Copyright
United States. Supreme Court.

The Universal magazine, Volume 4 online

. (page 82 of 108)
Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 82 of 108)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


body guard, gave him such advantages in composition, by an easy and exact analysis; .
formin? this collection as few Europeans we distilled it after having mixed with
ever before enjoyed. SirWilliam Ouseley, it an alcoolic solution of pot ash, whea
brother to the Major^ has likewise in his we obtained more than five-sixths of ether^
possession, a sreat many Arabic, Persian, very pure, making fifty-five bv the areo* .
and Turkish MSS. amounting in number meter. There remained in- the retort a
to nearly eight hundred. So that it is snlfiste of pot ash, and an oil saponntfied
hoped and expected, the literary world by -the caustic alkali, which wasin excess*
may shortly receive much gratification We saturated the alkali by the extended
from these united stores. sulfuric acid of water, and we quickly saw

Dr. HerschcU has made a new disco- siArim at the top an oil of a golden colour,
very relating to the planet Saturn, which unctuous to tne touch, of a taste which
ii now stated to be ot a cubical form, with appeared, at first, sweet, and which ter-
its angles and edges truncated, a singula- minated in being very sharp and ptuigent j '
nty of form whicn the Doctor attributes of a bituminous smell, and as it were^
to the attraction of Saturn's belt. succenated, but little volatile in this state^

SULFURIC ETHER. not miscible with water, soluble in alco- .

Observations on the prrpaiation of the ho), and in ether, inflanimable, by the ni-
tiilfuric ether, and an Ocamen of the oil, trous acid concentrated, susceptible of
koownunder the name of oil of ether, of combination afresh with caustic alkalis^
sveet wine oil. By Messrs Henry and and of forming again a soap. The pre-
Vallee, professors in the School of Phar- sence.of thi&oil being cjearly demonstrat-
or of Paris, and Members of the Society ed to us in the ether, the distillation of
of Pharmacy. which was very carefully attended to, wc ^

The great quantity of sulfuric ether are of opinion that a number of means in-
^at We have had occasion to prepare, each dicated to rectify it are insufiicient. *Io ^
^^''us ID panicalari has givca m some &« making u^e of the oxide of manipaesei «•

Digitized by VjOOQ IC •



45i Modern JHscweries atd Impnwemmts in :/trts. Sciences, &c.

M. Di« testifies, we only acquire the. luly, w^tet word to M. Cadet, that h^
golfurous acid, which pasKs to the state of has lately made the analysis of this pow^ .
0uHunc tcid, aiTd combines with acid ', der, of v^hich he had procured from Lonr
vith Ijme, magnesia and the terreous afid don a. sufficient quantity, in order to
alkaline carbonate?, we shall coine short of submit it to the test of a rigorous examen^
the end that we propose to ourselves ; The Tollowing is a summary of his cx^
these suhstanees do not even combine, ex- pcriment^ : In the first, I took»^ sajrs be»
CCpt with much difficulty, with the sul- the powder of Gyms, of. which I weighed
furous acid, by reason of their insolubili- nineteen decigrammes ; I infused them for
ty in ether, and they are by no means ca- some minutes, in a tittle hot distilled
pahle of saponfying oil, which, although Water, I separated the water from it, by
tfess volatile dian ether, will always be a the Bltre, ana I obtained, by the evapora-*
littte volatilixed, whfcn it is not retained tion of that liquid, a salt which had all,
try a substance which has affinitv with it, the characters ot sulfate of pot ash. Thi»
Ptot ash and caustic soda merit tne prefer- salt, when dissolved and treated with the
^ce, for (he rectifying of ether ; and to bdrite, presenied' a precipitate of sulfate
pftvent their being carbonated, we must of baritc. In the second experinacni, M.
nake use of a solution of these alkalis in PuUy says,, " As I had perceived, befbro:
ideod ; hy this means we avoid the disen- I decomposed the salt, ^y the baiite, ihat
g^geinent of the acid carbonic gaz, which the solution contained an excess g« free
always attracts much ether along with it. pot ash {pat otst ii^e) I was desirous to
The sul&roas acid is neutralized at the know whether this pot ash did not hold'
tame time that we give more fixity to oil in suspension a little oxide' of aitimony.
by saj^onifying it ; and fit>n^ a single rec- In effec^. having decanted the liquor, in' •
tmcation, we obtain another very sw^t and order to separate it from the sulfite oT
vtempfe from all taste, which is Qwing tp barite, I poured in it some sulfurated hy«
the oil that it retains. dhsgeoe, which instantly formed gilt sal-

?oWDER OF evms, pliur of antimony (the author's word* are,

III n late volume of the Annales de de ssufre dond' dntmome) ; thiis the free ^
Cbejjiie, a niotice is given of the analysis pot ash was then combined with- a portion '
of the powder, called by the English, the of antipjony, at the minTmum of ojcida*
powder of Gym$, and wliich is commu- tion, Mr. Pearson, it is observed, nci—
nieated by m. C. L. Cadet, pharmacian. ther speaks of this combination,' nor of
Tfate powder of gyths, (for so we shall the sulfate of the pot ash. In the third
call it, althourfi undoubtedly the word experiment, I toot (says M. Tully) the
Jtenes is meant) is here statea to be very powder of Gyms, wluch had been wash-»"
jmich ip vogue in England and in Italy j cd with hot distilled water, and I caused it
the En^ish, it is add^d, make a secret to be heated wiih nitric acid to twenty
of It, and sell it for its .weight in gold, as dhgrees. This acid dissolved the phos^
a'Sovercign remedy in asthenic mabdics, phate of hmc, wiriiout attacking the oxide
|U)d adynamic fevers. It is further ob- of antimony at (he maxinatm. I separat-
ferved, that Dr, Pearson, an English chcs cd this oxide from the dissolution, and
ixlijft, has made the analysis of it — and he I' poured into the liquor someammopiac,
la\ recorded, that this powder is a triple, which precipitated tic phosphate of lime,
(alt, composed of phosphate of lime, and" In the fourtn experiment, l decomposed,
of oxide of antimony. But thai the chc- the phosphate of lime, by the sulfuric-
mists who have attempted to compose the acid weakened, and I afterwards recom-t
powder of Gyms, agreeably to the ana- " posed it hy water of lime, in order to
lyKis of Mr. Pearson, have been com- determine the doses. In the fifth ex-
ptetely astonished at their want of sue- perimcnt,'! took oxide of antimony* at
cffss; firom this an injsrence is deduced, xh^ maximim of oxidation, and I dji-
- that the English physician, in order not solved it in muriatic acid. This disso-
to disclose a secret, lucrative \o his coun- lution, when treated by sulfurated hy-r
tiy, had^ concealed some part of his know- dr6gene^ produced an hidrosulfur of an-
ledge ; in fkct, the powdtr is now slated . timony, having more oCsulphur than the-
ta contain, in addition, sulfate oif pot ash kermes minefal,and less than the jw^^a,.
and pot ash antim6niatcd. Mr. Pully, , Agreeably to these experimcnu, of
©'Neapolitan chemist, who as adminis- which l.wcighcd-all. the. products,, the 1 9
frator of powders and saltpetre, has ren- decigrammes of powder of Gyms, whicb
dc:red ^s$eoti?Ll s^rvic^s to t))e an&y of Ibava i^ialyscd^ ftfccon^wdofoxidccf^



Digitized by VtiOOQ IC



S/ihr i^PtttSe Affari.



■Is^



antimony at tlie wminum of OKidatiin» 7
dedgrammesy plxispiiaie of lime 4» sulfate
of potash 4i> free potash, holding oc
having oxide of antimony, at the minimum^
3|._^Xi^toto 19 decigrammes. Torecom^
pos« this^ povdci, we must taLe sulfur of
anum0ny» two parts; pliosphaie of lime
calcinated li part; nitrate of potash, 4
pans. These substances were pulverized,
mixed and triturated. Next they were
pat into a crucibk, which mustb&covered
and strongly heated. During this oneration,)
the oxigeue of nitrk add* ovc: powering



(jstfcrtant sur) the sulfur of the sulfur c£
antimony, cenyerted it into sulfuric acid^
which united itself with a portion of po-
tash, and forms sulfate of potash; the rest
of the pupotash retains antimony oxidated
at the miniaum. The white powder which
remains is the same that is sold so dear by
the English. M. PutUy announces that
he has made the analysis of his • powdcr>
in ocder to compare it with that otGvms,
and that he has tbund the same piincipkt
and the same ^aatities in both.



STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

NEVER have the minds of the m- pltteVy axmihihted, in the shortest tlma
hahitants of Ftwice and England possible, one army. The Archduk*
been more agitated, thfin since the writ- Ferdinand is represented to have b sell
jng^ of our last report. At that tnne excessively indignant at the condxuit of
Baonapaite.fras marching his troops his snperior oiHcer, General Maek, and
towards Banraria, on, as we imaged, he escaped the disgrace of the capitula-
itrdt devised and connected plan, with tixm by running away, as hard as he
}i\s^ army in Itaiv, nnder the conmiand possibly could, with tne troops he could
•f Massena. Nelson was blockading keep around hiin, into Bohemia.
the combined fieets of France and Spain This campaign of Buonaparte hai
m thehaihonr of Cadit. The English been the theine of admiration of every
newspapers, that are- caQed-, fafecly we military officer. The English papers;
hope, government papers, represented called government papers, have, A'ith
Ae Anstrians aa behig^ able not only to their usxial profligacy, converted all thclt
cope with, but to confound every de- praises of General Mack into the most
▼ice of their opponents ; and their Ge^ virulent abnse ; he is now an old ignO^
»enil Mack was proclaimed to be ir rant dotard, bribed, and treacherous.— i
demr god in the s<n«nce of war, and the Everj^ thing that had been p^e^^ously s#
fcttowiedge of tactics^. His head auar- well plaimed, has lieen marred b^r'^his
lets were a^t Uhn, on the banks ot the stapidir^. The poor general himself
Dandbe. Buonaparte was ad^-ancing has suffered too more than abuse. Ho
against him tfrrough the territories of ^vas permitted by* the conqueror to re-
the Elector of Wirtembergh, at whose turn to Austria, but he was not suffbred
palace he ^vas ciTtertained with all im- by his own emperor to enter Vienna^
perial honours by the elector and his. and he is now in confinement, to undcr-
consort^ the princess royal of Engbnd. go the rcsuh of an enquiry into ^is con-i
A-nother army was- advancing from the duct. Notwithstanding all the abus^
aorthwaid, under the command of Ber- thrown upon him, we have no doubt
nadotte, which, by violating the tern- that he wUl be able to defend himself,
lory of Prussia, in oasstng tnrough the Our opinion, however, of dieunforta-
district of Anspach, was enabled to nate general, was always different froiii
cross the Danube at or near Ingoldstat^ that formed of him by the ministerial
Mow Ulm, and thus by coming on the papers and the cabinet of Vienna. His
uear of Mack's army, he was nlJjfcedl reputation was raised upon opinion, uiw
ft e tw e cu two fires, and compelled to supported' by practice. l?rom being
capitulate st Ulm, himsirlf, and the merely a colonel, he was elevated ia
^renter part of the army, that remained* mifitary skill above the Cohourgs and
after various engagements, being taken the Btnnswicl«. The Austrians, iT
pisoners. ThSre were various previa they acted upon bis plans in the last
ons battles, some bloody ones, and in war, proved their insirfficiency ; and if
im account of the campaign they would they did not, that they did not holdhiiA
of <K)ursc bie noticed ; but to the gene- in me estimation which was ascribed ta
lal reader the result of the whole is of him; but the generaPs own conduct^i
llie greatest importance; and the mas- when at the head of the Neapolitan ar-
t^riy ffioveiaeau of Buonapaite.coiQ^ jny^ proved hin w b^^iae^ual to cop<>

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



4M SiaititfPtiiHcAffkirs.

wuh Kij of the Fitach geneiaU of the Austriaa arnir wUl have taken placci
the third or fourth order. In this last and the Arcndulwe Charles may hav«
♦flfeir, hdfwever, he advanced, doubtless, suffered the fate of General Mack. Af.
into BaVaria, on a plan sufficiently ap- ter die capitulation at Ulm, the maia
in-oved of by the Austrian cabinet. His body of the French marched neariy
subsequent moves were dependent on in th^ direcdon of the Danube,
that cabinet, and his stay at Ulm, un- Buonaparte's head-qUarters heing hit
sccountable as it appears, was, we. doubt at Braunaw on the Inn, and fiema-
f>ot, the result of orders from that ca- dotte at Saltesd>ui]g^. Some Busstans
l>inet« The onlj tolerable vindication had appeared on the soudiem side
of such orders from that cabinet was, of the Danube, but were driven, er
tfiai it expected the Russians to be at prudently fell hack of their own accord,
Ulm as soon as Buonaparte;* and ih towards Vienna. The Austria-Russtsio
tfiat case ih^ depended on the certainty army- is, -however, on die* other aide of
«f suecesa. But Buonaparte is. not a the Inn, in various positions, betiKtea
^neral fettered by cabinet decrees; his lieniz and the Danube; and, hv the
plans were laid at P&ris, and bis gene- movements of the French, it sooold
^s, BemadotteindMassena, knew how seem that their point is now to aDoihi-
to act upon every emergency. The latetheaimy of the Archduke Charles.
French also do not ndbt upon the heavy^ For this purpose, Bemadotte will maick
wearisome plan of German tactics.-— to lientz, and Massena will press die
Their plans are grand in the conception. Archduke on his rear, and the main ar-
and in the execution of them they are my of Buonaparte, will keep in check
jopidhke lightning/ Buonaparte against the Austrians and Russians between
(Seneral Mack was, to use a familiar him and Vienna. If success atteads
aaying on the Fr^ch emperor, and a these movements, the triumph of the;
particular general of our own, ** was French arms will be comjdete, and no-
£ke setting Philidor Xo play a game of thing will impede their progress to'Vi^
cb^^is with a babe."' erma, but barbaro)is hordes of Russiansi

The talents of the Archduke Charles without miUtairy skiiS^ dispirited Aui«
bad been tried, and the Austrian cabi- trians* wLdiout able commanders, ani
met gave him the command of its army a populace viranting the enei^ of li«
in Italy. To oppose him, Buonaparte berty, and ready to throw down thdr
sent Massena, a general, whose cam- armsontheftrstappearanceoftheeaeiDy.
I^n in Switaerland, and great mili- But the hopes of negociation, or, A
tary conduct in keepii^; so long the pos- failure of it, the complete destmctiQii
session of Geneo, 4>lape him tar higher of die French annies, are not atanead.
than day Austrian ^neral; and as to Prussia had, douhtless, an importaat
the Russians, it is ridiculous to men- par^ to nlay in this game, for entpiies.
tton them. To Massena was confided The violation of its territory was a svf-
the eare of keeping the Archduke ficient ground for dissatismction, and
Charles in check, that he might not the vbit of the Russiail emperor to Ber-
interfere in the operations •n the Da- lin may have had an effect upon his
nube; and this task viras completely kingl^^ brother. The two soverdgos
performed. Some enflasements took are said to have had a meeting over the
place, in which the arcnduke is said to remains of the great Frederick, and
Bave been a lo^er ; and wecannot doubt there to have sworn together mutual
of one loss, as the articles of capitula- and eternal friendship. Histoiy records
tion foir some thousands have reached sufficient instances of the eternity of
• vs. At that time, Massena's head- friendship among kings ; and if the
Quarters were at Montebello, between royal corpse could at that moment have
Vicenza and Verona; and the Archduke, been animal^, he would have {xuntcd
if we can give credit to report,, was on to the emperor in arms in the midst of
the move, probably intending to de- his soldiers, and shexm them a man
acend into the lower regions toyrards who was not wasting his time in idle
Austria, to unite with the advanced ar- vows or ceremonial visits. The Pnis-
my in the defence of the capital. sians are also said to be wishing fqr war.

It is difficult to sketch the move- and their sovereign is doubtless pnldent
toents of a campaign made by the in collecting anhis forces, andpre[«u^
French. Before tnis is published, an- ing them for the line of conduct pru*
Other engagement oc cap»itulatioa of the deuce may dictate. The French Aave^

Digitized by LjOOQIC -



State of PubGc' Affair f. 4$3

tnt the xn09t part, quitted Hanover ; vx proclaimed to the continent that he W3»

tiaiQeln, however, they retain a strong wishing for commercfi and a navy ; and

garrison, and thi^ place will hold oat England displayed her wonted superw

lo the last extremity. The Prussians ority on the seas.

iiave marched into the electorate ; the At the time that Buonaparte wa»

arms of England have resumed their making his celebrated speech, in which

pliices m tt ; an expedition, has sailed he expressed those sentiments, neaped

noai England, to be landed to the to his heart, he Httle itnagiued that aai

i>onh ; the king of Sweden is in mo- event, most disastrous to • his wishes,

tioQ with his troops from Stralsund.-^ had destroyed his hopes of additional

What wiH be the effect of all these naval strength. At the sonth-westerit

mightjr manoeuvres, time wilV discover : extremity of Spain, near Cape Trefs^

hint it is to be recollected, that, what- gar, the English and combmed fleets

ever they may do in the nonh- of Ger^ were engaged. The latter had escaped

many, or in an attack upon Holland, from Cadiz., with ar.view to enter the

wrU not delay one moment the fate of Mediterranean, and, on forming a junc*

Vienna. Buonaparte will listen to' ne- tion with the ships at Carthagena, thqr

^|t>ciation, and reply to the terms pro- flattered themseWes with the complete '

posed *, but, in trie mean time, his ar- ascendency over that sea. The brave

nties will continue in motion, and on Nelson now commanded our fleet. A(

llieir success will depend his conduct, day-light on the twenty-first of Octo*

His ruin is still prognosticated^ as ber, he descried the enemy, and, l^ a

firmly as when the war begun. How previous arrangement, he carried down

is it possible that an upstart, an usurper, in two columns hts fleet, consisting of

<for these are the most moderate terms twenty-seven ships of the line, three of

, employed in speaking of him), should them being sixty-fours. The engage-^

be able to hold out against the Emperor ment began at noon, and lasted threv

♦f Austria, the Emperor of Russia, the hours ; bat near the middle of ifa shot

King of Prusskky the King of Sw^en, from the tops of the Santissima Trini*^

and the King of England-, who alone is dad, destroyed the most gallant conw.

able to fight, himr single banded ^ The mander known on our naval records.-—

plain answer is, that names do not con- The ball penetrated his breast, and was

fer either skill or strength in them*- declared to be mortal; but, in his dy^

selves ; but when they have been con- ing moments, the hero had the satis-

•nected with skill and bravery^ and sue- fection to knew, that another victoi]^

cess, theyinspire an army with tenfold had graced his name^ and that his pre-

vigour. Tlrus the names of Nelson and diction, before the engagement began^

Buonaparte, the one in England> ^e was nearly accomplish^. On addresf-*

other in France, gai^e the strongest con- ing his omcers^ as they neared the ene*

^denoe of success ; and when Nelson, my, he used these memorabl<^ words r

said, that his captains, in their enthu- " Now they cannot escape us ; Tthin]^

siasm, on seeing him forget his rank as we shall at least make sure of twenty

eommander in chief, he was paying .of them. *^ A few moments before he

both to them and himself the highest expired, tidines were brought him that

compliment. Buonaparte is in the fifteenr sail of the enemy's line had* '

place, which his very name of emperor struck their colours. This number was

implies, at the head of his sokliers ; he soon increased, and at the end of the

marks their qualities ; he daily sees and engagement, it appeared that the enemy

is seen by them. Like Nelson, he com- had left in Qur possession nineteen ships

municates with his generals his plan ; of the line, two of them, the Santis-

he makes them masters of his whole de- sima Trinidad and the Santa Anna, be^

sign ; they are capable of acting on ing first rates, and three flag oliicers«i

evervemergency; andasouTcajytainsun- Viileneuve, the compiander in chief,

der Nelson's command required scarce- A. Aliva? and Cizverosj Spaniards, the

ly^any signals, so are tliere few messages former a vice, and the latter a reax<*

worn the commander in chief of me admiral.

French army to his generals. Time The glory of this day was clouded by
must unravel farther the njighty game, the loss of our brave commander. Thtf
that is now playing, and- every instant following days exhibited a series of dis-
teems with great events. Buonaparte asters. In the morning of the twcntj-
^ shewn h^ prowess lipon land> he second^ agakof wixMicameoni and it



$8€



StiUe tf Pub&c Ajfidrf.



became nccessaiy to destroy several of maniieftted oaly in «cpre&sk>BS <kf gnf(



}he prizes ; «nd such was ^e state of
the weather, that when Achniral CoU
lingvvood, who succeeded Nelson» wrote
bis second, dispatck, he dovhtH niach
ivhether he should bring any at' theie-
inainder into port. Though the lij^-
gtish nayy may not be enridied bv this
engagement* the «fiects of the victory
are no less important. The enemy s
fleet h«LS sustained irrcpaiable loss. It
can no lon^, or at least not for a con-
siderable time, make head against; us .

in the Mediterranean ; ai)d the success ^coontry, whilst they Tiould oonfar the
of this day, if properly uscxi, will coud- miixe on his junior at «pllc^ ibe bn^
terbalance, as fur as England is con- ther of Lord PeUiaro. Tlua. saode at*
cemed, the grand manoeuvras of Bona- rewarding mariiit^uiKS ^nttet 'vKns^
parte on the banks of the Danube. Ration. Let any one aoake a liat of the

But what shall compensate for the jservioes of Kelson, and the dissendpB
loss of our naval hero, the pride and of Loni Melville, the eoioliun«itft of
}>oatst of the English nation; a man. Nelson and his famUy, and tiicDbfiesaD^
who from hi« youth had distinguishetd j)en$ions oi Lord MoWille, and msliuDiij
liimaelf by a series of glorious actions, and adherents. There is notliing liki



or stately monuipants^'2 W^? Ndaon
lived, danger was allotted to him, tsM^
lument to others. Compare .his foitupc
with that of Loid Kaith, Sir John Ovi,
or Admiral Rainier. Compare him also
%vith the peers, whose titles were ob-
tained by claims sitarcely viuble to the
.peonle at lar^. K^gon's brother, now
the beir to his titles, b in the chotch;
the ministry ooukl find only a pveheodal
sUll at Canterbury for the bFotber of tbe
man, who %ras fightitig the battle of bii



and whtf raised himself entirely by his
sneriu to tliat pre-eminence, which
every sailor, in every station, belieyed
to be his due, and under his command
there was not one who would not un-
dergo any hardship, or face any dan-
ger? Nelson not only posseased the ad-
miration but the love of his sailors, and
fhe English nation, which loves the
sailors, joined heartily with them ia
affection for their chief. This love wad
manifest.on the arrival of the news in
jLoiidon, every countenance was mad-
dened ; every heart was |frieved.T— .
Never did victory enter in so solemn a
}orm into the metropolis, and the iri-
vmphs over the foe did not elate any
one, so as to ma]<e him insensible ef cent palace was creeled by the natioa
the price, at which it was purchased, in memory of the Duk&ofXiarlborouglu
Ilkiminations in London testified the actions ; the atchievemenu of NeU^
mixture of jov aiad sorrow, that reigned' ^re equally glorious, at least, and oe^
among us : tiic CNpress and crape were tainly far mor« beneficial to the coun-
~^* ' '' * ' ' . 1 . . ^ ' A similar palace otffiht 10 be elect-

ed on the banks of the Thames, witb
a suitable estate in land, settled nfom
it, to be enjoyed by the fiunily; of Isd*
son, as long as any one remains -, the



arithmetic and the rule of thnc, to mikf
us truly sensible of the straagemetlig^
adt^ted to. leward the beneiactofs of
their country. For c»un|>l^ if Ifid
Nelson's viotioiies deser\,e fourthousaa4
a year and a title, what are the sen^



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 82 of 108)