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lated to ettect tliis ptirpose : some, on reaison and principle, in the case of tfae
the coutraiy, by stimulating the nen-es woman, .a blind instinct or impulse
in a diii'erent mode, occasion extreme would be supervacaneous. I'hat (he
l^ain or nausea, which, operating more brute species ate actuated by a certain
tbrciblv tl^an does the rat^re sensation, degree of reason, and some enei^gy of
painful as it may be, of hunger or passions, is supported by too great a
ih'irsty are rejected instjintly by th« mass of in^efragaole evidence, to admit
stomach, how ever great the suftering of even a question. But any degree
.from tlie previous causes might be. of sentiment or passion^ and trie hoid^
But when a proper object ofiers itself, strong power oz a blind impulse, we
in consequence of the pleasure which two veiy distinct matters. All thee
it occasions, (he use of it is of .course phenomena, let it be • kept in mind,
persisted in. And should an improper are carried on by means of the coo-
object supply the place of one adapted pection subsistitig between cause and
to yield nourishment, a poison, for eilm, till, in some cases, th^ become
example, if pleasant tp the palate, or assisted by an intelligent ptindpie.
sweet, it would equally be grateful, in When pnce tliie habit of these ntxc9*
the mode of suction,' to any young sary functions in animals is acquired
animals : no instinct would step in to by practice, (and milk as a fluid seems
reject the noxious aliment or drajught. b<^st adapted for the nourishment <£
-Neither do I think such a precaution young animak, a further instance,
^lecossary i the provident disposer of anaong many others, of the lender
all things, havings in a great measure^ care of a superintending providence
eJidndc3 the possibility of Such dele- over all tlie creatures' of God) the
. terious substances felling in the way actions, at first merely automatic, im*
of young creatures; and, besides, the til called into exertion by proper stt -
ropTY), or natural affection inherent in muli, then become associated with the
mW animals, the brute as well as the muscular motions of the voluotacy
human, will invariably prompt them kind; and these, when associated
to provide fit sustenance for their with the ideas of pleasurable seosa-
youtig. The dam, therefore, still tion, now entertained, become per-
keeps her whelps close to her, and the' fccily fixed and characteristic : w*
scent of inilk is also a direction to the can they be desisted from, till they
tender puppy, as the sense, of smelling become of no further use, when other
conduces to the distiufjuishing of hurt* ideas areacqviired, and tturther asso-
ful from salutary food} whidi; if of a ciations^take place, iiK>re congenial to
pleasant taste, never fails to emit an the increased strengtli and powers of
agreeable smell, and as such, cannot the animal. Perhaps this doctrioc
but attract him. A child is put with may appear clearer, if I give itiaBr.
design by the mother or niu'se to llie Hartley's own words : "By the innc-
breast ; and as the aforesaid stimuli nierabfe repetitions of motions which
\v[\l inevitably operate their proper we haVe found, we have a power to
eti'ects, therefore there is no occasion make, and therefore w'ith them at last
for the immediate interposition of a they come to obtain a su(Hcient con-
jKirticular instiiictr With respect to nection wi;h so many diminutive scB''
the knowledge acquired by. every sations, ideas, and motions^ as to fol-
woman, of putting Iier infiiut to the low tJiem in the same manner as ori-
breas't, we may easily suppose this to ginally automatic actions do the.cor-
be universal, and that mother fire was respo^idingseiisations, and consequent-
endowed with a sufiScient degree of ly, to be automatic secondarily — that
sagacity , tp have made instantaneously isr when once tliis association is tbnned,
such a discovery. I^i answer to the Xhey follow one another as readily K

Suesti on, what could induce the mo- the mere muscular power existed, as if
ler to dcp'rive herself of repose, free- fit for action whenever the will should
dom, and of divers comforts, and to direct." The Doctor goes on to say :
devote X herself to undergo a great "And in rhe^sijme manner may all
9iany painful functions^ it is sofficient the actions pE*rformed'with the hind*

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Memoirs 6/ the late Robert Orme, £i^. 4og

alt those that are fami- With Admiral Watsott, and Sir

M dsplained

ibr in life, passing from the original
Aitomatic state, throiigh thb several
degrees of \'olinitariness, till they be-
come secondarily automatic, on some
dcci^nsy though still perfectly vo-
ternary on some, viz. whenever an
express act of the will is exerted.*'
[7*0 be concluded in our neJtt.]


( Contimudjrom pag£ 365. )

* It may be further observed, that
ih all the deliberations which took
place in the cduncil of Madras, rela-
tive to the issuingout of orders con-
fiected with the military operations, in
the Carnadc^, during the space of time
that intervened between the years
1754 ttid 1759, Mr. Onaie uniformly
took a very active part 5 — and indeed,,
it is only a just debt ol* testimony due
to his memory, to add, that in some
tf the mo^t <^ritical conjunctures of
liMt ihost glorious war, his abilities
ohdtigoar of mind, both as a politi-
cian tfSd a statesman, appeared particu-
fcrly ccBNpictiott^ ; and that, in these
H^, he oitt^one almost all his
cnAtemporafies in that quarter of the
i^. Indeed, so well apprised and
«r thoroughly sensiblewwe the Court
^(JfKrectori Of the transcendant bepe-

' fflB which tile public service had de-
flted from his sound councils and sa-
IWary advice, and his general conduct
im field in such high and well-earned
estimation, that he was destined to be
th^eventuai sucicessor to the gover-
florof Madras^ and he had actually
receded an appointment for that pur-
pose. Mr. Cirme, however, did not
cootinue long enough in the Fenin-
lola, to suca^ to that Very honoUr-
«We station.

During the years 1 757 and, 1758,
Mr. Orme held tlic very responsible
and contTouling offides of commissa-
fyand accbuntant-^encral, and which,

. as a member of the coancil, he
ftoQjdit it h\^ duty to discharge ; so
thatamost the whole of his time was
neoessnrily occupied in his attention to

• rtje public business} but nevertheless,
ill his moments of leisure, he was not
^anting to cultivate the friendship and
Wciety of those in whom be discover-
^ any l^ofiitoendabld accortiplish-

. iVAb£ add metltoticmsr ({jaSt^.
Vol. IV,

George Pococke, he constantly lived
in habits of very great intimacy j dnd
with Captnin Speke, who commanded
on board the nag-ship, then on th6
Indian station, he contracted an ac-
quaintance which led on to and ter-
minated ift the closest ties of friendsliip
between them: thiscircumstanceisnot
amiss to be mentioned here, inasmuch^
as it contributed not a little, but es-
sentially tended to promote the pub-
lic service ) for by their cordial and
united exe'rtions, many difficulties
and impediments which are always
sure to arise, whenever a co-operation
of the land aiid naval forces is requi-
site on any expedition,' were eiUier
surmounted or removed. Mr. Orme
also te5tifi(*d a very high regard for
Mr. James Alexander (afterwards
Earl of Caledon), who officiated as de-
puty to Mr. Orme 5 considered* in hi^
capacity as accountant-general. About
this tlme^ he likewise became ac-
quainted with Mr. Alexander Dal-
rymple, who has since acquired cdn-
sfderable celebrity bjr the publication
of hh hydrographical Works. Mr-
Orme finding a strength of under-
standing in this gentleman that seem-
ed to point him oiit for some distin*
guished station, was eacerly desirous
of having Mr. Dally mple to succeed
Mr. Alexander as deputy-accountant -,
but although his wishes* and endea-
vours, in this particular instance, Were
fhistrated, yet he ever after continuedl
to cherish and befriend Mr. Dall^m-
ple, with a kind and generous atten-

Although the time which Mr.
Orme devoted to his official avoca-
tions, prevented him from resuming
the study of classical literature, for
which he had imbibed so strong a
penchant in his youth, artd ever alter
witnessed the greatest regard, the so-
lid foundition which he nad laid for
apjiJying himself to pursuits of this
nature, was found to afford him, in
the sequel, great facilities for ilivestl-
gating and collecting: tho>:e'hisioiical
materials whereby iiis literarv cha-
racter (whidi he was tiot unambitious
to gain) was destined hereafter to be
established. However, fron\ thedcf-
licate state of his health, he judged it
necessary, about tim time, to repair
to the mettopolis of Britain, for ^ hich
puriK)s6 hd ^albarked^ at the lattef

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Slmioirs 9f.tke late Jtobert Orme, Esq:


end of tte year 1758, on boai*d the
Compau/s ship, Grantham, captain

While on this vopge, jt was the
misfortune of the snid ship, in jioub-
ling tlie Cape of Good Hope, to be
taken by the French ; this happened
on tl>e 4th of January 1759. Captain
Oliver had hoisted Dutch colours j
and on apj)roadiing the Cape, two
French line of battle ships passed'
him I l)ut just as the Grantham was
about to enter Table Bay, some of
tlie French oflicers remark<jd to their
Connnodore, that, the vessel could
not be Dutch, as she was so well na-
vigated and manoeuvred : the French
ships, therefore, b^re down, took die
Grandiam, and carried her to the Jsle
of Mauritius j and where Mr. Orme,
as we leani from his papers, was
obliged to remain for some time after-

• It was scarceFy possible for a pei*.
son of Mr. Orme's active. and arcicut
turn of Blind to be wholly uuciuploy-
ed ; and the reader will, probably, libt
be displeased to peruse a few extracts
from the memoranda which Mr. Orme
kept,- while detained in the Island of
Mauritius: " llie Dutch, on the IQlh
September, 15()8, discovered the Jj^le
of Maurice, which they called by that
name. It was till then called by the
Portuguese, the Isle of Crrnb. In the
year I065, no Europeans were estab-
lished in the Isle of Maurice : la
1759, (July) how peopled, how im-
proved ? r saw in tne island of Mau-
ritius, two -cinnamon tsoes, procured by
M. Godehcu, from Ceylon, wbicli were
planted at the redoubt, and of which
great hopes were entertained, as tht-y
grew apace j but from the general cli-
mate of the island, and the particular
stale of the jxirt in which they are

})lanted, I aq;i persuaded diat they, or at
ejit their sucklings, will degenerate*
The mountains of Mauritius are cover-
ed with a fat soil, ihe product of the
forests with wlvich tiicy are crowded.
It rains on them almobt ^daily ^ and
when it does not,- there is a continued
nusL Ciimamon, which will not grow
, of India

in perfection on*\he continent
thai is parallel to Co^icm, will probably
fail elsewhere, unlt^as the same kind of
i!«maU»aiMl soil as that of Ceylon', can
be iuund in other parts y and neither, I

t Towai^ the end «f ti» glo^
rious 1/50, Mr. Orme arrived at ti^
Cai)e of Good Hope, and in this de-
lightful settlement and salubrious cli-
mate, he remained some weeks for
the benefit of his healtli. From ibc
Cape, he embarked lor France, iri-
fcnding to reside there tor some time,
previously to his return to England,
iftid accordingly he landed at the pon
of JSi antes, iii the spring of the year

As Mr. Orme was very well ac-
quainted with tlie French langiu^e,
and \^as, in many respects, the ac-
complished gentleman,, lie received-
from the French all those pleading
attentions, and flatterinjj cniiitits,
which at that time so Tughl)r dis-
tinguished the character of their na-
tion J.

believe, are to be met with near tW
Tropic of Capricorn."

t Fcom Mr. Orme's memoranda ift
d\e Mauritius, we shall quote the A)i-
lowing additional txissagc : ' ' The Chi-
nese had, long b«M>re us in Europe, at-
tempted the philosopher's stone and the
elixir of immi)rtaltty, and they still cob-
tinue in these dclu&ions. It Is reinark-
able that tliey think these secrets ue
(x;rmitted only to those who have '40
quired the highest degree of virtue— w
say their chemical authors. Pcrliaj*
sume of their ancient moralists w
have said, in terms at once simple and
metaphorical, that virtue gave gold and
immonality. In an age of ignorance,
succeeding, to times of which so fine 2
sentiment deiiumstrates tlie illumio
tion, some crazy chemist may hat^
thought that ^old and life were to be
acquired, piovidcd he made virtue one
of thcinaredieuis of his oj^eration. Ilic
gods of the latter Egyptians were formed
from as gross mis»]>j)rehensions.''

X Tlie following obser\'atious mcrii
Jtmhscription ; they are to be foiiiui
'among Mr. Orme's papers, diuing lii^^
stav in France :

" On the 2d of May, 1700, M. h-
lissot de Montenov, at -ptusieun AcaJt-
m'ts, gave a comedy at the Uieatn.* of
Paris, entitled Les^rhilosophes. Tbis
he afterwards printed, with a preface,
in Vvhich are several quotauons from
difllrent metapl>ysical, and niorai, or
immoral works, to prove that the au-
thors weie uiatei^iahsls, aud that they

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Mmoirsofthe late Kobert Orme, Esq. 4 1 1

tn rtic month of October, 176O, 5oon afterwards purchased a "house,

Jnr. Grnie arrived in London, and which was tlien building, in HarJey

, Street, Cavendish Square. Ab6\it'

this time it was that he began to col-
tttablishcd principles destructive .of »all ^^t his \*ery vahiable,* select, andeJe-
sDund inorJity as well as religion. It g^Dt Jibrary*, comprising the finest
IS said that particular persons, as ETA- ^^^ ^^^t ecfition*^ the Cfreek, Latin,
icmhcrt, Diderot, Du Clos, Helvefius, French, Italian, and English authors :'
Le Chevalier Jaucourt, and Rouss<rau, ^® likewise began to provide and ac-
..<Jf Geneva, all men of juost respectable ct^^nulate materials, regardless of la-
tJonditions, were desi^jncd in the cha- hour or expence, for the completion
i'acters of Palissors play, l^ese cha- ^f ^i^* '/ History of the Military
i^cters form a conspiracy to obuiin in transactions of the British Nation'
marriage, for one of tlie set, a rich *" Tndostan, fioin the Year h745,''
heires?, through the asecndaucy that ^^"t^h lie had Jong meditated, and
they have gained ovcrftic mother, v. ho ^^^" planning in his own mind. It
IS a nretender to phiIo«.ophv, to wii, shc/uld, howe\'er, be observed, that
^ learning, and is oven an author. ^^'*- Orme had begun to collect his
This alarmed ; and fhe more, as M. Le iTifJtcrials for this truly excellent work,

Franc's discourse to the academy had 1_1 ' __^

represented jnost of these gentlemen, """ * '

and at their head, Voltaire, as disturbers on Cotin. He then draws a parallel
msociety, and incapable of Ijeing useful between the clouds of Aristophanes
Kicmber-? of it, suicc they were not and the piiiloFophers of Palissot, and'
vhTisiians. There were not wanting iiiiputes the death of Socrates to tlie
able pens to defend the most learned liialicious ridicule witli which Aristo-
'mcnm France against M. Palissot; nor. phanes had presented him on the
^r k- ^"^'^^^^ wanting to the defence theatre, although the clouds were acted
of his piece. The Vision of Palissot, 23 years before Socrates drank the

wnttcn by jM. , procured the au- hemlock. He then goes on with an in-

mor the honour of going to the Ixistile. genious enumeration of the subjects of
'" *5J^rntten in the manner of a chapter the rest of Aristophanes' comedies, and
•f the Bible, with strong wit. Nothing shews, that from step to step the licen-
M ill that couUl be imputed to Palissot tiousness of his imagination found at
IS forgotten. Political devotion is ^he fast nothing so exalted, as to be out of
spectre that appears to Palissot, presscrf the reach of his desperate satire. There
by povertv, and orders him to write his runs throughout a certain air of parallel
play. The grj' «/ r^ is a string of ones- between principal characters in Paris,
.fcons concerning M. P;riissot and his and what were such at Athens in the
play, in which his morafs and abiliHes time of Socrates, which parallel is
« an author, are handled with the ut- wrought with great address."
most wrt. It was said that M. Voltaire * Mr. Orme used frequently to la-
had condemned Palissot; to confute mcnt the want of some public 'librarj^
' ^hich opinion, he publishes the letters coinposed of oriental MSS. and printed
that had jxissed on the subject between books, in this country: such a collec-
nini ami M. Voltaire. M. V^oltaire ad- tion, he was wont to remailc, woukl
vises hiin to acknowledge his errors, in Jrfford tljat information on the subject
Wing imputed (pmtaticns to persons of Indian affairs, the care and expence
^ho were not the authors of them 5 of obtaining which -was burdensome
advises him to be tender of his dear en- and oppressive in the extreme, when
cyclopcdiasts, and to eat the capon with undertaken by priv:itc individuals. The
Ihs neigfiboar, instead of flinging the establishment of such a library, he
l^eitle at his head. After this appeared added, would be a national honour, the
Discours sur la Siriyre centre les Philo- charges of which would be trivial, in
sophes — that is, on Palissofs play. I comparison with the* advantages that
beard Palissot say, that he believed M. must ultimately accrue from if. He
P'Alemben was the author of this was further wont to state, that a ship's
piece, but that whooer he was, the cargo of original and valuable MSS:
piece was well written. The author might be very sOon collected in the
-njvcighs against all personalities on the settlements between Delhi and Ca^ie
raeatre, and condemns that of Moiicre Comorin.

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412 Mmoirs qfih^ kielbteri Orm€, Esq- \ -

soon after hisarrrval ia India, in the EuvopiBan resdecs a distinct andenct *
year )742. In arranging and model- idea of the general character and ha-'
ling tliese papers into tlie form qf an bits of that people, than any of the
hmorical composition, he was dili- mere recent prodoclions that have
gently occupied upwards of two appeared on that subject, with respect
years. to the early Mahomedan conquests.

Inthemonthof Angast, 1 763, the His principal euides^i^ereD'Herbelot,
first volume of the abovementioned and other the best authorities he could
history was publiiJied j and the po- meet with, and he is, in j|eneral, to
puiar and grateful reception that it be considered as correct, in what re-
naet with, was well calculated to gra- latcs to the Ghaznian and Tartar con-
tify his honest ambition and reasonable querors j but with respect to the sob-
expectation of literary iame. This sequent establishment of the M^d1-»
volume contained a particular account dynasty, and the institutions of its
of the civil and military transactions most renowned princes, his account,
of a public nature wbidi took place it must be acknowledged, is occasioo-
in India, down to the commencement ally defective and erroneous : the aa-
of .the war between the Englisli and thor, indeed, seems to have beea
French in 1756: and we may very aware of this, as appears by the sub-
safely pronounce of it, that it com<. sequent publication of the "Historical
^unicated nrore real information re* Fragments" in the above volume,
apecting that extensive country, than Thus much we are, in justice, obli^Rd
all the books that had been published to admit ; but, notwitlistanding tin
^n tlie subject since the time of Alexan> observatiput it is agreed on all hands,
<ier the Great. The plans of the battles, that Mr. Orme's ** History of d»

highly the fidelity, impartiality,
yaluable: but the piaps especially and elegance of its details. ' The cri-
arc useful, as being actually delineated tique on this volume, which appesiei
from the respective marches of the in the Annual Register, for the year
JBritish and I^rench armies: To this 1764, is very full and exphdt, aod
volume, our author prefixed a concise may not improperly be transcribed 'a
listorical dissertation, relative to the this place;

^Ulerent conquests and establishmenU " The manners and characters of the
^f the MahoQietan princes in Indos: various people who inhabit the peA
tan, intermingled with miscellaneous empire of Indostan, the pcculiari^ of
observations on tlie character, cu&r their religion, and their policy, and ih«
4oips,. and manners, that so peculiarly astonishing events which have laceb
distinguish the Hindoo people. As happened in that part of the worM,
Mr. Orme was but imperlectly ac- have rendered the histoiy of the wan
quainted with the learned languages in India an object of eeDeial coiiosity.
of Asia, and, consequently, could not The great intiecest we W^ still itt'ttit
obtain access to some important au- em pive, always as a trading, lately <s a
ihoritiea, he wns ui^voidaoly led into conquering people, will make a propei
some niLsconceptio^is on. such a com- narrapon of our fomier proceeding
plicated subject j for .which, however, there a matter of the most useiiil in-
iin excuse v. ill he readily conceded, as struction. The author oS thw wqrk

Sieve did hot exist, at the time when has ^^ratified this curiosity, and com*
Ir. Orme wrote> any translations muuicated this informatiop. No his-
from Asiatic writers into the Euro- toricui seems to have bcaen more perfecd|
pe:m languages, connected with tliat informed of the subject on wnich h«
part of lyir. Orme*s subject, which h^s undertaken to write ; and veiy few
treats of the political historv and civil Ivave possessed more fully the talcot of
Institutions 01 Indostan. His account inn)ressing it, in the clearest and most
of the Hindoos appears to have been vivid manner, on tlic imagination and
principally derived from hb own understanding of his reader. In thii
^tual observations, and is, in jgeqeral, work the events are fully prepaied, the
ifO arciirate^ and i$ written with such characters strongly dcUneated, aniibe
persj)icuitv and simplicitjs that per- situations well describwL It is no wi-
nap;> it ]^ petter adapted to convey to common thing to find in oidinaiy vci»

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

Mtmoirs a/ the lit/tt Saheri Orm^, Etf. 413 .

H«v»ai6rt of the' eohtu&ton than of.tbe chastised humour and vrvtcity. His>
Itfs and spirit of the fight, in their de- company was^ therefore, more and
ftcriptions of an engagement. But no- more jcourted by the learned and in-
thing can be more' clear and sati^&ctory telligent ; aiid almost every day mado ^
tbaMi the whole detail of military trani- an accession to his stock of literary
actions which we find in this contest, friendships: among others, we may.
W^hether the march or the retreat, the particulaily notice the late Edwyn
attack or the defence, the encampment Lord Sandys, and the late James '
Of ike batUe,'*every thing is drawn with Harris, esq. on whose learning and-
accurafcy and precuton, in gteat detail, friendship Mr. Orme set a very h^h
but without any thing tedious. In value.

these farticttlars, Polybius will be In tl)e year 1 750, Mr. Orme had
scarcely thought to exceed him. commenced a very agreeable inter-

" It must oe observed, hkewtse, to cotirse and connexion with Mr. Ben*'
his honour, that Uiere reigns through jamin Robins*, who had recently ar-
the whole work an air of disinterested- rived at Madras, from England^ a» en-
nesa and of freedom from aH passion gineer-genend of all the company's.
aod preindicc, public «or private. The fortifications in India, and who im-
Frenchman who acts gallantly or wisely, mediately planned those of Fort St.-
finds as much justice Gone to his actions David and Madras, but he did not
and his conduct, as any of the author's live to finish them, although they
countrymen. . Tiie same impartiality' were afterwards accurately completed
seems to have been observed, with nJ- upon his extensive plan. Mr. Rubins
g^ to all personal connexions. This died witli his pen in his hand,' on the'
volume does not carry the war further 29tli of July, 1751, while in the act-

than 1755. It were to be wished that ' ; ;j^

the author may finish what he has

beann in so promising a manner.** • This gentleman was characterized

Mr. Orme having, by this long- by Mr. Orme, as " a man of great
wished-^ publication, introdu(;ea science, and an ornament to his coun-
hhnself to the world with so much trv." Mr. Robins was the real narrator

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 74 of 108)