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acoantiy, the first thing he should do, ^'s strai^e appearance, and the
-voold be to recommend to his sove- medley of^neiaes. Surprise and cor
feign to disperse a paper gratis every riositjr kept them for a longtime at
•wciek to every householder in his ex- '*^e windows, after which the mer-
tensi\;e dominions. The. merchant chaot called tliem bac)c to the apoit^
"wss entering into a long discussion ment they had left* ;md whilst tbc^
.cpon this point, shewing*, him the pursued these araufiements, he and
evident ill teudency of suen a n?ea- Abdollah with each a Ikik in his hand,
•«nre ; that the paper would cootaio ^uid a cojoducter, provkkd for tht
"nothing bHt falsehood, wvuld be con- purpose, sallied iotth to examine the
:yerted to sinister purposes, and mak- whole progress of this tumultucRisaSr
ling use of a variety of similar argu- sen^blage. They rpjoined their oan-
Bients, which . Abdollah could not in .p9f:iy in about hfuf an hour, which be-
the least ' comprehend, when his tween one and two took another view
"thoughts were on a sudden diverted of the market, in the s^so^ noanner
:intoa very different train, and from as tlifey had done before; md bavii^
.sseculations on printers and princes, now sulSiciently grati^ed their cun-
.tJioy were assailed by the roarikg of osity, left the A^can and the merr
oxen, the bleating ot sheep, and the -chant to ptirsup th^ir speculationf.
shnntinj^s of drivers. These two made frequent iallies into

The reader wiU recollect, that the the market ifrom that tinoe tillan houf
iirst adventure our African met with after day break, and were particnbi^
in thw country was, the being run ty attentive to it, whep^ the buyeiv
*<k>^'n by an ox, and laughed at hy its came on the ground, and till what
drivers, and the mob at their heels, may he called high change was bves.
Thi? outrage had made a deep im-. The %cene sufficiently occupied their
'pjret^«ion on Abdoilah's mind, and the minds, and AbdoUali was tpo atten^
r.'lations he had h^ard of similar ac- tive to facts to indulge in any philo*
ci<lents, led him to entertain a very sophical discussion on the .subject. ,
strange opinion of oux police with re- On their return from one excoD-
•spect to animals. . To give him a flill sion, about an hour q^^er day breal^
•view of this subject, the noercliant Abdollah ordered hi$ chariot, aind de-
hired apartments m Smithfield, which siredbreak&sl to be tpaiy i|i an houc^
' had. from one room a complete view and ix^ving duly considered the.plaoi
of the market, wlulst in tiiat behind himself, and cpnsulted with themer-
. tiiey could hear nothing 'that was ^o- chant, he ordoped tlie driver to get
ingonin it. On- a Sunchry evenmc^ into St. John*$-street, and to dfw^
xhey, with the merchant's family and gently up it. Thecjriverexpostulatell
one or two other persons, • who had and would have taken some otha
each lived between tliirty andjforty road: but it was to^^ no piir^(»e, aaf
yt;:3rs in London^ witlumt knowing the AfrifiU) yery calinly ob^yed^



teibaz:faaK0»t8^ and did not stoj) the fr)re9 to any miisaace of un^ortatoee^-
^sarriag^ wl it came to Spa^nelds, A. Why do you keep your tnarket
where be noted the ^ouhd about the in so smaU a place ? M. The place
KewRiver head, and also that bebind was once larg<» enough, it ykt» far*'
the building bv some called the New tnetly a field without the town. A.
Bastille^ by ottiers the House of Cor- But is the place lai^^e enough now }
.rection. He was too intent on tliis M. No. A- Would not a smaU.
CQnre3r to attend to the merchant's ob- tax, supposing a farthing on every
senraticms on this peculiar buiMing, beasts and a peimy a- score on the
though he determined hereafler to aheep, with some similar trifle more
learn farther jparticulars con'cemiog on the hogs and pigs, be sufficient t^
9 structure which had been disun- pay for a tract* ten times as large in.
guished by the disapprobation of a per- one of the fields, by which we OTove^ .
son emix>ent for his researches into and would not such a f^aoe be far
prisons, and to whom a stattie had more convenient to buyers and sel*
t)een ertcted in St. Paul's Cathedral, lers, and in general to all the inhabi-
In profound silence they then con- tants of this gfeat town ? M. They
tinuea their, ride by Bagnigge Wells, pay mgre at present for tlieir bad ac-^
andon*the llighgate road to Motlier conlmodations, and buyers and sel-
fied-cats, thence returning by the fers are all agreed^ that such a plat^
Tottenham Court Road, till tneypame would be clieaper and better for
ta the nead of the street, u^ere they them. A, You surprise me, that .
took tiie road to Islington, and com- nien should continue in so obviously
ing down the new Citv Road to Fins- stujMd a practice, when it might b(S
bury-square, returned to their Smith- so easily remedied ! M. Tlfe many
field apartments. Break&st was pre- are sometimes benefited, when a fev^
pared for them, ^ and the merchant are injured.: and a few are^tometimet
clearhr saw, that his friend*s mind benented, when the manj^ are injuf
was full. Silence was broken by the red. A. You are mysterious. IImI
fi:diowing questions and answors. A. smells like a job, which, you told me/
Is tbere any king in this country ! was the advancement of the few si
•M. Yes. A. Has he ever been pre- the expenoe of the manv. M. I
«ent at the scene, I have witnessed in don't say so. But, as we nave done
this market > (They were break&st- brtekfisst, let us take another turn
ing in the room fi-antim; it.X M. I into the market, and we will leav#
don't know. A. Was be ever in this the farther discussion of this question^
market at all ?. M. I don't know, till you have discovered, why sucli a
A. Does he know axjy tiling at all nuisafice is peimitted to ociitinue at
about this txiasket ? I don*t know. London bridge, when a new on#
A. Can you suppose it possible, that might be so easily boilt by ' so rich at
liuch a scene ot rjot and confusion city.

should take place every Monday ' Which is the greati^ fault to makd
motning, so near his house, without a false quantity in writing or in read*
his kqowingaoy thing about it ? M* ing latin Verses ?
Yes. A. Then the king does not At our great schools, gitat paina
• mind wh«itis going forward in your are taken to teach the boys to writ6
ixmntiY } 'id. I must not say so : ^atin verses, and it is a Qurious iact»
and, it you were npt a stranger, I that in learning a living h^jbguage,
•could not peritiit, you to say so. A. this art is never thought of. TTienB ia
Perhapstnensiwaio.ther persons hav©' scarcely a school for either boys or
diaiigeofthismarkdt. M. Yes. A. gifl^ih this kingdom, where French
Who are they? M. The Lord is taueht, that the greaw part of th0
Mayor and Aldermen of this great school does not acauire some litlld
city. A. Do they ever come lie/e knowledge of the lauguajge after a
to witness this strange Scene of riot years learning, and some after two*
and confiision ? M. Never, 1 date years can understand. a Frenchman^
$!ky, A. But you have a society for and even speak to him in his own
the suprireshion of vice ; dont they language. Yet these children never
take nouce of it ? M. No! They learn to- make Ftench verses r Uot it
hire people to rake into pettv oflen* you learn German or Spanish, doc$
ces, of which th6 pubti<? would scarce'^ the master ever think of teaching yaa
ly ever heoir any things d&d shut their to ilukeTttaes A tfetfie ignip^es, ^r

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4fB^ jirtstders to the Historical and Pkihmphiad ^uesHoHs: '

making vou learn to co'nstme a Oer- '
man of S{7anl8h grammar, betbre yon
ha^'e some iittle fund of words to "oc-
gin with. Now tliis contrar)' prac-
tice in teaching lanffonges is worthy'
Smore atttMnSm, than -the masters
great scliools will condesccftd to •
giw to such a subject : for there rs a
manellous distinction, it is supposed
by them, in teaching a dead or a living
language 5 a disiimtion, which they,
•U'ho have learned several dead lan-
guages, and are able to converse in
two or three living languajres beside'
their own, are apt to nold in little
Atimation.

But to our purpose : the boys at
Eton and Westraiustcrarc diseiplined
pretty sharply, before they can exor-
dse their versifying faculties with
any degree of east' or ^ctiit ; and,
when tlicy have aftainoi a tolerable
Iciiackatthe ;irt, each thinks hi inself
a Horace, and repeats to himself, and
iiotseldom to iijs play-fellows ;



Sisblimi leriam -sidem rcnioc.

He is now supposed to know tli^
quantity of «very word in the l(iu«
guage : and, if a copy of verses. uTit-
ten Dv a .modern poet, slxHiJd be put
into nis iunds> and a f^Ue quantity
|S)e detected in any line, his triumph is
complete ; no merit whatsoever in tl«j
other lines can expiato tlie horrible
ol^ence. But after all, what has the
poor lad gained by ail the pains be«-
stowed upon him ? Can he re;jd
J^tiu verses the belter} Does he un-
derstand the excellence of ancient and
4|Sodeni versification ? C4uite the
Jkmtrar)'.. These points ne^ er entered
into his thoughts. By ii^fi^ing at his
rGradixs, and readilfig tne Latin poets,
^and icnowiog'the quantity which
eadi Syllable must have iu an Hero-
.idi, a Sapphich, qr an Aleaich verse,
.He has fixed the epithet, that he shall
^givetoa syllable, and the place in
which it bliall stand in the verse, he
i$ composififf. But all this is a mere
exercise of tnc memory : and a hack-
ney coachman has just the same merit
in.learnmg. the names add situations
of the squares^ streets, and allies ef
London.

A fevoarite author, wha'^e works

cannot be studied too much by the

masters, who can feel his lieauties,

ahd who is terribly mauled every day

-by too ipaojr of a difiiuwot dispou*



tfon, understood 'this winect tfi iteA
asany man, Qiiantity bekne^ lobt
desewing of tlie strictest attention :;
but he expected, that at least the poet
should not be inferior to the faackney
coachrajin, who not only tells you die
situation of the i*reet or square, bift
proves his knoMlecfee by drying jcti
to either, lie would laave iaumd
at a poet, who should tell him j tbat a
syllaole in such a word v^as kmg, and
inuuediatcly read it as a short syflabi*
or vice versa. He would tell him
that the ear must not be offended :

Lfgitimnmque sonum dt^Us cailenaM
et tiure.

It is curious e'notigh, that a verse
repeated oftener jjerhaps tlian any
other, should exemplify the ^ubjeot
in so i>ointed a manner. * Every ooy
at Elon and Westminster, can sa]^
by heart a. few of the first lines of the
^ncad, which is l>eguu in the sanif
manner by tliem all :

Arma vinimquc ^no.

You ask them the qoantity ofihti'm
v{rum, andof the a m cano ; tbey Id
yon, it Ts short, and they amie ift
reading both tiie s}']lables Jon|^. TI&
first line of the twelfth ode ot Hoem
is in no small degree uibarmoiiioai
In tlieir mouths: ^

jQuem virion aut Heroa lyra vel aen,

and it would be made more «>, if for"
tufiately the a in l\Ta had qot beaj
long both in itseu and by fashion.
*rhe fact is, that the |XK>r boys arc ndl
to be blamed. They have not been
taught other>\ise. They know (be
'structure of verses only by their fiiK*
ers, and tlie masWs ears by lo)%
custom, are better pleased oy tte
wrong, than they would be t^ thb
rirfit pronunciation.

Ihe late Dr. Warner, who haff
travelled , much, and conversed in
Latin witli the poets of Italy, wm
struck With oor incongruity, biil he in
vain ifttcmpted to stem tne toiieot.
He was obliged to mar Ids ^uantiQr
to make his quotations intelligifale to
those, "Wtko liad been brought up at
ourgreat schools or ,the miiversife,
and Tfadbe^n Confined all their lirte
within this island. His Metmn 'Ari$*
"ton, a little work published a fe*r
yeaitt ago, at Johnsoft's in St. Paots



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Cbiitch Yard> plac^ th& subject in a look upon every assessor ac a R>gue, or
very easy aud familiar light, a;id the ta^c ofHce as devuid of honour and.

ahouid be read by aU tlie homebred hon^ty. '-

scholars : thiiy, who have travelled, ' life op

andiiave spokeo X*a(m witli natives ol" Cafitrtin SJr Frederick Thesiger,
diffbrsut couutricj^ c^nqpt but have . -^/if/ du Camp to the late inuch-la-
anticipated most of !iis remarks , yet vimted f'ice^ Admiral Lfird hscfujnt
they will be pleased witAx his ^eal for KKi^soN, on the qttack of' the Hug.
iutrodaciii^* or cuckJavouriag to intro- , of dt^fmce before Copen/iggen, by
dijoe a new ' pleasure into hi* ca\xa- . wldch lhe\NortIwrn Cotifederacyj ta
try. * . check the naval super ioriiy oj' Cheat

To write a fiilse tjuaotity is a iaidt : Britain f was cojnpietely broken.
to read a quantity talse is also a fault. eqr tijie uNivERaAi' magazine.
The former is a fault in the meoaory ; CAPTAIN Sir Frederick Thesiger,
* the latter^ if in veise, betrays a vaut Jate ageut tor prisoners of war at
of «ar, that is/ of good breecUi>g. A Poctsnaoutlij (whose <Ugth we an-',
Woy may desene a flogging, for mak- nounced in our last Number, page^,
ing a false quantit)^ iu' writing, 374) was aii officer who was fortu*
because it may originate in oarie-* nale enough to experience frequent
ks«Qj&ssj but surely a caiplessness opportunities of signalisjiig hi raselfyasi
in reading is equally culpable. A well in die service of his own country
tomprpmLse therefore sieenas highly as iu that of thc.great Catherioe, Emn
desirabVe, to which the boys at u^t press ofall the {lussiai. He was present
c;wnQt object : and this is to lay it at e^hteen difierent ^ngagem^^nt^^ in
down as a rule of the spbQol, tliat, if all of which he distiuguished hinpisell
tke maateir ilogs the boys for making by his cool intrepidity, ^dded to great
a ^Ue quantity in writing, tlie boys nautical skill ; mid was fortunate
shaii dog die master, if he nxake& enough to escape through the .whol^
we quamitles iu reading their Latiii Qf thena witliout sustaining any othev
Ferses. jnj ury tlian a few scratches and bruise^t

Qi3est»06 to be answered next occasioned by tl^e stroke of splinters*
V^Oliih : ♦ His lirst eqtranee. into a maritime

What are the chief oecartcnces bc-i life, was in the service of the Jionora-
Ipr^n the battle of Marathon and the bie East India Company 5 but after
l»tik of Tlierqiopyl^ ? oaaking tvwx-or three voyages, finding

To what reflections do they give lise ? bis genius iil adapted to commerce^
. What are the chiof epochs between and encouraged by the. hope of dis*'
dieactfoi septennial parliaments and pLiying his genius and gallantry, Eng«i ,
the American war ? land being tl^ii at war with France, ii>

■ To \\^\M xeftectiqns do they giv6 consequence of the assFstance atibrded
ijsc? ' . ■ ^ by her to the American States, he pre-

Oocs Lonilon afford a heater number ferred the more active employment of
of proofs itt favour of oiv'disatiou or the an officer iatbe royal navy, andaccord«»
wiintofit? ingly entered into tlije; senice pf hi*

What axe the proper means of redress, country under thiitgallaptofl&cer Sir Sji*
vHena person hasheen surcharged hy muelltJariihall. Under that gentleman
w«sse^s<tf of the taxes, aiid the ex- he scr\'ed during a period of some years,
Uttoe ofgoingtothe meeting for re- and was always chsfmeuijshed as one
i>e$s is greater th^on the surcljarge I oi his most active midilMpmen, Inso-
T^i fetter question ^ve propose, as much that he was most particularly

rat present of very gieat ijnportance ; noticed when on board ; and wh^ei^
the trouble and expcncc, to whicli on shore always found a warin
J vtry large body of the community reception at his hous^? — a firiendshipf
m teen piu by assesAors^ is enprmans ; and attachment which ceased not but
wt we wish .ibe question to be discuss- with the Ufe of liis protector and pa-
JO ^isMssionately, and we hope there- tron. When Sir George, aftenvard^
fpre Ufiit the proposer of this (question Lord Rodney, took npoii hin^self, fa^
wiU not lake u ainiss^ that we have the last time, die command of tho fleet
•Jttted his vords, and decline the in- in the West Indies, Mr- Thesigef
<^ftiQao£hisaiguments« We do not hms appouited actiog lieutenant ^

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^M



Li^ qf^i^Jait Mr Avrf^ Thmge^^.



atthe-



boaid the FQn&i<Mble, add on tbe in«ivfln€e/aribfM4«IfiMra«ee
laemorabte lath of April was re(50in- tra\'«iling e&pe^ofis, rcquestine atti
imended by Sir Charles Dougiaa to same ticne^ that lie woukl tak^ tib»:
that admiral, as beiB^ a most correct most expeditious mc^jtboa ot p^anng
repeater of signals. He was in coa- to Cron^tadtj wiie» a fleet was p««-
veoueace appointed his aid-du-camp, parine for stej in oider to attack ih^
ana after being stationed near hi$ per- Bwem.
ion during the whole of the aetion, (C<^y)

"Vras one S tlie first olBcen sent to Lovdon, 30th Jp^il, 1 7^-

take po«9es$ion of the Ville de Paris, Your ExceUeocy wiii ptfldbo xaP
wlien she £adstruck to the British flag, for troubling you j but as it is at the-
Fortunately for him, a brother officer request of a very gaU»)t ofiicer, cap-
preferredreturnmg to England to con- tain Thesiger, who has^ remarkably
tinuiiig on the West India station ; he done his duty to \m king and codia*'
^ervfore solicited and obtained per- try, and was one of my aids-dii-caiups
jntssiontoexchaogeMcithhim, incon- on the memorabks day of the i2ui'
Sequence of which he was rescued- Apnl> 178'^ and is now aoxkiQs to
from the nrielancho]y ^tethat bafel &o otter his services to her Imperial Ma*
many lH»ve persons who perished on jesty of all the Russia?. I -beg leave
board theVille dc P^ris, herseJf and to reconunend him to your fxoel-
tfae other prizes^ on the melancholy lency's protection, and to assure your
eipentof their foundtnng, whenos that I look' upon, him in theligtitof
their passage to fiurm^e, from the an excellent and gallant officer > sod'
West Indies. Mr. Thesiger went I am convinced tSat he will do hiMiur-
with his friend Sir Charles Douglas to any conunaud that, may be can-
to Amerkra^ on which statipn he Vi^s ferred upon him. I beg leave to as-
invented with the chief command, aad« sure your Excellency, that I have th«.
ftfter remaining some time th^, re* honor to be, with the highest-respect^

iirned to England. Great Britain, your Excellency's most obedieot and
owever, being at peace with all the niost humble servant,
world at that perioa, anotlier field of (S'igtied) hqdi|%t.

honor apd glory opened" to his view. He was fprtunate enough to arrive
^d presented a &ir prospect of ob- at'Cronstadt wh^ theileetwas«pon
taismg renq^Kcn. The war between thepoiiit of sailing, and having joined
^eHussiahs and Swedes was then at the ship that he hod been appointei-
itfl height, and each power was.anxious fo, ana waa ready for him, proceeded
to obtain naval celebrity. They en- to sea in search of tlie Swe^h Moa-
couraged therefore to thei^: respective drion. Duiing. the cmi»e the Hns«
l^tandards, ofRpers w|io had distin- siaus yere fortunate enough to come
guished themselves in tlie British na- up >^'i|h their enemy, and a despe-
vy, and held out, throufi;h 'theif , ano- pte e^igagen^ent ensued, in which
bassador?,ihducementsfortheu)tojqin tlie ffoef of Catherine pio^'ed trium-
the adverse fleet. This exchange qf phant> for t|ie Swedisn adoktralQn
iemporanr service being perTOi|t(M poard the Gustavus struck Kscdouw
by tiie British admiralty, our gallant to captain Thesiger. Ilie command of
fountryinai) Sir Sidney Smith entered the- prize was afterwards conferred'
into the service of Sweden, when, at uponr hira, and when the fleet return?
the same period, tlie subject of this ed in to^pprt'tq relit, the Eqi^pness of
•hortinempir' entered into that of Russia complimented those officerr
Bussia; and in tlic om)Ouent fleets who liad inost distmguished them-
jwchbfth^mhadppportunities'ofdis- selves,, by bestowing on theoa titles,'
P|ayin^their native valour a«d skill, ord^, /&a Osx captain T. she coo^-
Mr. lliesiger was most strougly re- jferred the ordw' ormerit, the ensign
a>nimendea, by his firm friend'^ tiord of whk:h is a gold sword with RussiaR
Jlodncy, to the Russian embassador i charapters engraved upon it, descrip*
whofrom the manner in which' he was five w galli|ntr>\ In the foUowiw-
mentioned in the annexed copy of the year ^lehostile fleets again naet, M^




jpixiya] in Russia, and directly paid hi^ P^ ?f ^a fapg skeUdc.b^ween thft

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lAft of tie hie &r Frederick Thesiger: .43 j^ .

bod oflfotiifinIA and the main had; cm, zmd to wear thcrii in l!ie latvfut >
^ Ctttrancts to which diannel was manner. We aru.l^esidcs persuaded,
tfcndcd by shoals and tbrmidable that you having received tiiis eucou- '
atlenes. As the Rusrsians couM not rasfement, wilf still persevere in flie
9II0W tfacm, the outlet was ordered continuance of your zeal to dc:>er\'e
> be defended hy six ships of the our hnperial ta\ our. ^
nc'five of which were commanded (Signed) c\tsbrise^ •

ur Epglishxnen. After beins^ block- Git^en under our hand at-
acd for .some days in that situation, SarskoZe/lo,<ifitkeSth
ad fearing the .want of provisions, or ^ day ofJuli^, O. S. 1 79O
bat the Ru5Mians might send in fire- Pifcr Zavodtmsky,
)m|>s and endeavour to destroy them. It is a curious coincidence, that our
hey detennined to make a bold push other gall^Tnt countryman Sir ^idn^
KKi attempt to tbrce a passage rHrough Smith, who wu^ then in the ser\nce
:he opposing 5^uadron; watching of the King of Sweden, was at tlie ^
iieretore - a favourable opportunity same time rewarded by that monarch
K'hen the remainder of tlie Russians with one of his orcV.Ts of knighthood,. ^
prere ftir. to leeward, they got under in glorious reward tor his verjr .skiJfuI
weigh, and m endeavouring to pass manoeuvre in retreating with tlic
Ibe hlockadinfir squadron -a dreadful galley liect, hj which he prevented
conflict ensued. Jn the coiwse of it his Klajesrv biing taken prisoner.
KNneofthe Swedes were captured, ' When (he Russian fleet was sent,
and many driven upon the rocks, to Great Britain, for the purpose of ,
where they were wrecked, while the co-opei-ating with tlie British fleets
ronanider escaped to one of their under Admiral Lord Duncan, Sir F.
nearest ports, but in so shattered a T. was one of tbe'captain.s selected
eoodition that a peace was the result" for that service, and remained iu tJiis'.
6f this splendid victory . llie Russians countr}' till die return of the fleet to
•ufiered very considerably, as may be Russia ; but upon the death c^ tlio
supposed, and after the action, one of (;reat Catherine, the senice became
their ships of the line sunk. The car- irksonae and disa^eeable to him»
M^re was dreadtiil on both sides, and owing* to tlie capricious and puerile .
out of tlie five Knglish cfiptains tliat oniers given, aud ths regulations in-
commanded in the action, captain T. troduced 4nto the navy by Paid. He
was the only one d)at survived. On therefore, througii the medium of his
accomit bf' his services, valour, and friends in England, commenced a ne-
tkill displayed nntliat memorable day, gnciation witU the tirst lord of the ad-
the great Catherine conferred upon miralty, to return into the iiimxediate \
him the order of St. George, accom- service of his country, upon a pronu!«
paoied hy a letter iii her own hand of being oromoted by d^re^^ to a si-
writing, of which the following is a milar rank to that which he held under
copyv the Emperor Paul. He accordingly

' Translation C^opy) sent in nis resignation to the Uu.^>jan

To the Captain of our Fleet rthesiger) admiralty, and solicited for a Jwssport
Your zealous senice, ability, and to return to Euijland ; but Paul bv itig
valour, display^ during the action of Anxious to retain hiiu in his service;
the 22d June, against the fleet of the made evdry eflcirt to' induce His con-
line and the gal leys of Sweden, where tinuance in Russia, promising imme-
yon bravely opposed the encmj^, ad- diately to make him an admiral, to-
nncins in superior force> and aniraat- gether with other brilliant olfers. But
ing ai^ enoouraging j^our subordi- all these promises were of no avail,
Ttttes by your own meritorious exam* » lie wished to have an opportunity
pie, contributed to the brilliancy of ofdistinguishing himself in the .service
thevKtory obtained over the ^eray, of his own country, and therefore rc-
wbich readers vou worthy of beariiig ^mained firm in his determination to



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