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oar military oroer of St. Gebrg© the return to Great Britain— a resolution
Mirtyr and oonquefor, accoraing to which so irritated the autocrat, that
itsstatmps. We therefore most gra- lie detained him at St. Pctersbtirj^b,
ciw^ly bestow upon you the order of out of employment and pay upwards
tbe foiDth class, and sending faefewith of tweJve montlis. before he ^Hjvniirted
xfi ^gmsj; aathotJse^you to put them bivx to receive hb passport. 1 hig he

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430 Life of the ItUe Sir Frederick Theiigar. *

hnd no sooner obtained, than lie joy- mender : and seeing how necesssff it
liiily quitte'd a scv\ice he loathed ior was to reach the shore ^ith as littte
dne that his Iieart panted after. He deJay as possible, in preferecce -to
K'ft tlie Russian dominions without going a cn-cuitous rout, tliat wxmld
hiring received any of his prize-mo- have taken up the best part of an
nev, or the pcciuiiary rewards attach- hour, and in pursuing whicn he wonM
etl'to his services, and came au ay with have been out cjf the ' Hne of the \h^
"nacrely the orders, the only obiJnsiUe nish fire, he dashed directly fi>nvard,
proofs that he had merited, and ob- and encouraged his men to' perse^-ere
tained such marks of fevor from the through the cloud of smoke and the
Empress Catherine. heavy lire which prevailed, (the fia^

He tbrtunately arrii'ed in this coun- of trace not being seen or* respected i
try at a moment when he could be of and landed witlioTit injury to himseit,
lenice to it, for it was just at the time or any of his boat'« crew, safe at Co-
wheu tlie N ortliern Confederacy be^an penhagen . The crown prince imme^
to be formed ; and Ear} Spencer, then diately acquiescing to the terms jpro*
at the head of the adrairaltjr, frequent- posed, sent olf directly with Sir F. T.
\y held conferences with him, for the a flag In return, and instantly dispatch-
puipose of gaining every information ed orders ftjr tiie tiring to cease in
an to the strengtli of the'Russian navy, e\ery direction. As many of the hit-
liie navigation (jf the Bidtic, and other teries, however, v/ere at a considemble
matters which his penetration had distance from the capital, Captiiin T.
pointed out to his observation during had got half way back to the Bridsh
his residence in the nortlicrn ports, fleet, ere the orders could be tjw-
ITpon its being finally detenriir»ed by foughlv attcmletl to ; and before he
this country to attack and to endea- joined n'ls ship, the two itatg ships iiad
vour to break the chain of the north- gix)unded, circumstances which evince
cm league, formed for the attempt of the merit he possessed in bra\ing all
subverting the naval superiority, ma- danger to . reach th^ shore in die
hne preponderance, and commercial quickest oossible manner : for had b«
greatness of Britain, Lord Spencer, proceedeu by the circuitous and safe
witii that promptitude and discern- way, the situation of the British ships
incnt which ever marked his naval miglit have been perceived* ere he ba4
«dministrat'K)n, fixed u|K)n Sir F. T. landed with tlie nag of truce, and tbo
as a proper person to act in a conspi- consequences n^ight have been incal-
cuous situation on board the fleet aiLible. Sir F. T. therefdre desorvcs
which was preparing to cflect tliis his meed of praise and gratitude from
^reat national purpose. He, there- his country, for having so fully per,
tore, iramediatclv sent for him from fomied his duty on that nev-w-to-be
pa board tlie ExccUeni , where he was forgotten day, and for ^ npbly s^
JBcting merely as lieutenant, and after <?onding the views of the hero tart at^
pnnnoting liim to the rank of com- cliieved tlie great victory. - — ^.And
' inander, in the most flattering manner may not one leaf, froin ttie latirdled
introduced him, as such, to Admiral wreath that adorned the brows oif tjie
Sir Hyde Parker, and to Lord Nel- great chief, be spared to mix with die
son. cypress o*er tlie tomb of his valiant

To the gallant and ever-to*be la- aid-de-camp ! ! !
racntcd lord, ju*t mentioned, he acted As soon ^ circumstances p^rmittod*
as r.id-dc-camp, on the memorable at- after the truce took place, the British
tack o!i the line of defence before Co- fleet proceeded up the Baltic; Urt be*
penhagen, and was the officer who fore it reached Rovel, the death of tlie
volunteered, during the tremendous Emperor Paul caused a ncgocialioo to
fire from the crown battery, tq pro- fee ^teredjnto, which was fblbwed
ceed with the flag of truce to the by a pacification. When the English
Prince Royal of Denmark, a ineasuTe fleet approaghed Revel^ ^qd WP»
which produced a cessation of firing, were not p'dots sufficuent to carry th«
(!nd lecf to a truce. In this act, the stnp$ in with, safetj, owiog to the
undaunted bravery and foresight of flags or naarks pointing out the ehan-
Captain T. shone most conspicuously ; nel being all rempv^, CaptaiQ T.
for entering fully into the feelings vr^% requested, from his tntimacy
and plan:> ot his noble chi£l and com* with the JtavigatioB^ to take duuga

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Jke Life and Pontijitdte nf Leo the Tenth\ 43 ^

d Au'nilra! Graves' ship, wbtch re- wliidi office he filled with aH that ur -

tmest lie complied widi, and Jed the l)nnity and philanthropy which ever

division till the squadron anehorcd iii marked his conduct, and rendered the

silfety. Inimedi:»tdy afterward^ in chains of cnptivity as liitle galling ns

consequence of his understanding tJie the nature of the circuiustance->*wouli

kngua^ of the country, the hero of nossibly admit. I'o some of Madamo"

the wife, of Copenhagen, andof Tra- iJonaparte's very near relations, wba

falgar sent lum on ^ore to negociate were captured on their wa}' from

for the supply of fresh provisions for Martinique to the court of tlicir an-

the daily consumption of the British tile relative, he had the opportunity

fleet. And as every thing must be of shewing gieat civility and k^ndf-

ioteresting that so partiailarly relates ness j and ttey appeared so graceful

to the memory of our hiably admired for his attentions , as well as iriendJj

and lamented departed hero, we are solicitude for their comfort, that upon

enabled to subjoin a.fac simile of the being permitted lo proceed to France,

memoranda, in his hand writing, they waited upon him (though con-

fbr Captain T. on his going'on sliore fined to his bed by illness) to take

fer that- "purpose. fSee Plate an- their leave, and to know what it was

nexed.J possible tor them to do, to evince

When that negociation was nearly their gratitude for his great attentions,

concluded^ which produced a restora- in ameliorating the shackles of de-

tian of neace with the northern pow- tention. He merely requt'sted they

CR^LordNelson returned to England, would deliver a letter to his friend,

and a short time afterwards. Captain, the Rev. Mr. Bentinck, a traveller,

T. beine sent home with Adnairal Sir detained by Bonaparte in France, and

GharlesFole'sdispatches,was most flat- intercede with him, that he might

teinriy received by Earl St. Vincenf *iie }^ermitted to return to his nauve

itad the admiralt}' board. He was, in country 5 but with true French foi-

a short time afterwards, promoted to getfolness of favours received, the

Ae rank of post captain in the British letter >vas never delivered, and his

navy, a rank to which he Ixid «l\^*ays poor friend died hi confinernent, con-

fomly aspired. And having now trary to the usages of all civili.sed nst-

iwciied a similar rank to that which tions.

be held in the Russian navy, he ob- Sir F. T. filled the office of ag^ent

tained bis Majesty's ^acious permis- for prisoners of war at Portbmouth,

wn to assume tlie dtie, and wear the till tiie time of his death, which iiap-

order of St. George, which tlie Em- peued on the 2dth of August, 1805,

^8S of all the Russias iiad conferred on which oa-asion his country lost a

Tipon hinv, for his meritorious conduct truly brave and meritorious cjfficer.— .

wfafie in l^r service. His friends and familv* sustained au

Oa the commencement of the pre- irreparable loss, and the poQi- in his

sent war, he \vas,'tlirough the interest neighbourhood (to whom he was aJ-

•fhSs particular friend. Sir Thomas ways a kind and -benevolent patron)

T^ouhridge, then one of the lords of an indulgent contiibutor to tlieir

Ifce admiralty, appointed British agent wants and comforts. ,
fer ^TKoneri ot wai* at Portsmouth,

ORIGINAL CRITICISM for NOVEMBER, 180j!

, ** Nulli oegabimus, nulli differemus justittam.**

express it, Memoires poiir servls)— ^
these works are of die highest im-
portance.

Mr. R. commences with the birth
of Gioi^anni dc Medici, afterwards su-
preme pontiff, by the name of Leo X.
He was born at Florence, on tlie l itU
day of December 1475, and was the
Mcond sou of Lorenzo de Medici



AiT. X. The Life and Pontificate of
J»eo the Tenth, by Wm. Roseoe, in
iv6b.4to. Cadeli & Davis, 1805.

* C o p t ifto edfireBi page 344.
THE propriety of this union for
hirtory with biography, we know .to
fee 'doubted by many, but it cannot'
be dented, ds auxiliary contributions
to geaerd history (or as tk9 Fr«nch



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43a The Life and Ptmt^ate ifleo ilk Thtik.

cAlled the Magnificenti by his wife tber thfli any particular one« ioftited
Clarice, , the daughter of Giacopo him to adopt the appellation.* At
Orsttio. tlje pehodof the birth of Giovanni* al-

Mr. It obscncs, " that at the time though the pontifical chair wai filkd
of ihc birth of Giovanni, the ace of por- by the turbuJent Sixtus IV. yet Italy,
tcnu was not yet p.ist ; and it lias been unlike the rest of £urope, at that pe-
recorded, with all the gravity of history^ rlod enjoyed pe^ and tranq«illity.
thai prior to that event, nis mother Mr. R. after giving a rapid sketch of
dreamt, tlut she was delivered of an the dltierent prinoes who reigoed at
enormou?, but docile lion ; %vhich was this period, on^ soine judicious aad
supposed to be a certain prognostic, not well written observation:* ou the .na-
01) !y of thiifcmire eminence of her son, ture of the pontilical gpvermuent^
but'aiso of the name which lie was to which our iinuta will not permit ug to
as3unie» on arrivinsc at the papal digni- extract.

ty. Whether the dream g^\*e rise to '* That it was the intention of Lono-
tue appellation, or the appellation to the zo, from the birth of his son to ndst
clreanu mav admit of doubt -, but al- hini eventually to the bi^ digni^
though notlAine appears in his infancy, Which he afterwards acquii«d». cannot
ti^ jtistify his being compared to a lion, be doubted ; and the authority which
in iiis early docility, he seems, at least, he possessed in the afiaiiy of Italv, en-
to ha\*e realised tfie supposed prognos- abled him to etigage in this unjortdc*
tics of his mother.** ilig with the fairest prospect of btieoess.**

In (tsubsequent part of this work« This probability, would of itsdf, be
Mr. R. adds on this su})ject : a sufficient iiea&on for their destina-

'< That in assuming the name of tion of Giovanni, without those which
Leo X. it has been supposed by Mroe Mr. R. haj» ekewhere oHered. Gk>-
thai he meant to allud^ to tlie insignia vanui was accordingly, at the scXm^
of his naiive place, and hy otlicrs, that tatiou of hb &ther, in 1483, {beiof
he intended to verify tlic dreams of his then only ae%'en years okl) appokitej
mother ; but as he was not remarkable by Louis XI. abbot oi/ltMe^iMcc^whidl
for a supcr!>ttti(ius cdhcrcticc to tlie ex-> was speedily followed by the inveslFe
piring follies of the age, we may rather ture of the rich monastery of Pagfu-*
assent to those writi rs, who 8up|)ose nato, by Sixtus IV. who seemed eb*
that he in tended tq allude t o the courage ^irous, Mr. R . observes, of oblitetutii^
and magnanimity with uhich he was towards the dose of his days,. t]|e re-
resoivircl to execute the high oftice to nicmbrance of his former faostUity to
which he had been called. It may also the house of Medici, llie death of
lic observeil, that it hud been the custom this DontifFin I4t»4, and the elevati^ai
of many ofliis pxedccessors to adopt ap- of Giaaibattlsta Cibo, who asstiom
pdiatlons of a warlike nature ; ana after the appellation o£ IxaiocesA Vfll.
' an Ale^omder and a Julius, the name oucnedfto Giovaoni, a)ore important
ofLeo, alreadysanctioocdby alongsuc- advancement, which was fitrther in^
cession of poritifTs, if not dreaded bv hit cre.ised, by the union of t3ie pap<!^*«
<;nen)ic8, might at least seem formidable eklest son, Francesco Cibo, in l-4$7.'
to his subjects j but it is \xi more |)rp- to Madalena, one of the daughters of
bablc that heiA-as induced to this choice, Lorenzo. Eaiiy in 1486, the pofie«it
by the Qonsidcration, that all his prede- api^ears, had resolved on a promotion
Cessors of the same n.iuie had been emi- ot cardinals,' and had commiinicated >
jiently distin^ished by their virtues, his intention to Lorenzo, who eadea*
their talents, or /^//r^ofif^r/utfe, and he voured to hasten a measure, fpooi
therefore thought it not unadviseable to which he hoped to procipia ihe a4>
revive a name, which ahhor.t^h so coic' mission of his son in the sacred coI«
brated, had not occurred in tlie annals of lege^ though ht this period only 13 ]
the church forniore than fourcenturics." ^

On this reasoning, which is certain- '

• ly very plausible, we shall only ob- • The custom of chandng the nama
Per\e, that it is more probable tiie of the Roman Poutifls is, sud to hare
tiuiou 01 the above circiunsttjaces w- arisen with Scrgus 11. /^ 0. 644.

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the life and Poijfificatfi ofUo tk^ Thith 4d3.

To attain^ tills object, he «sed the coJlecuo|i« of pictures, sculptures, roe-.

niQst strenuous exertions and solici- dais und other specimens of ancient

tations, not to say serrlli^. At last, and modem art, acquired by the wealth

his desires vrere crownea with sue- and long continued attention of his an-

oess, and his son, elevated id the dig- cestors, he first imhibed that relish for,

nity of a cardinal, under the titiecf S. productions of this nature, and thali'

Maria in £>ommica; his nomination was oi^criminating judgment of their merits^

however conditional— that he should which rendered hiiia in his future lifc>

not assume the insignia of his rank, no less the arbiter of the public taste ii*.

orbfe received as a member of the works of art, than he was of the public,

coU^^e for three years, to wluch the creed in niatters of religion/'

pontiff added his wishes, that during Some account then follows of Ber-

tliis probationary interval, he should nardo Dovizo, better known by liie

pursue the studies of theology and name of Bernardo da Bibbiena, who

ecclesiastical junsprudence, at tlie was the priocipal" director of the riper

academy at Pisa, This restriction studies of Giovanni. On (lie defects

vas considered by Lftrenzo, as very in the character of the young cardi*

uniayourable to his views, and he ac- nal, Mr. R. thui speaks ;

cordii^Iy (but Vithout success) used '' But whilst it may be presumed,

every endeavour to remove it. that the subsequent honours and suc«

'' I tmast however be acknowledged,** cess of Giovanni de Medici are to be

- (says Mr. R.) " that if Lorenzo de Me- attributed in a great degree to his early

dici, was indefatigable in obtaining for education, and to advantages which he

his son, the honours and emoluments possessed under his pater^ial roof, it

of ecclesiastical preferment, he displayed nnust be allowed, that those defects in

an equal d^pnee of assiduity, in render- l^is ecclesiastical character, which were

inghim worthy of them. The early afterwards so apparent, were probably

(lociltty and seriousness of Giovanni, derived from the same source. Hie as^

the proficiency he had made in his stu- sociates of ItiOrenzo de Medici wenQ

diet, and the disttnetions with which much betteracquaintcd with the writinet

he had been honoured, intided him to of the poet^, and the dbctrines of the

nmk, as an assopiate, in those meetings ancient philosophers, than with the

of men of genius and learning, which doa;mas of the Christian fuilh. Of the

tontinuallv took place in.the palace- of followers of Plato, Lorenzo was at this

the Medici. Among the professors of t»pe considered as the chief. He liad

the Platonic philosophy, the chief place himself arranged and methodized a

was hfeld by Marsilio Ficino : the au- system, of theology, which inculcates

thority of Aristotle was supported by opinionsvery different from those of the

his countryman and warm admirer, Romish church, and, in a forcible man^

Joannes Ajgyropylus. In classical and ner, points out the object of supremo

polite literature, Politiano had revived jwloration as oiie and indivisible. Hence

the age of Augustus ; whilst .Giovanni h is not unlikelv, tliat the young cardi-

Pkjo, of Mirandula, united in himself nal was induced to regard, with less rc-

the ^'arious kinds of knowledge which verence, those doctrinal points of thif

were allotted to others only, in distinct established creed, the belief of which

portions. Conversant, as Giovanni de Is considered as indispensable to the

Medici, was with these men, and re- clerical character : and hence he might

siding und^T the eye of his father, to have acquired such ideas of fhe supreme

whom every production of Icterature and being, and of the duties ofv^his intelli-

lifaTtwastobniitted, as to an intuUiWc gent creatures, as in counteracting tJie

judge, it was impossible that the- seads ^jpirit of bigotry, rendered him liable t0

of knowledge and of taste, if indeed they -the imputation ofindifterence in matters

existed, should not be early developed of religion. A ri^id economy in his

in his miiui. Hence it is probable tnat household was certainly not one of the

the business of education was to him, as first qualifications ot.Loreiizo, and the

Indeed it ought to be to every young per- example, of the father might pcrhaj^^

•on, the highest amusement and grati- counteract his precepts in the estima-

^don ^ and that he never experienced tion of the son ; whose liberality in fu-

thosc restraints and severities, which turcUfe, too often carried to profusion,

creste a disgust to learning, instead of reduced him to the necessity of adopt*

ptomdiog. it* Amidst m^ eaOensive ing.those measures for the supplying Iiis

Vol. IV. ' 3K



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m T%€ Life dnd Pontificate of Leo ihe Ten$h.

exigencies, tihichgave rise tb conse- cutton9 of Eaul fl. many XffT^chfS

aiienices of the otpost importonee to scholars having been consigned tarb«
iieChriKtian world. From the s|>len- dongeoh or the rack ! Amoi^ those
did esjhibitions which were frequently who-ha^ survived his barbarity was
dispUved in tht city of Florence, he Poinponivs L^b^ Mrho was indebted
probably derived that reliah fo» similar for a coromodions and! handsome rest-
entertainiuentfi which he iis supposedito dence in Rome/ to the teatamemacy
have carried, during his pontificate, to kindniBsg of Bartolomnieo Platina,
an indecorous, if not to a eulpable ex^ who^llad been persecuted £gc his at-
cess ; whilbt tlie freedom and indecency tachnient to theopinions of Phito.
of the songs with which the" spectacles* Some account follows of fl/ip/wBffon-
Af Florence were accotuiwni^d, of many accorsiofCallhnacfms'Experlerts, Paoio
6f which Lorenzo was^ himself the au- Cortese, and of Seralina d' Aqui^a ;

. thor, cowld 5oa5ceW hme failed to banish' after whkhMr. R. enters on the state
at inurvals, thac^ gr'aTity of carriage of literature in other parts of ItaW.
which the yownt; cardinaV was directed At Naples, an academy, ociginauy
tosu)>))ort, and to sow those seeds 6f established in the reign« of Alfonso/.
dissipation whiclr afu^rwards-mct with »:^was now distinguished ior its iliustn-
more suitable climate in the fervid at- <»u& scholars, at the head of whomr
Bios|>here of Rome/' ' stood the celebrated FantanO> whote

During rfie early years of Gxwan- Versatility of talents> and the extent
ni, he fbund in h^s cousin Giulio, ^na- of whose scientific acquirements^ aie
tural sono^'Ghiliano de Medici, who particularly evinced by his works ii^
had be«n a;«asinated 4a the horrid prose; inwhidi ke appears saooe»^
conspiracy of the Vafizi) a constant sively aa-a gramraai'ian, » politician^
t^ompatuon andlellow st^identy wlio an historian, a satirist/ a nataral and a
ever after became his chief attendant moral philosopher,
imdadvfser. He succeeded Leo, kv , '* Ottliesauiicai^ talents of Pontanor
Ihe pontificate, under tlie name of if we take his. Amuts as a specimen » do
• Clement VII . The day at length ar- very favourable optnion can be calcr-
rived, when Giovanni de Medici re- tained.. Hia poetry is however entitled
mved the insignia of his rank and to great a^pibbaition, and- will always
was admitted among the princes of laivk him, if not. the first, in the ray

• the Christian church ; ttiis took place first rank of modern latin poeu. Uo-
onthepth of March, \4g2. Some der his coatroud that language di^pla^T
account of tl)e ceremonies on the (x:- an ease» a facility, a grace to whi<^ it
cnsion are gi^en, es})ecially on his had been for upwards of a^ihousand
lentry into inoin^' . vears a stranger ; and in the series of

*<'In the performance of thtsie ceTe« latin writers, bis works maybe pJaced
'momes/Vsays Mr R. ** We are assured near to those of the Augustan age,
byon^ pfhtft cOun^'iiien, thai he sur- >vhich they will not disgrace by tKeir
passed the expec^tions of the specta* proximi^. I1iey display a gceas. vari-
tors; aftd t^i^i in hi« person and siatu«, ety of of'^elegiac,1yric una epiErammatic
lio less.thm):43y tiW deconmi of his be- productions; but Jhis Uendecasjtljabi
haviour, aiwi tine propri«ty of his Ian- are ppefeired to the resttiif his wntio^.
giiage,lic di^playttithcrgpLvity of a man. An eminent critjp has not Indeed htsi-
•and supjKinted iltc digniiy of a pr^tc. .tated to gi\e Pomanb the preference, ja
It should 'be n^tkitoiA that at tMs pointy of el^ance, to i^ektiano himsdli ;
time he was (Hfty wVenieen years old." nor wUf a. candid jodice be inclined te
A. well written accouiu of the.opposethis opinion, as. iiu as lelates is
'QSember^ of the a^crvd college con- mtfi and ifaiencv of stvle ; tbaa of Pon-
cludea the £rst chapter, wiucJ) ac- tano being unitbmdy graceful and u&-
*opunt» ii'eur Jinula wouldponult us, laboured^ whilst ii\' that.of .Politiaiio,
-we would with pl^:>ar€ extract. an attempi.may at tkues b& perceived to

, ■ . 'He whole pi the scfcoud chapter is ibrce the genius of tliat langvpge, to the

: devoted to tlic 8*Hte of literature in expression Qf his. own idoas. «^ ifaa

'lUii^y in 1492, conuneticiug with t*be. -enquiry wofe to be. in^titM^ into the

citv, asRi^ewas then emphatically re.M)>ectiy^ menu., of these .great laea,

called. It wastiotPt this period very this cii^u^suuce aJionc woj^ild not be

ni^ringuihhed for its learned men, sufhcient to ^k^^id^ die question* ^ IVft

•o\vii>it in part, to Abe bigoited pcrsc- subjects oa whi^h J*ootano l^is \patd

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Th^ Life mid Pontjfiocde of Leo the Tenth. 4Z5

Afc 'monly of aji^iienil.fitture ^-jamato- foratMl' Leonelio. The succesdon to
7T Tcraesy convivial invitations»'ur elegiac the sceptre of Fenran|, says , Mr. R.
-effusions. Even in his (Iranta, a poem *' Exmbits a striking instance of the
on the stars, and his HoHui' Heiperidunf, disregard which vvjs then paid to the
jor poem on the cnltivatitoi of the Ibws gcneraliv established oh that sob-
orangc» he seldom treads at any great ject, and of the great attention bestowed
4)iitance from the track of the ancients, on personal merit, fiy Ercole, the
-His sentiments are, therefore, rather ac- iiniTersit}' of Fcrtara was maintained in
conimocUted to tire language than the high respectability ; the library of his
Jann^age' to his sentiments. But with family .was incrc^ed ^ a 8ujx:rb theatre
Potitlano, the case is .reversed z with was erected for the representation of
a more vigorous mind, and a wider dramajttc perfomiances, ;hi which the
itange of tb#ught, he disdained to he ii* iirst piece acted was tlw Menesechmot
niitcd to [)re:icriptive modes of expres- of PlAntif^, which is said to liave been
sion, and in embodying his ideas, relied translated into ItaFian jfor that * purpose*



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