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the decision of the enterprise, for it was
well known that conquest or death was

in the fore part of this ship*s deck, were
aJldownl killed or wounded ; and od»
gun in particular, was repeatedly deaivd.
Sir Horatio was so entirely resolved to
conquer or to perish in the attempt, that
he led into the action, with sue eosi^s
or flags, viz. red, white, and blue, filing
in diflerent parts of the rigging* he
could not even bear to reflect on the
possibility of his colours being carried
away by a random shot from the enemv.

his object. His resolution being form- The victory which fbllowed was of t6e

ed, the signal was made for the head-
most ship to bear down and engage as
she reached die van of the enemy ; the
next ship to pass by and engage tne se-
cond ship of the line and so on. With
alacrity was-this signal obeyed, the sure
presage of victory gladdened everv heart.

most glorious nature ; few of our coun-
trymen but are acquainted with its de-
tads ; they are impressed on their hearts,
and nothing laore is required from his
biographer, than a tribute of admiiatian
and respect. Suffice it to obscn^ that (he
consummate judcmenf with whidi the

and a general aidonr diflused itself plan ofattackwasformedand executed on

through all ranks. The commanderis,
with that courage which distinguishes
men inured to danger, saw the hazard
of the contest, and prepared to meet it.
Their ships were trained to every exer-

an enemy*s fleet,' moored in a compact
line of battle ; protected inrthe van hj
a battery* and Aanked by four fri^tes,
and many gun boats^ i vi'as worthy the
intrepid mind of Admiral Kelson. The

cise of arms; all means of preservadon victory will stand upon record as a con-

from fire, leaks and other casualties, were
arranged in order ; a bower cable was
sot out of the after part of the ship, and
beut forward that sue might anchor by
the stem ; the dreadful eneines of de-
struction were ready primed, and doubly
loaded, the men at tiieir quarters await

vincing proof of what British sailon,
commanded by able officers, can cflect
in hazardous enterprises.

llie Arabs ana ftlamalukes, who
during this battle had lined the shores
of the l>ay, saw with transport, the re-
sult — indieed they partieipafed, says an

ing, in silent expectation, the orders of ofhcer, with an exultation equal to oor

tlieir superiors : the officers looking re<
spcctfuliy towards their captains, and
awaiting with firmness the awt'ul mo-
ment. From* the situation of the ene-
my, they possessed a most decided ad

own ; and on that and on the two fol-
lowing nights, the whole coast atid
country wt^re illuminated, in celebration
of the victor} . Sir Horatro received a
severe wound ia this battle, supposed

Tantage, as they had nothing to attend 'to have proceeded firom langridge 5hot,
to but their ariillm-, their superior skill or a piece of iron ; the skin of his fore-
in the use of whicn has'so often secured ^d being cut with it, at ri«^t angles,
them splendid victories. on shore. In '''"'' ^ *^ *^

short, each ship being af anchor, be-
came a fixed bi'tlery.
The Gohath, Captain T. . Foky, and

Captain nerry, who happened to stand
near, caught the admiral in his artas. '
Onbcln^ carried into the cock-pit, where
be\-ercd of hisgidlunt crew were stretched

the Zealous, C'upuun Hood, had the with iheir'ahattered iimbV, and mangjcd
honour to itceire the iua fiK Qf the W^ufids^ th« ^uigeoi^ wiih ^r«at io»ety

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Sketch of the Lift qfthtRt. Hon. Fisamnt Nelson.


immediately came to attend on the ad-
miral. No, (replied the hero), IzviUtake
my turn tuith my brawJbUowers I It was
the general opuiion at first, that the
woo^d was of a fatal riature, and Sir

. Horatio gaVfe his directions accordingly.
"W^hen, however, tlie surgeon came to
examine it, notwithstanding its severity,
it appeared evidently not to be mortal.
As soon as the wound was dressed, Sir
Horatio was informed of the French ad-
mirars ship, I'Orient, being on fire, and
ot the great apprehensions, from the
strength of the flames, not only of her

. safety, but even of those British ships
nighest her. Upon this, the admiral,
forgetting the anguish of his wound,
came upon deck, and with a humanity
which particularly characterised him,
ordered out the only boat in a condition
10 swim, to sa\ie the lives of as many of
^e unfortunate enemy as possible ; this

.•example was followed by the command-
ers oFour other ships. Seventy persons
"\vere by this means preserved, and more
would have been saved, but that the
I'Orient soon blew up, with a most
dreadful explosion. Admiral Nelson
afterward sat down and wrote the offi-
cial letter which was published in- the
Gazette, of this action, beginninz, ** AU
mighty God has blessed his Majesty's
^ arms in the late battle, by a git^at vic-
tory, &c.** similar to the famous dis-
^tch of Rodney, after defeating the
Count de Grasse, in 1782, which be-
gan, '* It pleased God of his. divine pro-
vidence, to grant to his Majesty's arms,
fi most complete victory^ &c.'*

^lie bay of Aboukir was covered for
a week with the floating bodies of the
slain, exhibiting a dreadful and awful
spectacle to the contemplative mind \
and though men were continually em-
ployed to sink them, many of the bodies
naving slipped off the shot, re-appeared
jon the surface, Considerable appre-
hensions of a pestilential disorder were
entertained by the troops on shore, from
this circumstance, added to tlie exces-
sive heat of the weather, at the time.
^ We. are mduced to add tlie following
just tribute to the talents of Lord Nel-
son ; partly from a consideration of its
strengthening the propriety of the I^tin
motto which precede this memoir.—" It
is not in the conduct of a fleet alone, that
Lord Nelson \t seen to advantage. Tliere
appears to be something of the states-
loan in him,asweUasofthe commander.

. fi&ai the battle of the Isilc^ \k did tiiat

which Pompey, after the battle of Dii*
rachium, and the Christian confede-
rates after that of Lepanto omitted to do,
and suflcred for their omission ; he made
the best use of his victory. , The Bri-
tish government in, India had taken the
alarm at the progress of tlie French, in
the Mediterranean. Immediately after
the actipn, the admiral dispatched a
messenger overland to Bombay; with
intelligence of the vicioty. fie also
communicated the news to . th^ princt->
pal cabinets of the continent, i^nd re-
vived their droopinj;' spirits. He left
Commodore Trowbridge upon the coast
of Egypt, with six sail of the line, to
burn ilie enemy's transpqrls,aii J to in-
tercept their succours ; and he took
possession of an Island in the enemy's
V'an, fortified with mortars, and can-
non, which had considerably annoyed
his fleet in action^." As some reward
for the valour and discretion displayed
by the admiral on this occasion, lus
sovereign bestowed ou him the honours of
thepeerage by the title of Baron Nelson,
of Thor^, in the county of Noifolk, and
of the Nile.

The news of the battle of the Nile,
caused the greatest sensation throughout
Europe : the Emperor of Germany
broke ofl" the conference at Rastadt for
peace, and the Ottoman porte declared
war against the French. In England,
the victor} was celebrated by means of
bonfires, and illuminations ; while th^
king and both honse^ of parliament ri-
valled each other in their desire of shew-
ing their sense of the services of our
triumphant fleet and its gallant chief.
A pension of 20001. per annum was -
voted Lord Nelson, and his two next
successors in the title. Soon after
the achievement of this great victory,
the admiral, sailed for Naples, where
he arrived on the 22d. of September,
^79^> ^^ '^'As hailed as a deliverer.
The K'mg and Queen exhibited the
most unequivocal marks of esteem and
regard i the former presented him with
a sword, most magnificently enriched
with diamonds, valued at .50001. and
conferred on him the title of Duke of
Bronte, annexing to it Che feud of
Bronte, worth about 50001. per an-
num. | Even the Grand Signior, anx-

♦ Public characters, 1798— l/JW.
f We have been informed that Lord
Nelson, never received moxcthan WfjfA'

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Sketch of the Life tfihe RL f/«i. Fiscomi Nekon;

i^us to shew his esteem and gratitude, the treaty was \ iolated with these cmhai^
" directed a purte of 2000 ze^uins to be pv men and some were put to death ! Tha
- distribiTted among the British seamen, charge has been exnibited in sevcnl
wounded in the battle, and presented worxs on the continent, and amoo^
the n.oble admiral with a diamond others, by Miss Willianis, who mil>-
at^ette or plume of triumph ; as lished the original trraty with uiom
also a rich pelice, worth a thousand strictures, which an idea of its tratk
pounds; the Grand Signior*6 mother, mi^t naturally be supposed to create ia
' added to these a rose set with diamonds, a humane and polished inind. Vit
of ef{ual value. Op the arrival of the read that that great Squish captab,
' Hussian squadron at Naples, admiral Gonsalvo, in the integpty of his ncan,
Nelson directed Commodore Tyow- used to acknowledge with repen tent ks-
' brida;e to go with ■ the squadron, and si^ility his sorrow, at having transmit-
closely blockade Civita Veccbia, and to ted Ciesar Borgia, a prisoner to Spain,
oBer the French favourable tenns, pro- notwithst^ding he iiad tendered him
vided they evacuated that place and assurances of protection. We are h^p-
Borne, which General Grenier, the py to say, that the mind of Lord Nebos
French commander, gladly acceding to, Exhibited no less sensibility on reading
the treaty was signed on board the Cul- the charge, but are still 'more rgoictd to
loden ; a prophecy made to Lord Ncl- learn, that a gentleman who possesses
son, on his arriv2\l at Naples, was by this ^naterials for his Lordship's life, v*2s en-
circumstance actually fuliilled, yiz. trusted some months previous to his
** (hat he sAoiUd take Home by his ships'* death, with a refutation of the stale-

It is not without grief and reluctance ment.
that we feel compelled to notice an ac- On the 6th of November, after an ab-
cusation preferred against our gallant sence of three years. Lord kelson laodr
' countryman at this period ; and the more ed at Yarmouth ; the inhabitants of
80, as we have it not in our power to which greeted him most warmly. On
refute it. We shall however simply the 8th he arrived at London,' wfaer&
state the charge. During that* period everyone was eager to behold "the hero
"vvhcn the name and hopes oi liberty had of the Nile," and the theatres were al-
]n5))ir<fd inn^any the resolution to aim at ways crowded when he appealed. On
its accjuircmcnt, the subjects of the the 9th, being lord mayor's day, hewas
iving of Sicily among others, encouraged invited to the ci\ic feast, when aswoid
by the French, threw off their allegi- was presented him, by Mr. Charaberr
iiicc, and proclaimed what thev termed lain Clarke, from the corpontioo, of
the Parikenopean Republic, llie mili- niost admirs^blc workmao&ip, whidi

* tary skill, however, added to the rcligi- cost 200 guipeas.

OIKS authority of Cardinal Ruffo, who Eager while life remained, to exert h
had placed himself at the head of a body in the service of his country, he dela^
of Calabrians, to oppose the disaffected, nota];i instant ^ifter reaching his nat^
had reduced them' to the necessity of shore, to solicit a ro-Appointment. Hie
ca})iiulation. A treaty was accordmgly famous San Josef of 1 10 guns, which
concluded, signed by the Enj^lish, Turk- Lord Nelson so gallantly took off C^
ish and Russian comftianders. Lord St. Vincent, was immetlittclv jHrepared
!Nelson having in thernean iiinearrijed, to receive his flag^- His friend Cantak

_«______-^-. J"*'''^y ^'5^' nominated to command b«t

^ ' under his lordship, who on the 1st of

from this estcne^ ordering lOOOl. to be January I80J, was oromotcd to the
laid out in its farther improvement, un- rank ot vice-admiral ot the bine. Tlif
^ertlte direction of Mr. Gibbs, l^auter, destination of his lordship was howercr
ai Palermo, llie other 2(XX)1. wtre sudjlciily changed, A leiagoe had been
devoted to the melioration of the pea- concerted between the three great pow-
santry of that ncijshl)o.arh(K)d, whost ^rs of the North, Denmark, Sweden,

* dress and coniforts from this libcmlitv', and Russia, who obstinately ^bted ibt ^
bccaiii- superior to all others in the n -ht claimed by Great Britain, of seartb-

. cou.uiv. The tide jriven to the estate, ing neutral vessels, llie sovereign of
wab 'ii'alKision to the thunder of the Russia had even laid an embargo on all
hatile, Bronte, being the for<;e of the the British ships in his ports, whose
Cvrlop, in which were made the tlum- crews he treated with imexampled 00-
^^s of Jove- See Virg, j£tt, Q. v, 425. ^\}'* A powerfttl amumeat was s^ec^

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Skeich of the life of the Ri. Hon. Viscount Nelson. 4&g^

Jy fitted out, and the expedlUoa placed validity of this opinion, that they oonr
-under the orders of Sir Hyde Parker, sidered any augmentation of the work*
On the 12th of March th^ annapient as superfluous j thcv bad even nedect-
sailed from Yarmouth roads, and early in ed rendering the approach of the British,
the morning of the 11th of May, an attempt of ercat difficulty, as in fact
1801, the adr^iira} made the signal they might, by thp construction of
for scemg landj and on the lyth, water batteries, relying also on tlie co^
^boutnoon, his ship made the 8caw, operation of the Swedes. The wind be-
\vhich was the first general rendezvous ing fair, t^e admiral, to the joy of the
•of the fleet : from the 21st to the 24th, whqle fleet, made on the morning of
therewercm general foul winds, heavy the :ipth the signal to weigh and form
felIsofsleet,snow, andrain,which, ad- the orcjer of battle. Lord Nelson was
dcd to a chillmgcold, caused the officers ordered to lead the van, while Sir Hyde
?nd men very great fatigue*. Parker acted with his division in the

On the 28th, orders were given to rear, as z, corps de resene j and such
prepare for battle; and Lord N>Tson was was the promptitude in executing the
kppomted to lead the attack. The after- orders to form the line and engage, that
"f^li • I 2^^^^ was principally em- at half pst sjx, the Monarch, appointed
ployed m clearmg the ships lor action, . to lead the fleet, was, so far advanced, .
tvhich was done with the utmost alacri- that the enemy opened a heavy and well
, . ty and exjjedition ; and it now remain- supported fire from the whole line of his
ed to give a practical refutation of a long positions; which was ins^antoneously
established error; it having- always been returned by our ships. Lord Nelson,
a received opinion, that tlie possession after having examined and buoyed the
of Cronenberg castle, gave to the Danes outer channel of the middle ground,
^in micontrouled command of the pas- proceeded with 12 ships of the line, all
sage of the Sound ; and indeed, the the frigates, bombs and otheNvessels,
Danes, who were contending for what and on the evening of the 1st of April,
they called the freedom of the sea, had anchored off Draco point, to majte his
^ercisedfdr more than a century, the disposition for the attack, and wait for a
nght of levying contnbutions on all southeriy wind. It was agreed on be-
rcsselb, m projjortion to the value of the twecn the admiral and vice-admiral, that
-cargo, trading to and from the Bailie, the {.hips remaining with the former
rhe tacit assent given by the European should weigh at the same moment his
powers tof this flagrant imposition, ap- lordship did, and menace the crown bat-
}>arently justified by the sanction of tcries, and 4 Danish ships of the line
lime, so far coqfinned the Dan^s, in the that lay at the entrance of the Arsenal ;

^ ^___ as also to cover our disabled ships as they

-*" " " came out of the action. In the morn-

• During the negotiations that were ing of the 2d. of April, the signal waa
carried on, previous to the passing the made to weigh, and to engage the Da-
Sound, an incident occurred which, nish line, consisting of d sail of the line,
though trivial in itbclf, tends to shew the H floating batteries, from 2C) twenty
mode of thinking then prevalent in the pounders to 18 eighteen pounders, and
court of Denmark, and the jxjrfcct siuie one bomb ship, besides scliooner gim
of secQnty in which the Danes consi- vessels. ITjese were supported by the
dered themselyts at that time. An offi- Crown Islands, mounting 88 cannon,
cer of distinction, high in favour with and 4 sail of the line moored in the hai*-
• the prince, came on board the admiral's b(iur*s mouth, and some batteries before
ship, with a verbal answer to one of our noticed on the Island of Amack. The

}>roposals, and finding some difficulty boinb-ship and schooner gun vessels
n expressing with sufficient accuracy, made their escape; the other ly siiil,
the sentiments of his court; wus re- being the whole of the Danish line' to
cjuestcd to communicate them in writ- the southward of the Crown lslanf!>,^
ing. The pen brought for tliis purpose after a contest of 4 hours, were sunk,
happening to b^ ill pointed, beheld it burnt, or taken! In this action, fell
'upand obsened, with a sarcastic smite thegallant captains, Riou and Moss;
to those about him, ** That if our guns besides ()40 brave seamen, killed or
were not better pointed than our pens, wounded. The execution on board the
we should make but little imprcssioa on Danish ships was still more dreadful',
t^f •flhagen,'* * - tlie carnage was c&timated by the coml

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490 Sketch of the Life of the RtJ Hon. Viscount Nelson,

nwndcr in chief, Oliver Fischer, at 1 600. Nelson told the crown princess aid-^
Tbcir vessels were crowded with jnen^ camp Colonel Undholip, who waited
and trom a terrible neglect rsiipposcd to on him respecting the prf^eied flag of
have originated in ilic idea, tliat the truce, that though the JP'iench foughi
wounded might immediately be acconi- bravely, they could not have stood ao
modatedin the city from its proximity) hour the fight which the Danes had done
not a surgeon ttfas on board the ships ; for four. He added, *« I have beea in
when our jpeople, therefore, boanlcd 105 engagements in the course of my
theoi, they found numbers bjeedinc to life, but that of to-day is the most tcy-
^eath ! As soon as the fire of the Da- rible of all." This battle, shortly after,
nish line slackened, and Lord Nelson produced^ peace between the two coui>
perceived the ships and batteries of tHe tl'ies, and Lord Ne^^on, on the 1st of
enemy were in his power, he went to July, returned to England, in conse*
Ilia cabin and wrote a letter to the prince quence of the bad state of hfs hodth. A
royal, representing the expediency of ai- considerable number of small craft bdng
lowing a flag of truce to pass, and $mhig coUiected along the coast of Ftance, for
that it this were denied, he should be the avowed purpose of invasion, I^rd
imder the necessity oi destroying the Nelson had anotner opportunity of ex-
floating batteries, now in his power, erting his valour and talents. Hoisting
'while it would be impossibly to save his flag on board the Unite frigate, then
those brave men by whom they had been lying at Sheernees, he s^Ied with a
^80 gallantly defended. This note was squadron, to attack the harboiir of
addressed " To tkt brothers ofEngtiskmen jBoulogne. On Uiia undertaking he was
^^At Danes,*' When, in • conseqtsence invested with very extensive and unusual
of this representation, he went on shone, powers, lie was even allowed by the
he was received with the most marked Admiralty, three aidesnle-camp, a cir-
respect, both by the prince and the peo- cumstance hitherto unprecedented, ^nit
|>]e. TheBesuitof the conference was panted partly from a consideratioQ of
an acrmistice, which soon l6d to an ami- the inconveniences he was exposed to,
cab|e;<:onvention. It has been observed, from the loss of his ridit arm- By the'
that this dreadful en^ement being attack on JBoulogne, the threats <>f the
^ heard and seen by the Danish on shore, enemy were silenced, and his prepaia-
** wound up the^fefclinps of all ranks to the tions "^ checked ;* the preliminaries of
hi^est pitch of sensibility : but all in- ocace being shortly after signed. Lord
dividual hopes and fears seemed to be Ndson -retired into the bosom nf
lost in a general blaze of patriotic ardour, his chosen circle, at Merton, where be
Froirt the crown prince, whose cool in- is truly said to have enjoyed the oi^
trepidity and judgment were gloriously ^«« tugnital^^ But this loved Ktiie»


■ displayed in the sight of his people

of Europe, to the humblest citizen, one -

heroic^ mind ind nurpose seemed to ani- • On the 4th of Aug. 1 801 , the Gazette
mate and umte the whole. Never had annoiinced that the king had been pleas-
the Danish valour, even in the bnghtest ^d to gmnt the dignity of Baron of the
periods of their history, shone out with united kingdom of Great Britain and
more distinguished lustre. " Their Ireland, to the right honourable Hoia-
danng ancestors of the gth. and 10th tio Viscount Nelson, knidit of the
centunes, did not exhibit greater intre- most honourable order of the bath, and
toidity and prowess minvading, than their viocradmiral of tlic blue sqiiadton of his
descendants of the 19th century did, in majesty's fleet (Duke of Bronte in Sicily,
resisting an invasion from England." knight of the grand cross of St. Ferrfi.
It has been justly added, that if there- nand and of Merit, and of tlie imperial
collection of a common origin, a simi- order of the Crescent) and to the heits
lanty of manners and long habits of of his body lawfully begotten by the
Commbrcial and social intercourse, tends name, style, and title of Baron Nelson,
to impress on the two nations, a convic- of the Nile and of Hilhorough, in the
tion they are formed for reciprocal countyof Norfolk; vvidi reuiaindefs~ to
friendship, the ever memorable battle of Edmund Nelson, clerk, rector of Bam^
Copenhagen, scarcely more glorious to hatn Thorpe, in the said county of Nor-
one than the other, ought to be a long folk, father of the said Horatio Viscount
inemcnto, that they are equally fitted to Nelson, and the heirs male of his body
be mutually dreadful cflCfliies, Lord lawfuUy begotten, aud tQ be- b^tt^j

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Sketch of the Life of the Rt. Hon, Flscouni NelsoH,' 4§t'

> menty so dear aod soothing to his heart, nothing hot a sense of duty could re*
^ -was destined soon to end. His Lord- concile him to. In face, pationoeand
ship had here an opporttunity of eojoy- vigiianoe were the only qualities he- had
ing in tiranquil retirementy the sweets to practise for a very considerable tiiAc* .
of that peac^ wh\cli he himself had so During tl^s period he received . tho ,
largely contributed to conquer! At thanks of the city of London, whick
Mexton he tasted that ineffable delight were however bv jio means so gratifying-
"which arises from tiie intercourse of af- .to his fillings, from the circumstance of
fection and the chaYms of friendship, thd name of his next in command. Sir
lliese were so much the more soothing Ricliatd Bickerton, being unnccounl-
to his feeling mind, as he had been for ably passed over a second time, ei'en
ao many years exposed almost without • when ihe. third in, , command • had beea ■
mtermission to sufferings, fatigue and included. Lord NcUon would not
hardship, of every dlsciiption. Xhough overlook this circumstance, aad wcoce-.
the noble. Admiral reposed^ during the a spirited letter, to the Mayor, inwhioh.*
short intenal of ^eacc, from the perils he shewed a noble generosity of f^tl*
and labours of hi^ professional career, ing, th^t dipl him the hiehest honour*- '
he punctually attended to his. public This letter we shall in a future number -
duties of a different kind. He. had. been give to our readers,
devated for his superior talents and The Toulon fleet, having on iheSOth •
merit, to a place in the hereditary coup- 4>f March escaped out of* hacbour uti^
cil of the nation ^ and though his natu- .observed by the British* adniicstl, .formed .>
lal modesty, prevented him from often a junction, with the Cadiz: squadr^s,
speaking, j^et whenever he did so, wh;it Sr John Orde retreating, before. . thflnt-
he said was 90 much to the purpose, and, with such haste, that he did not'ereii

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