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ttciety may fairly put in an equal it, in a most elegant manner. I
tkim to. tnean a laudable ambition, a true and

Good breeding and uncomipfed sincere desire to excel in every de-
good sense and reason should, nay scription of such respectful devoirs
nrast and will, ever join. Neither as otliers have a tacit right to demand
of these truly excellent qualities or of us 3 and all this to be decorated
principles (for such 1 beg lea^^ to and enhanced, ^vith a certain agreea-
Odl them, being deeply rooted in ble and insinuating air diffused
Ae soul, and serving as a sort of se- through all our words and actions,
cret spring to regulate her motions,) Neither by ^ood sense, do I nieart
Can ever be opposite to, or interfere a savaige skill ni barbarous terms of
vidi, die other j — and I bclie\'e it art, the multitudinous accumulation
will ever be recognised as an esta- of varnished scraps of undigested
Wished maxim, tliat merit, however knowledge, pedantic fragments of
lolid and undeniable, however vast quodliletical learning, scraped toge-
tod extraordinary, is rendered still ther without reserve, discretion, .ind
nore attractive, more beautiful and reflection j nor even that kind of

rable, when embellished with scientific instruction (tlie necessity
very useful charms and graces, and utility of which arc not disputed,)
fte honest arts pf true and genuine which mav be learned in schools ana
politeness. colleges, oy dint of reading and stu-

^y good breeding, I do not mean dy, and to the acquirement ofviiiich
an unwearied attention to the com- notliing is wanting but a competent
flion forms of civility, such as consist genius or capacity, and a re<;sonable
BKrely in a glossy surface and ex- snare of application -, but I mean
ferior— and still less that foolish diat exact knowledge of decorum,
tttqwtence of mind which can take and the art of living, which can
pleasure in the pride, pomp, and cir- adapt our different occupations and
^instances of ridiculous pageantry, pursuits in tlie various aits and sc-
or in the meretricious glare and taw- ences, and e\*en our domestic to.^

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40 Proceetliftgs of the National Institute of France*

ployments, to their proper and re- mul^ which had served for Juptur
spective ends and uses ; which teaches and Saturn^ were more than sufficient

us to correct and conceal our own im- for tliis modem planet. Ceresj, dis-

pertinences and infirmities, and' to covered upwards of four years ago,

excuse and have indulgence for those by M Piazzi, having, together with

of others j which inculcates it as a a pretty considerable eccentricity, an

maxim to be nice and curious in our inclination often 'degrees thirty-eight

choice of company, and ever to prefer minutes, must, of course, be subject
such as is genteel and rational, which, to many and great inequalities. It
can observe a proper medium between ' appears, however, that all the astro-

a blunt rusticity, an impudent pre- nomers, who have made it their

sumption on the one liand, and a business to determine them> have

blameable tiniorousness on the other : contented themselves with' certain

in a word, it reouires the conjunc- known formulae, the developement

tion of almost all the \ irtues, inter- of which docs notexcfeed the products,

mingled witli a due proportion of ac- of three dimensions of tlie inclinations

complishments, and to be exerted in and of tlie eccentricities. Those of

all uie offices of civil life : — like a ^xe dimensions have been employed

skilful chemist, who am extract tlie in the celestial mechanism, for ajpar-

essence of many plants in tlie most ticular case, agreeably to a formula of

complete manner, " concenter them M. Burckhardt. The same astrono-

in one small phial, and cast away the mer has since presented to the Na-

refuse.** ' tional Institute, the general and com-

A. K. plete developement of thie third,

ClerkaiwcU, July 15. fourth, and fifth orders j but this de-

- — ^ — gree of precision would not be sufli-

rKocEEDiNGs dF THE NATIONAL IN- cicutly acxuratc for the planet Pallas^

STITUTK OF FRANCE. the ccceutricity of which, is even

Pfhes lately proposed ly the Class of greater than that of Mercury 5 and its

Mathematical and Physical Scien- inclination is thirty-four degrees

cesqf the National Institute. thirty-seven minutes j that is to say,

PRIZE t)F MATHEMATICS. five timcs greater than that of any

TO give the theory of the pcrtur- other known planet. It is difficult to
bationsof the planet Pallas, lately dis- conjecture what will be the powers
covered by M. Olbers, of Bremen, and what the dimensions of the pro-
Geometricians have already given the ducts which may have been neglected,
theory of the perturbations, \yith an and tlie calculations may therefore be
extent and an accuracy sufficient far protracted to a epreat length ; and fiir-
all th^ ancient known planets, and for ther, tlie formulae may oe so compli-
all tiiat may be disco vered^ia future, cated as to discourage even such
pronded that tlwy shall be found in- astronomers as are most expert in
eluded witliin tlie same zodiac, and labours of this kind. This conside-
that they shall have but an iuconsider- .ration has induced the Class of Ma-
able eccentricity. Mercury wiis, un- thematical and Physical Sciences of
til our times, the most eccentric of the National. Institute of France, to
all tlie planets, and was, at the same propose this subject for the prize that
time the planet which had tlie it means to adjudge, in its public sit-
•fitrotigebt inclination j but its small ting of the first Monday of Messidor,
<juantum of mass or bulk, audits po- year 14. In consequence, the In-
sition at one of the limits of the pla- stitute invites the geometricians and
netary system, render it but ill adap- astronomers to discuss completely all
ted to occasion any very sensible the inequalities of this theory, and
alterations in tlie movement^ of the not to omit any but such • as are ac-
other planets. I 'ranus, di. covered knowledged to be entirely deserving
twenty-three years ago by M. Her- of neglect :— and because these in-
scliell, is found to be placed at the equalities may vary pretty sensibly.
Other limit of the system. With a as tlie ecliptical elements are not as
small quantum of mass, and but a yet known with tolerable exactness,
moderate eccentricit>% it has, not- it is required as indispensible, tliat tiie
withstanding, the least of all the candidates do not confine themselves
known inclinations, so that tlie for' to give the numerical co-cfticients at

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Procee£ngs of the NaHomal Intitule of Prance. 41

teesBstiQDs*: the3r must, moreover, gold, of about' 6800 frauds in ralue
nfeaeanaljrtical co-efficients, in or- each.

dv to ascertain the most exact The Class had proposed, a seccMid
moanti of the mean distance, of time, namely on the I5th Germinal,
ttettoentridty, of the aphelion, and year 10, for the subject of the prizii
d the inclination, when these ele- that it was to adjudge in the publie
oenls shall come to be better known, sitting, of Messidor, year 12, thefbl-
Tkre wiU result from these analy- lowing question :— <' What are the
ticai co-efficients another advantage, characters which distinguish in ye«
viiidi is, that the planets Ceres and getable and animal substances, tfaose^
Mas, being at distances from the which serve ibr ferment or the fer-^
nil so little (tifrerent, that it is even mentative principle, from those^'
DOW very dafficolt to decide which of wherein they caus^ the process of
the two is the nearest or the most re- fermentation ?'' . The memoirs al^
mote, the formulae laid down for Pal- i^dy sent not having fulfilled the
las, may, without much alteration, conditions of the program, and the
serve Ukewise for Ceres, and for any class considering that the qtiestion
other planet- that may be discovered has been open to competition fbr not?
heceaner, and of vehich a more com- less th^n four years, has decreed that
plete and accurate theory fnay be the subject shall be withdrawn.
n?en by the manner here suggested. prizb op astronomy.

The class expects that the question The decree of government, of the
irill be consider^ as sufficiently in« date of the 13th Floreal, year 10,
terestii^ by astronomers, for them which authorizes the National In-
to bestow upon it a care and atcen- stitute to accept the donation <Sf ^
tkn proporuonate to the difficulty capital of. 10,000 francs ofiered by
vi the subject. The prize will be citizen Lalande, states and specifies,
smedsl dt gold, of the weight of a article 2d, that '' conformably to .
Uk)grain. The works transmitted to the intentions of the donor, the an-
the amcursus are expected to be nual product ot the capital shall be •
WTitisDiD French or Latin, and wiU emploved by the Institute, to bestow
notbe received afler die first of Ger- annually a gold medal, amounting in
minal, year 14 :— this term to be value or weig^bt to as much as the in-*
ngprously adhered to. come of it will permit, on the person

paizK OF PHYSICS. who, in France, or elsewhere, (the

The Class had proposed the fbl- members of the Institute alone eX'*
lowing question for the subjea of a cq>ted) shall have made the most
piiae: To determine hy experiment interesting observation, or that shall;
tk different sowrces of car bone in ve- have produced the most usefiil me*
gitehies. moir conducing to the progress of

The Class prorogues the amcursus astronomy."
or tenn of seni^g in the different On the report of the commissaries
vorks, to the first of Germinal, that had been appointed for thii
yeasclS. purpose, the Class of Mathematical

The Class prorogues likewise, to and Physical Sciences of the Natioodl
the first of Germinal, year 13, the Institute, has adjudged the prize to
^matrnis upon the prize for this M. Joseph Piazzi, royal protesaor
<VMioQ. " To determine by ana- of astronomy, and director of the
tomical and chemical observations Observatory of Palermo, for the work
and experiments, what are the phe- which he lately published under thia
nonaeoa of the turpefaction or be- title: Prcecipuarum sttUarum iner^
oumbed state whereto certain ani- rantium positiones medico, me unte
|Ms are subject, such as marmots seculo XIX. ex observationitvjs hahitii
dmnice, during the winter, con- 'in specula Panormitana. Panormi,
"wered in respect of the circulation 1803. 1 vol. in folio.
^ the blood, of respiration, and of This work, .which cmtains the
i^bili^ ; to inquire what are the positions of about six thousand stars,
caoies of this state of sleep, and why determined nritk thtf greatest care,'
^ is pecoliar to these animals. The and by the best instruments, is the
J^oont of these two prizes is dou- fruitof ten yearn observations, and of
ble, aod consist Iq two julpgrams of assiduous c^lraatiaas^ such as musfi

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4» Etsene€ t^thseL

msure to tte iutho^ tl&e tsteem and the author, hewiever, if he be so tih>
the acknowledgments of all astrono* dined, vakf attach a separate sealed,
iners. It was wfa^n preparmg this billet, which shall contain, besides
catalogue, that M. Piazzi discctvered, ^e sentence or motto, his name and
en the first of January, 1801, the address. This billet will only be
planet to which he gave the name of opened, in case the piece shall have

Ceres Fevdmajidea $ but even before obtained the prize,
this interesting discovery, he ^*as ad- The works may be sent to the office
vantaeeously known by the piiblica- of the secretary of tlie Institute; the
tton of two volumes or observations, gacket that -contains them to be
In which we find the ground-work of irai^iked \ the derk to the secretary
his catalogue, and a lone series of will j^ive the requisite receipts.—
observations very usefiil for investi- The Imtele never renims any of the
gating the theory of refractions works that inar be sent, tnegold

• Conditions m the concUrsus. — All medal will be delivered to the bearer
persons, excepting the members of of the receipt— in case there shall be
the Institute, shall be admitted as no receipt, the medal will be only
candidates. delivered to the author himsdf, or

:.No work sent «o the coneunus is to the person who shall act as his
expected to bear the name of tbe au- proctor. ' .
tlior, but only a sentence or motto j *

sssBNoa OPKOSBS. are the most Celebrated;- v;S[y^rMr, the

ML. LANGLBS, Meniber of country of /oyoz/m, and different can-
• the National Institute, Con- tons of the Burbary states, produce*
servatorof the Oriental MSS.&:c. has also vast quantities of roses, from'
lately published at Paris, (in one vol. which an essence is extracted, but
Ids.) a Dissertation on the Essence of which is much infi^rior to that of
Boses, a Tract whieh will be consider- Persia and of Cachemire.
ed as not unmteresting by all such as It would scarcely be thought that a
are conversant in oriental literature, • process so simple, and so very com-
as likewise by the amateurs of the mon 'throughout the East, and even
most dalicioas of all perfumes* The on the coasts of Western Africa, a-
fdlowinff is a rapid out succinct et- process which is the result of another
amen and account of the result of his thaf has' been known from time im-
reseanches. -The word a'thef, which memorial, dates no further back than
IS pronounced differently by the Ara- two hundred years. This, however,
biang, TurkA, and Perswns, but which i» what M. Langles establishes and
theyallmak^use oftQdes>ienate whflt proves, in opposition to the opinion,
"w^ term essence of rosef, without of many learned orientalists, who
adding to it the name of the flower, ascribe to this perfume a very high ■
i«' Arabic, and ^vignifies an aromatic antiquity. •

substance, or perfume in general. His proofs or arguments are of tw«r.

This essence must not be confound- kinds, negative and pasltive. He de*
ed'Witli rose wati^r, which is merely duces his negative proofs from the si*"
the product of roses, distilled with lence of the oriental and European
water, conformably to a process well writers respecting this essence, befiwe
known to both oriental and Kurojpean the year 1021 ot the Hegira, or the
perfumers. It is merely the preli mi- year l6l2 of the^ Christian era,
nary preparation mdispensibly requi- which year he considers as the epoch
sine, in order to obtain ihe essence, of this discovery. In the inxnestigadon
Aftei' having distilled a certain quan- of his subject, the author has called in
tity of roses, the rose water is exposed the aid of his extensive erudition, and-
to the fresh air of the ni?ht, And on of his taste, and patient industry, in
the next day ^ very small quantity of explormg the different oriental works
essence or a'lher wilL be found con-* whrch he has consulted, or die ac-
^aled on the surface of the water, oounfts of diflferent European vovagers;
The quantity of essence depends on in ail which he frequently tinds men-
the qnalitv of tbe roses. Those of tion made of rose water, but uever of
. i^raz, of Kermdnj aod o£ Ckmchemir lihe essence of roies*

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Af. £ bit fSr OreekTiri. 41

As to positive proofe, li^ draws fibtn tbe.rosdf, and which the sun
tfaeafiom the most authentic sources, had concocted or baked, and in c
1. ftom a History at the Great Meg* manner conglobated into a mass. This
M^writteo in Persian^ bV Moliam«d oilv substance was immediately liailed,
Hadiem. in this work> the disoover^ and repognized by the wh(^le seraglio^
arjaveodoii of tlie essence pf roses is ^ tbe most delicate periiime known
enresslf attributed to the Princess in India/' •

mtr-Djikam, the wife of Djih&nguyr, In the seciuel, art h»s endeavoured
trfiotbe mother of that pnncess. It to imitate wnat, at first, was thej»o«
«as at the feast of the new year, cor- duct of chance and of nature. * * Tnese
Kspcndinff to the year 1021 of the details^** adds M.Lanries, ** appear so
Ufsiia, that ttie mother of Nour- much the more entiued to credit, as
DjiEan presented, for the iirat time, Manucci arrived in the Indies during-
ft> Djihanguyr, this essence, which the reign of Ch&h-Djiiian, the son
ibe ind extracted from rose water, and successor of Djihanguyr. At that
He was so hi^y gratified with tiiia epoch, a very distinct and positive re«
<iisGovenr, that he willed the essence meml»aQce of tlie circumstances to
to bear nis name ; and on account of which the discovery of th^ essence
it, made a present to the prkicess of was owing, mi^t very well Iiave been
acoJlar of peark, worth ^0,000 rou^ preserved. It nad long been seen to
pies. 2. Mr. Giadwbh who has puh- swim on the sui&ce of distilled rose
ashed, in English, an History pf Hin- water ; but it appeared in s^h small
dostan, oollected from very valuable quantities, that no attempts ^Me made
tttcrialHarili much care and at a to collect it. Tlie mode, however^ of
coosidenUa «Kpence,* during a resi> perfbmnng diis being once found out»
fact of twenty three years m India, tlie discovery appear^ like almost all
■efenihe same fact to the very &ame others, so simpte, that our astonish"*
cpuch, in accordance with two ori- ment is excited by the circumstance^
mA works, written in the Persian that we axe not indebted fer it to the
oop^, in the reign of Djiii&nguyr. ^t chemist that might e\'er e|iance
3. The Venetian naturalisj; Manucci, ^ submit loaes to the operations of an
<lonaga^e^)idenceofibrtyyearsinthe alembic."

ladies, studied the annals of the Mo^ Such is the sirixtance of this small
{oi empire with great attention, and tract, cleared of the quoUtions and
composed a conbiderable histr^ry, em- the texts with which this learned
bdished with very elegant miniatures > orientalist has enriched it. To follow
viiich histc«y has been translated and the author in all that he has cited re-
bridged by Father Catrou, under the lative to the rose wat^, tlie essence of
^fle of < A ^neral History of the roses, essences in general, the diiierent
oiojiixA £mpu«, fipom its Foundntion uses to which they have been applied^
to tM present thne.' We find in this for the toilette, as perfumes for apart*
wl, not only the epoch and the an- ments, and among certain nations, the
tiwr of the discovery of the a'ther, po- Jews for. instance, for the anointing tf
s*tivdy indicated, but likewise the kings, the seraglio, magnificent feasts.

how the discovery was made. &c. « the kings of Persia, would ex-
it was at a feast dven by Nour-Djihan tend this article to a greater length
to the prince her spouse. Amuse- than our limits will permit.
Jjents and gratifications of all kinds ^—

followed one another in abundance j M, S. on the Greek Fire.

^ the pnnce<;s carried her luxury A kijmbeh of both foreign and En-*
«« cariosity so far as to cause a small • glish journals, among others the Uni-^
«nal, filled with rose water, to be versal Magaune. vol. ii. page 41 Q,
jwistracted in the gardens. '* Whilst liave noticed the discovery latefy maa6
Je^peror was walking wkh her on by M. Le Barcm d'Aretin, in the
*f borders of this canaL they per- library of the city of Munich^ of an
2J»ed a kind ofmoss which had been old Latin MS. of the 13th century,
■"^nned upon tbe Mrater, and that was which contained a treatise on fej^ii
i*^S^ ^ ^ surfece. In order Gtegeois, ' the Greckjire; the intended
l^lect It, they watted till it had ar- publication of which, with an historical
2^ at the border, and it was then mtroduction, was soon after announced
■""» to be a suhstanoe emanatirg- by the baron. ^

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44 M.S.oniheOreekFv^e.

In ao agft so very attentive to the oter, detached passaf^es'of the nine
nrpgiess ^the sciences^ an announce- kind are to be met with in the work^
ment of thif nature^ must naturally both of Jerom jCardan and of hig
have excited a considerable share of antagonist Julius Csesar Scaliger 3 -
the public curiosity, and could not whicn induces an opinion thatbodx
£dl to attract the notice of the French these writers must have known, in its

Svemment. It had not escaped at- entire state, the tract or frs^ent
ition, and it was quickly reported to attributed to Marcus Gt<bcus, To de-
the minister of the interior, thatamong iermine whether theotl^er matters con*
the MSS. preserved in the National tained in the obove treatise may not be
Dbrary, there was a treatise entitled, likewise met with elaewhere« would
*' Fke adapted to the purpose of de- have required extensive researches,
straying enemies,'* compmed by a to which the conservators-editors,
c«taia.Greek,naiped3farciif, ^JLt^cr having other avocations upon their
igniiim ad comburendos hastes auctor, hands, could not then possibly devote
Marco Gr€Bco;J the minister there- their attention. The conservators,
upon invited the conservators to give however, in order speedily to satisfy
htm a detailed acQpunt of the contents the demand of the minister, came to
of the treatise. In&ct, there are at a resolution to print the said book,
present, in the national library, two Liler ignmni, in order that all the
manuscript copies of the Liber tgnium ; learned might have it in . their power
the aud^ of which, Marcus (?rsecus^ to decide upon its contents, whether
is altogRer unknown. These copies any thing useful or new was to be
are found in the volumes numbered found in it, and that M. Le Barm
7 1 56 and 7 1 58, which contain several d *Aretin might himself compare it
other pieces relating to chemistry, with the treatise preserved m the
When It is necessary to acquire an library of Munich. This being the
accurate knowledge of manuscript sole motive of the French conservators-
pieces, the writing of which, conflised editors, they have contented them-
m itself, is moreover embartassed with selves with giving a fiaithful copy of
dbhreviations, the easiest, shortest the text; such 9s at appeai^s in the
and surest method, is to transcribe two manuscript volumes of the na-
them word" for word j which is usually tional librar}' of France. They have
done by the oonservators-editoi^. In not added any remark or commentary
the same volume have been found a on the text; but at the bottom of the
number of recipes, which perhaps pages, they have noted $uch various
were formerly put in practice, but readings as may bear upon the sense
which now would hardly have the or meaning, and they quote such of
appearance of novelty, as they are to the articles, whether of the tieatise,
he found in the work mtitlediJeJIfi^a- De MirabUibus Mundi, or the works
bUibus Mundi, which-has been printed of Jerom C^irdan and Jillius 6caliger,as
more than once, and is cpnunonly 8eemborrowedfromMarci»<Tr«citf.U
ascribed to Albert the Great^f More^ isobservedby the conservators-editors,

+ N(9tc by the Translator. — Jlbertus MagntiSy it is well known, flourished in
the thi|tcenth century. Having collected an ample fond of all such learning as the
university of Paris afforded in his day, and having liberally dispersed his ample
stores of science over Italy, he retired a^ain to the cloister, from which be had
emerged^ fat the purpose pf devoting himself en^rcly to his farourite studies and spe-
culations, some of which in that age, were branded with the name of Mask,
Among the rest of l^is pursuits, he became an eminent sculptor, for which indeed he
seems to have been endUed with a genius and t^ents, little inferior to those of his
great predecessoj^ in that curious art, Pygmalion: ibr he framed a statue, which bore
so accurate a resemblance of hum^ nature, that it w^ not very easy, when he had
dressed it up in a suit of black, to discover that it was artificial. "By the means of
latent wheels, springs, i&c. he caused it to walk, sit, kneel, and what was still maic
extraordinary, and will now be thought almost incredible, he tauaht the tongue ^^
txnctly tp articulate sounds ; so that this wonderful productron otart, if we may give
entire credit to the accounts of those times, could harrangue upon religioTis, laws,^
government, and other intefcsting and popular topics,^ in a style perhaps, and iP<^^
unquestionably with a degitje of coolness, not inferior to ma^y of our modcra oiatpil
and spouters.

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A View ofjieiiglons. 45

that Ibe faaod->writiDg of the Liler the volume 7158, can onlv be ante-
^#iBMiinthevolume7l55, cannot be cedent to the entf of tne fificeuih
«der than the last half of thefourteenth century.
oeotDiy, and that the copy inserted in

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 8 of 108)