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ORIGINAL CRITICTSM FOR JULY, I805.

** Nulli negabimus, nulli differemus justitiam.**

A viBw OP KELiGioNs. sfaews tliat he is utterly unfit for the

J View of Relipfms, in Tkree Parts, task he has undertaken 5 in fact he

B}f Hannah Adams. A new Edition, appears enamoured of his own bigotrp^.

wUA Corrections amd Additions. Indeed, for a man thus wedded to his

To which is prefixed. An Essay on opinions, to talk of truth, is prepos-

Truih : £f Andrew Fuller, fimton. terous ; it may ser\e to conlirra the

6j. W 9». ' blind admiration of the multitude, but

THE variety of opinions in the re- it can render no service to tlie cause
iinous world, is a matter of of pure Christianity,
astomshment to those who are not Witltout pursuing this gentleman

acquainted with the nature of the pan^^'praph by para^aph in this jussay^

human mind. Persons in general we shall just notice the curious and

deem it a strange phenomenon, superficial manner, after which he has

'whdat the infidel converts it into a treated this important subject. After
serious objection against the truth of having laivi down the leading articles'

Christianity. * of caKinism, he quotes those passage

In a performance of this complexion of scripture which have l)een most

tre expect a rig;orous impartiality : in- controverted, but which, in our trans*

deed a publication of this kind nas no latioh, have been thought favourable

merit in our eyes, without strict atten-* to his system. He then adds : " (jT

tioa to the truth. It ought to resemble language have any determinate mean-

a correct map, where the metropolis ing, it is here plainly taught,*' &c.

is seen in the centre, and all other aid " 7/* this doctrinie be received,

places retain their appropriate position, Christianity is received j if not, the ne-
though scattered to tlie extremity of cord which God hath given of his

the ungdom. The author of such a Son is rejected, and he himself treated'

work has only to study accunicy : this as a liar !'* It is really^ lamentable

is the sine qua non ; that quality which thus to perceive a man of sense either

will impart to it real and substantial deceiving himself or deceiving otliers.

value in tlie estimation of the public. Mr. Fi ought to know better; he

Should these remarks prove Just, caimot call such a mode of puttiiijg;
we cannot think favourabl^r of^ the things together argument; and it is
Eisf^ on Truih, prefixed to this work ; impossible, that with any unprejudiced
the sole purpose of which is, to pre- mind, it should generate conviction.
ju^ce the reader in favour of one sect A papist might come forward with
or party, to the disparagement of all much greater plausibility, and intro-
the rest. EoaneeUcal truth, as it is duce the passage — This is my botiy^
in^vidiously cafied, forms the basis of &c. This is myolood oj the New Tes^
the Essay, and by \vhich we are to tament, &c. and then add, ** ^Hfen-
understand moderate Calvinism, or a ^lage have any determinate meaning,
d^iee €€ Calvinism \ which, after all, it is here plainly taught, that transub-
must be pronounced far below the stantiation is the doctrine oi the New
usual standard of orthodoxy. Had Testament ; If tfiis doctrine be re-
Mr. Fuller introduced the work with ceived, Christianity is received; if not,
some remarks illustrative of the va- the record which God hatl^ given of
rious opinions stated in the work, we his Son is rejected, and he lirmself
should have thanked him forliis la- treated as a liar!!!*'- Surely Mr. F.
bour : but for this his endeavour to must be ashamed of such a fellacious
strengthen and promote a spirit of hi* manner of treating the most important
gotry, he deserves our reprobation, subject in the world.
The contemptuous manner in which As reviewers, we deem it our duty
Mr. F. speaks of moderation and cha- to detect and expose such a spirit ; it
rity^ in the first paragraph of the Essay^ has been the bane of religion m e^veij

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46 On Ike ^Sckncw of Dtftrhcijoir the Sitord and Bayonet •

age, Ani4 is i^ direct opposition to the o» thb scibkc'v oj^ DXFBVCfe.

mild and ^enUe, the meek and hum- ^ Treatiseon the Science of Defence,

ble <reniu» of Christianity. That sitch for the Buford and Bayonet, &c. in

an J)ssay should be prefixed to suck a chse Action. Price '\L U. wi Bdir

u'ork, must at once condemn it : the iiluxtrated witk Plates. Dedicated

reader-wiU expCct trt look in vain for to HRJi. the 'Cbmmandtr in Qbkjf,

a fair* abstract X)f the opinions of in- Bif Anthjony Gordon , A. M. Captain

dividuals or parties, whom the editor of Invalidi retired; who, from Us

Jm-S thus previoitisly bnmded with the incnlrank,isconattonl^caued^4\figor,

odious name of heretics; and who, WE have with due attentionpenued
thus rejecting tJie recmd which Cod this new and extraordiuaiy Treatise -,

f^nth gwen of his Son, must, in his and from our conviction ot its udHfy,.

opinion, be damned to irretrievable vro have no hesitation in recommenH-

misery. ing It as a most instructive and intc^

As to the work itself, it may be resting production, illastrating a j;ieat

sutficieiit to say, tliat it is in the form military subject, as important m its*

of a dictionary; that it embraces a consequences to the present and fiituie

great number of articles ; and that generations, as any ever agitated in-

wliertr the prejudices of the editoi; do this country,

not iutei-fere, we may in general rely Whatever our hrcKoMe opmm

on the information. The Appendix, of thia work may be, w6 confess; that'

however, cotUaim a declaration wor- we are not so much surprised widi its

ll^y of attention: '' All who profess to intrinsic merits and its present stp*

believe in divine revelation, accede to pearanre, as we are to find that a^

the following articles. 1. That there military subject of such immense

Is one Supreme Being of infinite per- magnitude and importanee shoold

It^tioa. 2. That the Supreme Being have remained so long neglected, a«l\'

is the dbject of religious worship, m it were conoeaJed trom the wisdom

3. Tliat Jesus of Nazareth is the and sagacious gcnetmtioa of so many

Messiah. 4. That there will be a agea.

resurrection. And 5. That piety and It is true that Saxe and GNibert

virtue will be rewarded, and impiety have suggested ** that decisive dhnm*

and vice punished.'* It is also added, tages would result to axiy anay coth^

that "upon every religious system versant in the science of detece, were

now embraced, it is our duty and in- it rendered dexterous in applying the

terest to be virtuous aud pious.*' In fort to the foible in close action.'* But

these sentiments we heartily concur : tliese celebrated tacticians entered not

they have our unreserved ararobation. into any detail of particulars, nor intO'

But if these things are so, how could the modus otfrantn, but left this mo-

the editor declare diat jjersons receiv- mentous subject u hei-e they found it,

iag or admitting the above articles, opai to the tirst occuoant. Our pre-

■ can he said to reject the record which sent author has come linppily forward

God hath given of his Son , especially to fill up the void j and with what,

if the admission of these a^rtides be ability is manitest from his work, and

conducive to virtue and piety? But syslemof exert ie proposed; to which

it is the nature of bigotry to contradict (in our opinion) there can exist no co-

ilseJf. I.ct us, however, remember, lour of objection, exceptitog only such

tJvU all the above essential articles are aa has been opposed ta the lirst intro-

admitted by every denomination ; and dudtion of all arts and sciences by ig-

that it is an irrefragable argument for noranceand prejudice, and which nave

their cultivation of moderation and been dispelled by the rays of light and

charity. We trust, then, the efibrts truth, whene\'er thej||were permiued

of pariizans will be of little avail, and to make their apfieaiAce.

ti}j\t persons of every system of feith For were tlve question pat in.regard

will unite together in promoting, not to tlie superiouily in war, of science or

the jargon or human creeds, but the ignorance, of discipline or indiscipline,

divine iuflocnoe of scriptural cfaris- common sense, io(k|iendently of ra-

tianity. tionai discussion, would decide in ft-

vaur of scieuce, and ag^t chapce
and ignorance.

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Oil the SdencS of Defence fir ih'e Swordand Bayonet. 4>

A tKond question. Do the esta- of a few {lassages of the iatroductiou/
Uufidesercijes (which are comprised &c. reiser ving ourselves for more co^
is tbfi manual md tho movement^i) pious extracts on future occasbnn.
gife the soldier any idea of the scieni:e The demonstration of the afoi-csaid
tfdi^eiioe in close action ? Does dex- advantages, resulting from Major Gor«»
toi^in the manual give any notion don*s system, will appear, we are iu-:
IB die man of making thrusts and dined to su[>pose, in tiie work before.
gmds Ibr Ins defence r any mode of us, (which is honoured with the pa-^
tnfag huDsdf and destroying the tronage of the Commander in CbietV
taoRiy at the same time ? Does die and w^s composed by the order of Hi.?*
maad, or any part of it, instruct Royal Highness, to whom it is dedi-
am m the powers of the firelock, as cated) as clear and cogent as any. of
a fever to apply the fort to the foible ? the collaries in Euclid. ' >

Ths answer mtist be. No. And in " Major Gordon being ordered to tura
far opinion, that science is neither i« his thought the subiect of the scieu^e*
nektt nor chimerical, but, on the of defence, is awarf oF the difiicuhy of
OBDtntry, the most useful and im- giving an adequate idea of tbs elemenu ; -
portaat that explains a/id communi- more particularly, as be has been in the'
sates a precise knowledge of the mode habit of demonstrating the poweM of the
of destroying the enemy, and^f pre- swofd by practice, more than by words,
mtiog me efibsion of patrioHc blood He regrets that his talents are not mote
at tiie same time. And we havd too commenMirate to tbc subject: ho-A:ever,«
bilk ao 4fiDAOa of the solid sense and such as they ar^, they shall be willingly
tattnts cffov ^lefend^rs in arms, wito exerted in the eontribation of diis mite of*
are emuhHS to conqoer or die for assistance. If, as a pioneer, he should Ue
Ikir king ftnd couimry, to suppose found useiiil in clearing the way, in it-,
ftat diey will not be \manicn«us in moving any of those asperities which
ooacnrni^ 14 the measwa of , extend- might retard the progress of our defendcn^
in^thesaence of defence to batuUions, in their course to glory, he will be highly -
au of exfifx:istn^ tliem daily and un- gratiied.*'

remittingly in this practice, pnovlously " It tnidit be laid, that the present

to thenr meeting the enetny. ' strength and alory of the nation, its arniy •

This science (as \ce talEe it) is two-, of 800,000 heroes^ who ate tvsoAved to

a^ fiz. reneral and mdhi^ual. The meet and fight, to conqusr or to die for •

utility oT indivklaal defence is not their country, do not ftauiie the aid of

coQtiovefted/ but admitted, as there this exercise, recomtnendea by an invalid.

are schools and masters established The old soldier rejoices to And that the •

fiir the purpose of instructing indivi* nation is now amifd, and competent to

(Us in the use of the hand we^ipoh.. the demolition of the enemy. The e^c-

^t all the advantages fd individual' ploits of Hia Majesty's fo4Ms achieved in^

defence, moltiply in proportior. to the close action, bodi by sea and land, ha<re

Domber of individuals, instructed in demonstmted their superiority, and ar«

the science, so as to co-operate. eogtaved on the heart of the nation : but

The essence and pertoction of the as the discipline is commoti, -and canal,

general aggregate defence, will dep^d theycaqaot insure the destruction of the

on the sluB and precision of th6 iniiB- enemy, without the eftition of patriotic

viduals constituting the whole collect- blood at the »me time; wherefore that

edbody. The great object of the MWk sdcnce cannot be too studiously tahivaied,

before tis, is nvo-fold, \\t. Ifft, To v»1iichinrigoratesindividuals with a power

instruct individuals \i\ the powers of of defending themselves, witbotit suffetiag

the fifdock, so as to givfe them an in- from the etiemy at the same insitnt."

MdttA advanti^e over the enemy of " This science will fender the deslrtie-

sUQrtoope. 2aly, To combine and titfc of the enemy inevitable inclose

exercise die individuals In^ucn uAar- actfon; inspire unnsual confidence} it will •

tial practices and attitudes, ai ^11 give redooble the national enthusiasm, and cjt-

tbem a superiority in number rf two cite a contempt for tbc enemy/'

tootle, in the same space, iptherao- " Gordo 1 has been flattered as the

Jnent of dose action, whatever the proprirtor of a new exerciser but be can«

wmbcr of the etiemv nwy be in the not a rogate to himself the honour of in-

^Vi. Our drcumscrifcfel llniifs must venting an exercise which was' practised

OHifincos, at pr e se n t^ to .the citation more than two thousand years ago« Hi^

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48



On the Science of Defence for the Sword and Sm/onei,



project went only to reWcw a system
which had been neglected for the last
sixteen hundred years. On joining the
leginient, he was astonished to find no
exercise for close action ; no notion of
Making thrusts, cuts, and parades; no
system of defence or offence ; for the
established exercises are adapted only to
the missile weapon, and to the move-
ments in line, column, square^ and ccbii-
loQ, &c. Unable to account for this de-
licet, he made much research, first in this
country, and afterwards on the continent,
to no purpose. The system every where
established was the same, and differed only

. m some trifling minutiae. Being thus un-
expectedly disappointed, be was obliged
to trace the exercises to their origin. At
length ht was gratified with the sight of
the exercise in question, which still re-
mains dormaiit in the magazines of anti-
^ity : in those magazines which are stored
with COLD and diamonds, from which
great kings, philosophers, orators, poets,
and historians, have illumined themselves
lud their coontiics.**

** The established exercises are descend-
ed from the ancient system ; in many re-
spects they have ' been simplified and m-
prvoedi they are well adapted to the mis-
itle weapon ;xhe idle and superfluous ranks
me removed^ and adjdsted in the order
mow established. This order gives them
mi opportunity of co-operating to succour
their friends and destroy the enemy. The
aiKients admired fiicility and simplicity in
their movements; they rejected tnose
which were complex and perplexed ; such
for example as " the marching a squaie by
its right, or by its left front anigle, &c/*

i* Finding ue exercises partly imprpved
tn their descent, although much mutilated
and vitiated in their fundamental and es-
sential parts; under these circumstances,
and the conviction of his own raipd, he
•pltcited the attention of the late General
Buigoyne; then commanding the forces in
Ireland, to the p' oject of introducing some
Jtind of exercise lor close action. The
ptqject, in the opinion of the General^ ap-
peared to be (^ great magnitude, and le-
quiied mature deliberation. After three
months consideration, he thought it iQcr#>
dible th^t anv science could enablt dhe
man to defend himself against twenty gre«

/ nadiers in immediate succession : he could
not believe it, until be had seen the ex-
periment exhibited, attd proved by iepe<*
tiiion. The General being thus convinced,
had no hesitation in ordering a detachment
to be trained ia the bayonet exercise.



Unfortunately for this science, it^ ptoteetor
resigned his situation ; but he tooik care to
recommend the prosecution of the lubjeec
to the succeeding commander in tbk!.
Sir William Pitt, who gave it stoifitr en>.
coura^mcnt. After repeated experiments
exhibited before him, and the late JMt
of Rutland, who was then the Lord Lies*
tenant of Ireland, the project was offered,
under that illustrious sanction^ to His Ma-^
jesty's notice. His Majesty was pleased
to order one hundred recnuts tO be pK*
pared in the new exercise; these men
were honoured by the Royal inspection,
and by his Majesty *s high appiobttion;
which was most graciously, and direaly
signified by his Majesty, and after that
also b^ a Royal mess:^, delivered by iht
late Sir William Fawcett, then die Ad-
jutant Olneral."

^' From experiments made upon tat
different occasions, it appears tJiat ibis'
science doubles the number of the forces,
in all times and places of close action;
and that it invigorates each man with an
addition of power, twenty times greater
than his fisrmcr pou'er, as is dcmonstrateir
in the appendix, from the powen of die
lever.**

We are to observe here, that the
author is far from exaggerating; for
the power of the fort oT the firelock,
with the bayonet aiiixed, or of any
hand weapon equally lonff, when
compared to the power of (he foible,
is one hundred to one, as u proved
from the powers of the lever.

As to the origin of the science, &c.
• '' The progress of anns thus compressed
by Horace, viz.

*' Unguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus

atque ita porro
Pugiiabant aitnis quae fabricaverat

usus,"

was like that of all other sciences, by slew
gradation. Originating in the East, it
migrated to Egypt, whence it was imro-.
duced into Greece, by Cecrops, as an in-
strument for polishing his new city, which
was after that so celebrated as the nuisery
of aru and sciences^ under the name of
Athens.

'* The Grecian states, however dis-
cordant on other points, concurred in^ the
policy of encouraging gymnastic exercMs,
as is manifest from the very signal honogis
accumulated upon the victors of the Isth-
mian, Pvthian, Nemean, and the ceidia-
tion of toe Olyanpic games.

" The coiiqueni]^ heroes (OlympiaKS/y

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On ike SdemDi^Defmcefit ike Samrd and Bayonet. 4§

Hdtimmtd, and mde trittaipfaantl^ in "wm nc^ei Ibr wetlih^ accmittlated ti^
iw dhuiocty io right Hntt^ through titt this traffic.

aoa, whose wadls were levelled &- the '' There were te least tisuneeii sects^

mmmttai lud their wana iauaortalifled (faniliie gladiatorum> such as the betiarii;^

m m iaimiabk efiuioDs of Pindar^ &c. aecutores, samnites;, galli myrmiUoiies^

Ike MVOliidoQ of time wai even marked^ &c. &c. In his edileship, Julius Cftsit

irf dcDominiied to do them hanour. availed himself of that oppoitunity to gia-

ftM^ the period of four yean was called tify die public,- by exhibiqng 300 piirs of

Molmptad/* gladiaton in succession. But this setence,

«'Tkt Ronam, though compmively at first confined to soldien and stigmatized

fthme ibr a Jong time, wtsie superior in l^adiaton, was at length ciiltivated byali

dfe ese of the luiml weapon^ which is thus nuks, as an essential branch of a finished

Ittied by Vegetiiis t education.**

" The Romans owed the conquest of '* Cteero in his Tusculan Qnestibn^
dbe world 10 tiictr p!fe-eminence in the use speaking of the grace and nagnanimitf
ef die swoid^ and to a rind discipline. A msphyed by the gladiators in their tell
hmdhdof Romans could have had nothit^ momentSj, says :
Ut ihas idtace ao oppose to the multitudes

ef dK Gtub, to the enormous siae of the ^* Quis medlocris gladiator ingemuk f
Geimansy to the mimber and corporeal ^uis unquam vuhuin mutavit i

mtaph of the Spniaids. We were at Quis non tnodo stetit> venim edattk
all nmes inferior to the A^cans in the decubuit tiirpiter ?**

ttmuces of wealdi and stratagem, and to

Ae Greeks in all arts and sciences ; but by ^ What gladiator, even of mediocHt^i
an onicmittins cultivation of the hand Has been heard to sigh in ^e 'moment of
ttifoa, a^d by a judictOas selection and extremity ? Which of them ever changed
intraetion of lecruits in the ioaice ^ his countenance ? Which of them' has not
^^teu, Ike Romans cooqueied th^ only not stood in a graceful attitu^^ but
•arii.** has hot even fiillen virtdi ifignity P"

" T^ science originated in the eustom y The ladies also^ seeing the eifteti of
af sacrificing wretched prisoneh of war, this science in adorning the inind ^nd
Append to proptriafe the manes of heroes body, were instructed <' decone mor6
ifau IB battle : thus Achilles gratified palaestne. |ior.**
baidf, and the shade of his ftiand, widi <' As the ilse of the vmr^ in skillful
ikciamcladoa of twelve ex^c^m. and loyal hands, was the bulwark of the

R<»man power, so the abuse of it might

** ikoh^a fl Tpuuv us/»iv[utio¥ subvert the constitution, as in the instances

^yuaf so^ksf ^ ^X^^ *^ Marius, Ceser and Pompey,

Iliad, lib. xxxiii. line 175, iul of simuar traitors, proved the immense

advmitage he had acquired by thi>science,

" Then last of all, and horrible to tell^ from his defeating several (sonsular armies.

U ncrifice 1 twelve Trojan captives And if Cicero had not confined the gla«

fcli.*' dlators to their schools, their junction

Fbpe. with Cauline must have proved &tal to

Rome/*

'^ Sopcndtiaii, tfaou^ tenaoeous of her /' The abuse, and alter that, the loss of

^^,7et admitted some ionovation in tke this science, and of all kinds of discipline^

«e*f.dieresigT^ the persoml exercise toocurted in accelexating .the Ui of tho

^ ^ bloody daner, and permitted the empire

mves to exert themselves tn slaying one " It does not appear, that irdm this

*ftlKr.** These exhibitions of courage period, umil the year 1575, any adequate

as! dexterity attracted multitades of all effort had been made to recall this science.
^QCiiptions ; in consequence of which, " About thi« time, however, under ^

•*« mm of mnk, ob>erving the public Charles IX. of France, its revival w^as

^^^ for these spectacles ^.^necten coU attempted. But as the reformers did not

M (or the instruction of ^iadiators, in proceed upon mathematical princ'ples, nor

di the minntic of the science. These upon the laws 6f motion, and the powers

^. terasd lndi,<ond tlie masters ludi- ot 'the \ewt, it is no wonder that this
"twn,orIamst»« liCntaluse»dGratius science should haw KUOf^^aded, or f»*

YgJ^ jy j£ igiizefllbyV^OOgle



i^ The Sorrows of SeduttUm^

mftined stMkmary for luch a long in* ** Beneath parental roof Maria grows<^
terval. Pure is her mind, her looks each charm

** Their views, however, were hfcri- dlscliMc ;

torious ; the existing practite is derived Each .blushing grace around her fooutepa
firom them. They exploded the barba* strays,

rious, etnpty, insignihcant, sounds, main- And beauty's form her lovely brow dis«
diette, bcnverse, Tcndante, estocsdc, im- pUys;

brODcade, &c. And they introduced the While truth> with winning modesty corn-
significant ordinal t^rmsj viz. prime, se- 4)inM^

conde, tierce, quarte, quime, and the Grace ev*ryaction,'€ff they grace her mind:
ocuve, which are current at this moment. Her soul, fair beaming iu her beauteous
They have left no names of thrusts betv^n face,

the quinte and the octave. \ The eye with' fond complacence loves tQ

*' To give authority to the system. It trace :

vas asserted, that it was the result of Her language ne*er assumes deceit's soft
CJKperiments from nature j that different tones,

peasants having been order^ to make their Her lips ncfer utter what her heart disowm;
efforts in succession, concurred in making Her mild expressions^ as by prudence
their first thrust in prme^ directing the taught^

point high, more to the left than to the Flow forth ingenuous, as they lie in thou^r:
right of the ahtagonist, with the hand in Unnumbered charms her artless smiles dif->
pronation ; that is, with the knuckles and . fuse,

palm downwards, and the convexity of the Her modest mien dark envy's ire subdues ;
nartd upwards. From this weak position. And vain the dart that slander's hand
most ot the cuts and f^ards now used by would aim,

the cavalry are derived." While sweet-ey'd innocence protects her

(To be confi:smd.) fame.*'

Sh^ is thus deacribed as bloomiD^ in

SORROWS OP SBDUCTiOK. her native bower, tijl the Hirtive wiles

The Sorrows of Seduction, with of love decoy her from her peaceiiil

other Poems. home. * Lorenzo is represented as ap-

*' TO the feir nymph, whom beauty's- proachiog with honour's mien, and

charms adorn {x^lished manners^ smiling to pleabe>

With blushing softness, as the opening and speaking to captiva^.



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