover, the tongue and fauces,
B97Btarious ibrce recpisite to bring after a particular manner, (the exact
wvt tlie drculation of the blo<x!, mo<le of which eludes our utmost sa-:
tte, &c.« There are, notwithstanding gacity) to take in or imbibe some sub-
^ position^ other actions equally ne- stance to relieve it j which inclination,^
cttsary to tfaesustenance of lite, which although thus primarily suggested, is
wquiretbe co-operation of our own still extended and carried on by our
•ctiial volition or voluntary efforts r ideas of sensation, and by tiie nafurak
. the stimuli which serve to accomplish power which we possess of comparine
these purposes', afibct those more ex- such ideas : for the small relief aflRir J-
. tOn^al parts, which are immediately ed in extreme thirst^ by reimbibing
Bod instrumentally subservient, mucn the least quantity of saliva tiiat may
io the same manner as the mouth, be excited, necessarily shews tlie fUr-
with' its diflvreiK niUFcles, is known ther assistance which water or other
to act, while preparing the food for beverage would afiord. And this I
tile stomach. These stimuli are con- take to be die lowest or first act of
'cy^d tbith«r by the nerves, from judgment incident to tbe intellectual
those parts whtcnmoi^ immediately faculty, viz. the comparison of two
•taad in need ot such assistance. The sitnple ideas.

•nowy sensation of hvhiger and thirst The fajivtness agt tQ be produced
is occasioned by the very nature and from hunger, gives rise to a constant
CQDStruction of tlie diaphragm, whidi, motion and grinding wirii the raoiUb,
tbe liver being no longer sustained by lips, and teeth, which is in a flight
thesiomach and intestmes that are now degree i-elie ved, evexr by merely touch*
tnopt;^ descends l^y its own weight, ing those pa^ with the finger. Hence
Wis drawn along with it by means there havis bc»n instances known and
^ks middle ligament. Tlie fokk of recorded of persons suflering under
wril^kles also of the stomach, ^t the this sei^re al^ioft, biting, their own
t>il»tiiipeD4)toig agBiBSteacbjotkcF^ iitli. Sy m iaifuIsMi) ^ Ui« siua«

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4to V Dis^uLilion on InstinU.

judgment, they are directed to any to attribute it to the same aikinud «P
holid substance, till they nnd one ho- Section, as is every where prevalent
inogencoua to the purpose of nature, throughout the ^'bole animal Icin^^ '
All substances are n«t equally calcu* dom ; which feeling, being assisted bf

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 73 of 108)