Copyright
United States. Supreme Court.

The Universal magazine, Volume 4 online

. (page 81 of 108)
Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 81 of 108)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


the ba^on with a supply ot water from
the reser\oir ; or otherwise the bajon
niay be supplied from a separat/» vessd
either by pressing the water tbrouek
the reservoir, or applying il directly to
the bason. Anotlier improvement in
water-closets is the application of die
bascHi and soil receiver, as before de-
scribed, but with a separate resecroir,
where it may be* thought more conve-
nient to have thq. cloaet in two or more
pieces of furniture instead of one, ar
where it might be requited to be of a
larger size. An additional imnroreoiem
in the water-closet is the apiHicationef
the bason and circular sliding valve,
either with a fij^ed or separate resem^
to a common receiver or cess-poot, by-
taking away the receivier, and joii^
the soil pij^e to such common rccriv^
or cess-pool, and by that means posses
ait the usefhl properties of the most ex-
pensive water-closets.

Patent to Mr. Charles Hatsed,
plater, and to Mr, Charles Syhestec,
chemist, both of Sheffield, for a me-
thod of manufacturing the meialcalid
%inc into nnre, and into vessels taii
utensils calculated for eufinary wd
other pU7-poses,—T\\e processes of the
ssiid method depend upon this principle,
that zinc (which has heretofore beea
called a semi-metal, because it b IV^
malleable, and scarcely capable of eji-
tension by mechanical means, at the
ordinary temperature of the atmospheie,
or at those heats which are usuaUyas^
plied in forging entire metals) is capable
of being extended by hsmmeriDg^ k-
niinating, wire-drawing, pressing, stamp-
ing, or by other methods of treatii^tne i
entire metals, provided the said zinc be |
kept, during the said openttions, at i \
certain heat, tobedetemnoedbyetpe- ;
riment first made by us, and heie to fat
mentioned. These operations are cm-
ducted and peHormed with varisnocs
according to cireum^tances, or to die
sizes or kinds of things required to U
made, which variations are such as soy
workman accustomed to the tmimat
of other metals will easily asoertaio ad^
adopt. The zinc is cast into ingots or
thiA plates^ in the usual w$aa9, of



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Mtdem Discoveries, and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, ksfc, 447

Hich a figure and maanitude as may abk. The nature of the said invention,
best answer the intended purposes ; and and the manner in which it is {H^ribrm-
the best form for making of wire, is that ed, Cannot be explained wiiimut the
of a cylinder. These ingots or pieces, aid of |)!ans and drawings. The mill
when intended to be mechanically will grind as fine or as coarse as the
wrought, are to be heated to. a tcm- workman shall choose,
peniture between the degrees of 210 Patent , to Air. Peter Marshhivdf
and 300, or s^uiewheie tantamount cot ton-s f inner y of Hcaton Korris, /«
thereto, according to the scale of Fah- Lancashire^ for a certain improvt'WCfit
renheit, which . may be effected by in the process of dying silk, woallen^
placin|j the same in an oven duly worsted,^ molunr, fur, hair, cotton,
teatcd, or by any other well known and linen, as well m a manufactured
method. For where it is the most or part manufactured, as in an unma-
eonv«nient that the cast cylinders be nujactwred or raw state. Dated July
extended between rollers at the above JQ, 1805. — The nature of this invcn-
temperature, till their lengths have been tion consists in the extraction of the
increased to above four times, and after« air from a vessel containing the silk,
wards the same may be drawn through woollen, worsted, mohair, hair, cotton,
the wire plates^ without further heating and linen, which are to be dyctl as a veil
or annealing, unless the pieces should in a manufactured, or part manufac-
be very thick ; and in the whole opera- turcd, as in an unmanufactured or ravr
fion the usual care and attention must state, and consequently from such iiilk,
be taken to choose that series or course &c. and applying all or any of such li-
of hales which shall duly extend the quid materials or substances as are u^crf
wire without forcing or breaking it. in dying the same, or any one or more
Plates of zinc may be made by wording of them to the same, or any one or more,
ft from the ingot or piece between roU of tliem \vbile the air is so extracted
lersat the abovementioned temperature, therefrom. The more complete the air
and those plates may be hanmiered up is extracted, the more periect the ope-
into vessels for culinary and other pur- ration will be. The articles v/hich are
poses, by the same treatnpent as is ap- to be dyed must be put into a vessel,
plied to other metals, taking care \\ hen called a receiver, luid which must be
the size or form or other intended re- perfectly air-tight, by fastening down
quibites of the yebsel require it to heat the lid or other cover to the aperture,
or to anneal tlxe zinc at proper times through which the articles are nut into
<Jttring the operation. Utensils of every the receiver; tlien, by means ot a com-
ieM:ription may be stamped, forged, or mon air pump connected with the re-
Otherwise made and wrought of zinc ceivor, or any other means by wliLch a
during its malleable state, at the tern- vacuiitn may be j^ro.luced ui the rc-
perature aforesaid, or after the anneahng ceiver, the air must he extracted from
aiscovered and invented by us. I-astly, the receiver, and from the articles wliich
whenever it is necessary to unite piices or are to be died contained in it, or as
plates of zinc together, the same is per- much of such air as can be easily ex-
lormed by the use cf a solder, consisting tracted: then such of the liquid uia-
oftwo parts tin, and one part zinc, more terials or substances as are commoiJy
or less, according to the hardness and fu- used in dying the same, are to be in-
ability required in the same; or other- troduced into the receiver, eiihL^r at the
wise the common glazier's solder may same time or at dirVerent limes, accord-
be used and applied for the same pur- ing to the order in v/hich the same are
pose. - used in the common procerus of dying.
Patent to Mr, Thomas Chapman, care being uken that no air or as little
thrashing fnachine-maker, oj Jrithamt air as possible be admitted into the re-
in Holdemess, for a mill Jor tearing, ceiver. The articles to be dyed are then
crushing, and preparing oak hark llo to remain in such liquid niatcrjals or
ie usealy tanners in the process of substances as are* contained in the xc-
tmning hides. Dated July ^9, 1805. ceiver, until they are sulficientiy satara-
r^Tbis mill may be worked by steani, ted or impregnated therewith. ' A lid,
vind, water, or bv one or more horses, grating bars of wood, or other solid
tod the tag wheefs mav be made of any substance must, be placed within the
%d of x|ieti4 that way be thought suit- (cceiver^ at the distance of a few inches

. ■ Digitized by VjOOQIC



44t ifeTexfem bisc&veries M Shpfovefkettts' h J^% ScHmef, tfc.

from the top thet^of, to prei^^nt the ar- think that the bthhine principle is ilA
ttdes which are to he dyed from rising only a coihbination m catbcme afitf el
above the surface of the Rtjuor. 6tigei\e, bat tliai there isr sotk%^ <nhrf

M. VaMqiielin haft been lately making matter which is fluited with thend. "ftie
tiome chemical experiments upon the principal fact, however, it is adddd, is
rpot named talaguata, which root he tiot chasiged. The fiattie letter states^
thus defines: It ts of a brown colour j (hat a curious experiment has beefi
its surface wrinkled, the effect of desic- lately made, by whiich common salt
cation ; it is furnished, in Certain places, has been formed in water, in coni^
with scales, similar to those that are quente of decomposing it by xdeans of
found on the roots of ordinary feVns ; it a current of galvanic nuid drtvmk fixmi
Is hard* coriaceous, and difHeult to be st pile. It tends to create a suppo^iUon
midered to powder^ it appears that thrs that galvinism produces mtinatSc atkf
root is a species of polyppde. tii reca- and soda : but tnis is given as requiting
pitulatin^ all the products obtained by confirmation.

the different operations ar^nOunced in A society has been lately established
the course of the above analysis, the at Berlin, oie object of which is to seuif
root of the caliguala is found to be ihissionaries every year to the coast of
fcrmed of a great quantity of ligneous Africa, and particularly with a viewtcj
matter, of a giimmy substance ; which introduce together with* the light of
holds the second rank, as to quantity ; Christianity, some tSnctare of European
ef a red sharn and bitter resin, which arts and sciences, and to sow the seeds
holds the thira rank; of a saccharine or of a more refined civilizatioti.
Sugary matter in great abundance; of The. Elector of Bavaria has late!]^
in amylaceoQs matter, the quantity of cuppresscd a number of monast<?kies in
which M. Vauquelin has not deter- his newlv acquired dominions in Suahia,
mined; of a colouring matter, dissoluble and established public schools in thciif
in the uitric acid, and which tiims to stead. The Latin schools that existed
violet b^ alkalis ; of a small quantity of in those provinces have been likewise
acid, which M. Vauquelin could not suppressea; as not being sxifficiexit for
ascertain, for want of a sufficient quan- the forniation of scholars, and too learn-
<Sty, but which he suspects to be malic ed for the simple artisan, 'and public «e-
acid ; of a pretty large quantity of mu- minaries for the instruction otthe com-
liate of pot ash ; and, lastly, oflime and mon people substituted in their place;
6f silex. Of all these substances, it is Three universities haN'e likewise been
Only those which arc soluble in xtater founded at Ulm, Dfllingen, and Kenip-
atxwf alcool, which can produce effects ton, which wefe opened on the 1st of*
Upon the animal occonomy : these sub- the present month, Ko\'cmber. Pupils
stances are sugar, mucilage, muriate of of the various' Christian denominations'
pot ash, and resin . After M : Vauqiiefin ara admitted indiscriminately as niembes»
had made the analysis of this root, he of the said universities,
submitted to the very same experiments The following notice was lately nut
the ro6ts of the polypodium vulgare, to the National Institute, relative to 3t
«nd of polvpodium filix mas, and they naratonnere or iron conductor that may
Aimishcd absolutely ihc same principles, be isolated at pleasure, and which has
dnd very nearly in the same proportions* been, executed by M. Beyer, nattfrafisty
as the root of calaguala. These lasit, of Paris, and appointed by the fgifWOk-
however, contain a small quantity of inent to inspect uie paratonneres oT^
l^e tanning principle. Thus the ana^ public buildings in i^faace :
logy of organization, which had led M. At the time of the diacoveiy ff ihtf
^ jassieu and M. Richard to conclude paratonnctes by the immortbil rarfdb,
that the medicinal virtues of the root of a number of naturld philosophers SM|^
^e calaguala were similar to those of to establUh, by meahs oi isolated' |lin-
other ferns, has been fully confinned tbnneies, the identity which' esdstr^
by chemistry. tween the electric niatteraaid*that'«^i6cf

- A letter from Mr! Blagden to M. thunder: These expeximefitih st&eciKdaf
Bettboliet, (dated London, June /th, beyond the expectadon of adlA^iiata-
JS05) and which lately appeared in the nJists whp attempted diem; WitiM
Annales de Chymie, asserts, that from not lt)ng befoi« it was didcof^Mi ifcl^
»ome*«ewc.r»«timent5 which M-r. Hat-* such' experiments eonld-nof^pedbnU-
chett has made^ he has been induood to ed without the greatest dnig^: aadthr

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



iA>dem Discoven^, and tmproventtnts in Arts, Seiences,4tc. 4ig



I of ihe celebntcd Richmann, was a
^frible example of it. Tills profe&soi: of
^fayiic at Petersbuigh, was auddeoly
itmckdcad, in tlie^car 1753^ by a spark
that issued from an iron bar isolated and
ftttiactedy by his head, which had got pro-
truded into the sphere of activity of the
£ihiMnatiiis maucr. After that tioM,
iisw na^uruists daiit have .reeourse to. so
^daagorouS'an attempt.

It is but very lately that M. Beyer has
JioaatrttOtecl an a^paiatus of this kind, very
^pk in its plan» and whiph absolutdy
CMies uM t9 all the views of nacuraJistA,
wilbout tieing pioductive of the least dan-
ger; it is a paratonnere, which ma^ exist
aktroaiely and at pleasure, either at a ball
or apQiDti isolated or aot isolated. Tlie
communications with the common reser-
voir arc coxapleteiy establi^cd, and be-
tween xmsaelt and this apparatusra distance
may be placed of more than 100 feet i
.«9i oonseqiiently no lear or inconveni-
mewill attend the operation. And, be-
sides, although the means retorted to in
Order v> set t£e apparatus iB;a(;tiQB> are by
4ia means apcarent, they are ncMcrtl^elcss
lO'Sijnple 4fiat they are .put in activity
without effort, and from whatever place ,or
wt the operator chtises* The National
ifislitttte bats appointed Messrs. Charlea,
Haay, Guiion de Morvcau and Bisc* to
aakc a repost upon this iniefesting invcn-
pon, the only i>Be eaiaupg in this l^ind, of
M.Beyer.

M. Recat, pharmaoian'Or apothecary at
Rsmiremom, anaounoet th$it he has laiiely
difcoveied anew pnxss^ for the piepam-
iion of muriate of baryte^ aod that he hat,
likewise diseovcred a new .method • of de-
^iviqgwKh'brandiesasace made ofpi>-
iaioes, <£ hops., and Other biaadiea, of their
«lis9greeable scent. ** At the time whqn
biaqdics were vcijy drar^ says M. Re*
tat, * i attempted dtierent infethods lo
icmove the scent from those made of
fotttoes and of ^leps. I am goin^ to
atmion that in whieh I succteded the
best. In 60 li^ilogrlbBufies of bad tasted
'bciody, I poured into a toh, 3 hecio-
finms of sulfuric acid. Aifer haviiig
aiintd it, I left it for 24 houn, and then
^^ittiiicii it. The spirit of wine was with-
oatsmell, and marked widi ether, and the
.tcidhad oxidated the oil to siich a point as
^ render it-fijKd.

Ail 8vb. vQlumetif Senmonsi^ translated
*om the FfCQch of rthc <elcbratfcd Bowr-
.•'^toue, will *bc published in ihe oovrse of
^IkresettjnoQih.

Vol.VJt'



The second voSuxne of Mr..Bu|chei^s
Sermons will be published evly in De-
cember.

Mr« West^ the President of the Royal
Academy, (whose life we gave in our
Magaiuoe for May last) is ^gaged in
painting an Historical Picture, represent-
lag the death of Lord Nelson. Mr.
Heath will engrave a plate from the saaoe
as a companion to the death of Wolfe.
■A second edition, enlarged, of Mr. Law-
.pcnce'sMod^m Land Steward, will appear
early in the ensuing month.

Pierre F. M* Callum, esq. author of
.Travels in Trinidad, will very shor^^
publish, an answer to Lord Selkirk's ob-
servations, on the emigration of the Hish-
. landers of Scotland, to North Amenoa.
Mr. M'CallumL. having lately visited the
diiferem settlements already formed by
the Highlanders on that continent, veity
.properly censores his Lordships unfortu-
nate mania, in holding out the baneful
torch of delusion to the rest of ihem^ ta
em%rate to the fag end of the creation^
which leads to the destruction of that great
jmrsery of the bravest soldiers in his nia-
je&t)r*s service^ theieby, manifestly injuni^
the interest of this counry | without an|r
benefit of t)be emi^ant.

Tlie achievements of Heroes and Coo-
<queForshavein-aU ages been recorded as
worthy of notice, and handed down to
posterity as examples to after times. The
actions of brave and valiant men, whether
of ancient or modem days, arc sought a^
ter with avidity, and perused with interest^
especially when recorded by men of talent
and information ; we are fed to these ob-
servations by the information we have re-
ceived that Mr. Chamack, the ^author of
the.Biograjthia Navalis^ a work of consi-
derable merit, has mulcrtaken to lay be-
fore the public^ zQernoirs of the life and
memorable actions df our late much la-
mentftd Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson—
.and we doubt not, from his extensi\'e
knowledge of nautical • afFitixs — added to
.aa intimacy with the leading oiHcers of the
.navy for a series of yeacs, ar.d a particular
aopiaintafice with his Lordship, that the
performance will reflect e^.al honour on
Lord Nelson as: aa officer, and fo himself
as a biographer.

Messrs. BoyddU and Co. have offerod
Jive I Iwidred, Guineas to any British Af-
tist, who shall j)aint the 1)661 picture re-
piesemin^ the Battle of Trafiilgiirj and the
death of^Lord Viscount Kelson, fro^a
^hsch they v;iU ci^aye a print^ the ism^



Digitized by VjOOQ lC_



A56 iloJern Discoveries', and Improvements in Arts^ Sciences^ 9c^



itze and in the ssmc manner as their print
of the (leath of General Woife ; after
vktch the original picture will be pre*^
«e&tedfo the Admiral ry, or some such'
aj)propriite public bodty.

From » number of experiments lately
made by M. Alibert, physician to tM
Hospital of Saint Louis at Parts, upon
the pbysica! properties of a ceruin unne,
collected am<hig others for the purpose

' 'of ircspection, it appears that the urine in
question possessed properties very differ-
ent from those of ordinary urine ; — and in
Order tor throw Hgfit on the lotare of, and
€>n the cause that produced these proper*
ties, the above liqiA>r was subjected to a
chymical examen, under the direction of
M.Vauqudrn, which hasfumisbedthe prin- .
cipies as cxaaly as chymistry, at present,
Will admit of. — I'his urine was white as
milk, a little thicker than ordinary urine,

'and of an cdour and taste nearly the same
as those of this last liqnor. The first idea

* that presented itself to alf that saw this
urihe, was that of milk, samucbresemw
blance was there betwixt these two
itqnids ; and from what follows it will be
shewn that^ in fact^ the appearance was
uot entirely fallaciocis. In the course of
these expe. iments; a certarn quantity of

'this urine was boiled, and the first cflPect
'Which took place was that the Hquor, not

'belying its analogy to milk, coagulated
into tmite flakes, which {^w hard and
became attached to the interior of the

'vessel, by ebullition: The coagulation
took place more readiPp, in a quandty of
the ancient urine of this description,, thati
in that which was more recent. AU acids,
even when cold, coagulated this urine,
iust as they coagulate milk. The coagu-
Jum Vas of the same liquor, the same
elasticity, and emits the sarae^ sort of
noise when pressed by the fingers, as
cheese when precipitated by acids. This
same substance, coagulated by acids, will

' dissolve abundantly by the caustic potash,

•and there will be disengaged, during the

' operation, a notable quantity of ainnfonr-
ac. Alcool did not dissolve it at all, but,
eh the contrary, hardened it. By desic*
cation, this matter took a light yellow
. colour, half transparent, and a sort of elas*
*ticity : andwhen put in this statej over
Km coals, it crackled, shriveled up, grows
soft.again/andat length, melted, swelled
out, Jtnd throwing out white fetid and

' ammoniacal vapours of smoke ; after this
decomposirion, it leave* a light and very
porous coal. — When submitted to distil^
htioQ it liuiuihcd a led, fetid waiK^ a



thick oil almost concrete, ofa deep \
colour, carbonate of concrete azmiioiiiac»
and it left in the leton, a hard, shxnmg
coal, which eave, b^ incineratioo, a whie
-ash, whicb the nitric acid dissol^cd^ aad
^m which the volatile alkali precipitaeed
mucfa* phosphate of lime. Altboi^iall
the properties here emxmerated, pertain ta
pure, cocesy matter, nevertbeless in oidcr
to obuin more certitude,and to judee more
decisively on the identity or the diBcresce
of these two substances^ the above experi-
ments were repeated with the cfao esc of
well-creamed milk, and the resole was,
that nasensible diSerences were perceived ;
or in other words, these two aobstanccs
operated in the same manner, with water,
acids, alkalies and gall>nutt ; they bnint
-with- precisely the same pheoomena, and
yielded, bv distillation, similar producii,
and iti tne same proportions. — Hence
tliere is no reason to doubt that this oiine
actually contains in it cheese ; — and that
this latter substance is the cause of i^
milky opacity. The quantity <of tfus
cheese, with relation to that of which it
makes a part, althoi^h the cxperimeoc
was not determined very rigorooaly, wai^
nevertheless, consideraUe;. it was, how.
ever, less than in miUt, The urine when
separated ^m this cheese, fumislied the
same principles as ordinary urine, and dif-
fered only firom orditnry arine^ by the
pieaence of the caseous or cheesy matter.
Physicians have heretofore -anooonccd,
without, however coming to an absoloie
certainty, that there ii a certain degree of
milk in the urine of women that have been
.lately brou^t to bed, and who do not
suckle their in£mts, or in those of wonea .
who wean them i but the person who eva-
cuated that whicb is here treated of, was
a voung woman about 26 years of a^
wno^las, indeed, had two children, box
who has bedn several years a widow, wha
is, however, very well, and who has never
had any disorder in her milk. It is only
since lier state of widowhood that she has
dischai^ged this kind of urine. In this
woman her breasts were not more swelled
than in the ordinary state of women, no
pression being able to make milk gush oot^
of them^-firom these fact* it seems reason-
able to think that the. cheese found in her
urine has been ibnned in other ofeanft
M. Caballe, author of the forcing obse»*
vations, does not hiake any bm>thesis
upon the subject, but xonients nimself
with observing, that the fact is vesywocthy
of remark and must be Yery iotcfcstt^g t»
physiologistf.

Digitized by V3OOQ IC



Modem Discoveries, tad tmpnvemenis in Arts, Sciences, (Sfc, 4ii

A very valuable xrollection of Oriental vourable opporluoidcs of making observa-*
MSS. the property of Major Ouscly, ar- tions absolutely similar, which wc tliinic
rived by the last Joengal flciet. Exclusive we ought to communicate to the aociety« '
-of Ai-abic, Persian and Sanscrit books^ In order to obtain the greatest possible
amounting in number to nearly fifteen quantity of ether from a given quantity of.
hundred ; there are severalportfolios of im- alcool, wc have considerably varied'the
tnense size, containing mymological paint- proportions of alcool to 36% andofsuU
ings of the most antient kind, splendid- niric acid to 66% and we have Ibund that
lyilluminated, and procured from uiffcrent the most advantageous roctkod was the
parts of India, Thibet, Tartary, China, one indicated by all chymisu^ an equal
Ava ; together with idols of stone, metal, weight of alcool and of sulphuric acid,
wood and other substances. Most of the Ihc white vapours whicn. appear in the
volumes are filled with botanical paintings, recipients, during the distillauon of the
executed in the most accurate manner, ether, and which indicate that the opera* .
Theie are also vast collections of natural tion ought to cease, are not formed, as
history and mmeralogy, original views has hitherto been thought, by sulfureoua
and drawings taken on the «pot in various acid, but by oil and water in expansion,
parts of India, with a cabinet of (he most which always accompany this acid, so that
rare medals, gems, and other antiques of the product, whatever care may be taken
all kinds. A complete series of the coins in the distillation, does not' conuin^ul-
struck by Mahometan princes, since the fiircous acid only, but likewise oil, which
itign of Timour, with we armour, horse, colours it more or less, according, to the
furniture, swords, spears, borogarious, proportion in which it is found. If after
ahdall the weapons of wvfare used in naving withdrawn the fiist product, we.
Penia, India, and other countries of the continue the distillation, the white va«
£ast; with various musical instruments pours augment and much water passes into
and several tunes set to music by Major the recipienu ; on this water we find swinh*.
Ouseley, from the voice of Persian, Cash- ming over it, a linuor of a lively and
merian tod Indian singers. This valuable suffocating smell ; tnis is what Is known
collection has been exempted from paying under the name of oil of ether. This oil
the usual duties at the Custom House and is only ether, chaiged more or less witl^ ,
£ast India house. The situatsoii of Major sulfurous acid, and with bituminous acid,
Ouseley, as aid-du-camp to the Nabob which bears a stronc analogy to the pe«
^ Ouoe, and commander of that prince's tials. We certified ourselves as to its



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 81 of 108)