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B6% RekitrhahHieCX^reiffkiiiJmieqfJUelhr^

sandth ptft of the saittf annuany apeakiqg^sf thenneltei, addom tel

rtiu^d^rM uv^n thd worthless, rot- dis^reealble tmths.

ten, plastered lunguses,- tfee qrade liie above obsenra^ns I wmld be

Abortions of minor daCibdrs of long far from aop^yuig particcdorW to tbe

demrted mediocrity; — this object, cQrrespc>9aeQce of Richardsan ; 4

tfnd the ha]^(^iness, or at least the in* work edited, with roach abilkj*, and

tenia! satisfaction t^suking fi'om vir- in many points highly interestiDg.'

taous purstttts, ind the many sad and As six vokitnes of letters are perbatpa

nelancholy consequences attendant more than- all yoar readers may have

man, even ibr a time, successftii leisureorindinatioDtowadethrpc^i

v&lafifty, jfre tbe principles unifottnl)^ and as %ome'of the'^xyrrefipoitcleiit$

inculcated throughout tise said vo^ are penonagev well kxiown lb tb&

knnes^ by the aathcMr of ^e Life of literary world, permit m^, Mr. £di-

G. Moriand. tor, to trouble you whir a few re^

I am Sir, your much obliged marks on the most piximBeDt cha*

6i. PorMnd-St. W. Cotuils. tactersof the work.

Jfou. 18, 1805. Considering the great celebrity of

f the autt^or or Pamdi and Clarissa, it

REMARKS ott rkz FAnitiAR coft- is surp^sinff how little has beeQ

REStoi^DBWcs OF RiCHAADsoH, kriowu, till lately, of his peculiar Kli»

. AUTflroR OF CLARISSA. bits and qualificsftions ; 91x1 the morat

To the Bdkor nf the Unioersai Mag. sO as his iriehds had little cause te

.s ra, shield hts character froni examination.

THF ptiblication of familiar letters Like Rottxseau, RichardKn was rea<^

}fin become so ponimon a ciicunf- to coiffess that he owed mOre to ^

$U!nee, that it tnsy be ^'Ojtth ^hile to ntus than to educati<Mi. Indeed iie

enqo^e whfft advahta^s the ^-orld is could make this confession with mord

Mkeiy to derive from the custqlitt. I truth than the moralist af- Gcpc y a — i>

eannot help thtriking it grea^ un- for he was igiiorant of every hmgum

]Kindnes8 to the memory ot a man of but his own. His £itber was a ^s-

eimnence, to piQage the cabinets of appointed partisan ^of tbe Doke o^

his friends of little domestic epistles, Monnioulh. Aftek* the mt^feitunes

writien in the phyful confidence of of that nobleman, he retired* to the

«flh:tion. UiMparaed in st^le, and practite of an hunible trade in Der-

tiMless hi senumeiit, the writer h^re byshhie. Jlicliardson had the edaca*

faHs into mimerous errors of compo- tion of a comnion vUktfe school, and

sidon, and )5ossib]y expresses opinions o^^ed his {Progress in petite literatoro

yhich his better judgment wcnild re* to his industf)' while ttie apprendce ods

ject and disdain, i^t these mistakes a printer.

the blind pcrrtlaHty of his friends is we ledm from the publication of

atpt to CQnjur^ up to ^ detriment of his letters, that Pamela, pia first work.

Ills ^one, and possible injnry Of his hacf sonie fo\mdation in £>!Ci; A

morM character/ when tftc ill-fated friend, it appears, ici tbe coCiiae df a

corre^iident cdq no longer, correct sum^r's ramble, met with an ind*

bis iheleranci^s, or reiR>rm his opi- dent in the family of a country gen-

Ifxons. Whild the author .is thus tlemaii^ of a marriage somewhat si*

likely to^ suffer in reputatbn, it is not milar, to that of PaqoSla. Ri^iaidson

verv prtibable the reader will be had been applied to for a volume of

h^nly benefited : iior should he ex- such ^miliar letters as inight be use*

pect much infbrnoatiou or hnprove- ibl to the humbler ranks of life; in

menf |rom those pages which were att^napting to Write these he prddixed

not formed for the critical eye of pubi Pamela.

lie inspcctibh. Posthumous letters on Tliii Uovd, it must be veOEillecM

private subjects are merely, then, like with surprise, was esteemed at the'

rdics hi the cnbitiet of the anticjuary t time of its appearance ao divine a

of little' r(se, except when they inte- wbtk, that 'torrents c^ comptimeoli

rest om* ^ttectious ^y speaking to us poured on the author ton etery'

pf past tiftles. Ttaitsof character in rank and &:ery quarter. A great

the DratHafij Persorue may, howe- portion of th» ettiwar^aiskj sucote>

Aer, be collected, tliobgh this must is to be attributtKi to the plearing

biid^ew&hc»ititui:foraieD,wheiJ SBode of e^toUry Barra^» thei^

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adcipted ^j oar autl\(9r. The veitatlops of aptive iHisiness^^uwl ^elT
•.xiovclt7 ^f design in Pacqela ,i& also jute^i^t.Qb^jlructedl^ th«^ a^\lU)r
oooj^cypus. SU^^ grand Cv- ce^ry igngi^cc of |«^ihioiiable )ii^.
^u^, 9^^ o\her vr'M aiid improb^^ Six Gnar)^ >v'as r^j^ Und^r Q\c^e
^ctioD^;baaju«t civeii way^o the U- auspicious dr<^\:\in.sto2y.^. Thefavor-
crentiotis pen of 4^. Behn* A np- ^ai4e st^e vf^iclini'dscfn's ^Iiair3, pre«
^vel ^tinpfe in Juctiojn, and 9iQral in clvuiea the nesoebsity of his persoit^
se£itiiDeul> W|is a wonder. .procUioQd ip^terfQrence in business, f'or sevei^l
l3|)r. Ai(^rdson in the in8ta<;iiqe of fa- yeaiis he ,apj;>ears scarcely to h;ive e|k-
5nela. However ^ective this pieqe ^r^ hi3 pnntipg-gfiice^ and to have
Is as a cqfnposition, the exalted prai^ urotited iuuch oy his Tetirenpoent ;
j^ origi^alitv is, however, due to il^ $fst, at No^th-eqaj and afterw^s pt
^n^ who reiormed the taste ot a yicji- rar^n's Green. His acquaintance
<^HX8 m^ ^I-judglng age. . * , witli tl:^e polite >vorld was l\kf wis^

The volumes of .Clarissa werApi:^- . considen^iiy enlarged,' and he enjoy<Kl

Jjshod at dUTer^nt tinx^. Tlie e^i- thccorrespondonce of several Dei;sona

.tliu^iami of the novel-readers on tJfiis of taste and coasequence. The .eif-

.fxxasioa is difiiciilt to be described or . iects of thejse advantages yere vi^ib}e

ffsredited. The author was besieged in his new apd elaborate perfornmnqp.

' ivith aooayaiqus epistles^ some l^- A fire^er divermty of cuarac(er, lp«

filing mercy for tbe heroine, son^e pe- gethier with' more duuteness of cp-

^uiipning for the reformatiim of Love- louring, arc to be discovered in every

lace. Tiiis-earnestiiess was by many section of Sir Charles Grandlson. £1

. carried to a ridiculous excess. Lady ^ost wprks of fancy, we find the

^ra^khaighy describes such exquisite author to have derived a hint for the

• jKi^gs gt distress on ^finding Cl^ris^a leading incidents from some circuin*

must &11^ as the cyanic would pro- /Stance of his own .life. X^iswasthe

^UKinqe c^bleof proceeding 4nly .case with RlqhardsQh: who In bjs

,£roak passions too strong or judg- youth was on thepoint of iQrfnii\g.a

.ipept iqo weak. Tlie .same lady js ina^rvoaonifu conuectiqn with ^a lady

.so &niasticsillv zealous in her wishes of Apin^, Catholic principles, truva

So promote a happy catastrophe to^the ,)|is^nsationp i^t thatperiod, no dppbt,

.vrork, that she thps ^pr^sses h<^rse]f |>e was proqipted to describe the u^t*

ipa letter to the author : *• Pray, Sir, plexit/ of Sir Charles in A js^nUir

make her happy ! y6|i can so easily situation. Xhis no^el was not xp*

*do it ! Pray reform him ! ff^Ul f^ou -ccivpd with quite so mucji ^nthp^i-

,not save a soul, SirF" This novel asm as Ip other productions, ll^e

•e$tablisl}ed tlie reputfitioh of ^ich- charge of prplixjty .was {idvonoed .widi

.arfison, axKi added materially to his more earnestness. T|)e wq^k w^s

.friends and his fortune. SliorUy afiqr ..said (to be coiitinued, ,a volqxne 0ft^r

.iL«i appearance, not a volume reinained \b^ story was brought to jin issut^-^

.in Wad bvit of an edition of tluree .circuo^staqce ,that led the .foi;^^

f thousand! The >york was alsQ trans- tra^islators to imagine £re$h inattv

Jated into French, Dutch and .Oec- w^*) about to be brought fprward^aci^

;9)an. Though all /idmired this per- the history re^uni^d in future i^vvti^

(fbrmanoe, yet p^ny deemed it soipQ- -bers. Indeed, t:.e ai thor .seji,^ ,to

' ^'iiat pro)ix. Amons these wa*; vVaron Jia> e,n>editated ^notlv^r yqluipe } JbHul,

.Hill, and Lady Jb)chiin, both of wlKxn :fortuna(ely .for hb xepui^tion, ^

attejippted an abridgdient^ and tlie abandouea t^ie qqterprise. jCe(|iou$j|7

Jotter sugg^ked a correction pf .thp circun^^tantial as many deem .his pt^

.catastrophe.' ^'hese aKei;atioas were .vels, each was consklsi^bif abbr^>

.submitted to Richard<ion, but (>e na- .ated.qn r^visol -, Clarissa w^s^ shcflV

(tiu;;^ly smiled at the vain temeii^ i|f cned by two whole voluipes befoga

- jthe conceit. Publication. Px. Johnson, jiMuigt?d so

As female excellence had heexi the Jiiglilv of the merit of .lUchard^KxOl
.object .illustrated in his two first pt^a^ions,thathe\irhos noosteatQ-
Works; our author now-dosigoed a estly to request an accurate iudc^ tp
.model ;for the other ^ex. Toe id- the thrie> mightbe printq4 in a $e^«
tepded' title of Sir Charles Grandi^n rat^ volnme.
,was ^'ihe nood Ma?i:* His first pro- fikihard^o^ it appears, ua0 Ul^
^jj^pfi»J^Z ^K9^«U4^d jmdift \i^ ^^ 3»thot «f <' Fa^ar LetUi»r

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504 Remarks on the Cofrespondettce of Bichardsan, Aaihot of'CtmMi.

*' a paper in the Rambler/* No. 05 ; casions wliich called for more tnascJU

• and " an Edition of iEsop's Fables, line modes, of expression. It ram

• vith Reflections." He likewise print- likewise be c^^erved, thathcchiefr
cd a sort of manual, intitled *' Alax^ corresponds with females, in vntio^
iins drawn from Clarissa, &:c.*' • to whom, he might allow himself t

To speak of Richardson's merits or careless case of rfyle.
defects as a novelist, were, in this ^rliaps the reader, on inspectirij
place, impertinent. My object in this letter after letter, written to enqoiit
little comimmication, is to arrange sSiat dear Miss M. or food AIrs.G»
what new lights are thrown on his may be tempted to vish the andior
' character by* the publication of his haa emjiloped his leisure in pusuits
private corres|x)n*dence ; and to- se- more likcV to accc»leratc geoeral im-
lect any anecdotes wliich may gratify provement and pleasure. But, as
his admirers. I have before susfgesteii an apology, it may be remarked, that
tlie danger to which a writer is sub- X4ichardLson,.who<ie jiini wasaknow-
jected by those who break opeiv the ledge of the more intricate more-
supposed sacred cover of his tamiliar ments of the human heart, mr^htex-
lettcrs. On a patient investigation, pect conhitliTtihle hinrs from the ccrt-
such appears to be tlic citse with the lidcntiiil vhil chat of sensible and
equally witty and pathetic Richard* - youth till women. From a similar
ion. By otrasional flashe* we may • advantaiije he derived thejgerm of tliat
recognise the novelist ; a brilliant sen- • thorungh acquaintance fie obtained
t^nce,B glowing thought, sometimes with tlie piission of lo\'e. — ^VVhiJeyef
occurs; but we l(K)k in vain tor a ^- a boy, s<MHer'love-si<^k j;iris of !iis iia-
fteral strength of style, or superior tive village appointed fiitii their ana-
exercise of reflection. A fliiipant^ • nuensb, in the prosecution of tJier
lively manner prevails, often highly iiuiocent amours. Thtw Richardson
agreeable ; but bold originality of was employed tlirough the whole of
klea, or exemplary excellence of epis- a long fife, in unraveling tlMtireue
tolary arrangement, are seldom to be whicli has defied the ingenuity d
met with. Every page exhibits his many a student — the heart of woman,
want of reading j and many, can be Gentle and endearing as Ridafd-
lound to evince his carelessness of son apjiears to his lady^correspoii'
phraseology. Gray has been blamed dents, we find, with recret, that in
ibr the eifemiuate "style of his letters 5 the characters of husband and ferfw,
and his expression. '* O you mon- his features- assumed a sterner and
ater I" has been ridiculed without more rigid cast- A painftil distatice
mercj^. Gray, is no longer singular was presenred between the pnront
In this efleminjicy. The author of and tne child, which repressed tbff"
Clarissa begins one of hb epistles ingenuousness- of youth; and disbo<
thus^:— ." CVoAW thing! You cannot, nouredthc feelings of matoritr- Bay-
y;ou will not give me. Sec:' Expres- ftil and attectidifate as lUcJiardson sp-
«ing his wish tbr the publication of a pears with his '• adopted! daughterf,"*
friend's works, he says, "O! that (i.e. young women iif fortune who
you could resolve to publish your frequently visited in the family) tbb
pieces ih two preliy volumes F*^ In endearing familiarity ceases wHen his
anoUier letter, jsc meet the foU own children are to be addressed, ft
lowing sentences : *' Yesterday, at is seriously painflU to obser\'ethecon-
I^orth-end, your billet, apologizing fidence with which his alien conts-
Ibr Hhe disappointment, was given pondeiyts address hiiiK *' Bear I^,*'
me. Liid, iiial what a giddy appear- and write with iflippant gaiety, wnils
ance, thought I— O that I had half his ditughters are txmght to use the
Uie lifis, the spirits, &c." commencement, " Honoured Sir;"

Numerous similar passages might and to pen . their sentenc*es with le-
be f/dduced. The retider would cer- serve and 9p|>rehennon.
Cainly sxippo?e ihem the exclamations The follovring extract gives no voy
of a lady, lint lot us remcinlier that his;Ji idea of the rending of his bdr;




iiQd i^iiil^v-ulvtu'iru^Uicxcuuk eiu^j- boJi^ aif amuseuNM i fcroi^t*^ '

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Vrt the Mtmagmenffifihe Ajfavrs oftht fdor\



ttiBx^it i/ catted AriostOy or Orlando
\Furioi'o; and is in its way,' a most
* "Wonderful piece of imagination, &c."
Though not very learned, these ladies
■were still entitled, from youth and sen-
sibility, to the utmost respect. Rich-
ardson does not seem very particular
on this head, in si^ch observafrons as
' the following : addressing Miss Mul-
«o, he says, " Well, but you must
excuse ^^er," (a lady latdr married)
•' perhaps it was bv the aavice of her
physicians, at the Hot Wells j by tlie
effect of the Bristol waters, drank on
the spot. They may be the lethe of
one love, and the inspirer of another."
Many have errtertamed an idlea, that
he was assisted in his noveh by some
intimate friends ; but this suspicion
appears erroneous. Lady Bradshaigh
flttenlpted one letter, in cliaracter of
Lady G.; and the famous Fmimanazer
wrote some pages for die second patt
of Pamela; but both these were re-
jected. Some thoughts on education,
gi%'en to Mrs. Shirley, in Sif Charles,
and probably the Pedant'? Letter, in
which an affectation of Icammg is so
happily ridiculed, are the only parts
for which Richardson was indebted to
the pens of his acquaintance. Yet it
must not be concealed, that Clarissa
underwent the critical examination of
Colley Cibber, Dr. Youngs and x\a-
ron Hill, prior to publication. -

Richardson was subject to an un-
pleasant diffidence, when mixing
witli the world at Inije. The follow-
ing mention of this fSiling, in one of
his letters to Lady Bradshaigh, will be
found to convey ^ Hvely idea of the
author's manner : "You will find a
man looking directly foreright, as
passengers wDuld imagine, tiut ob-
serving all that stirs on either hand of
him, without mo%Mng his short neck j
a regular, even pace; stealmg away
ground rather than seeming to rid it ;
a fipsey eye, too often overdouded by
mtftmess from tlie head ; by chance
lively, verv- li\t?ly if he sees any he
Xove^r If lie approaches a lady, his
^e is ne\*er fixed first on her fece,
but on her feet, and rears it up by de-
grees,, seeming to set her tio>\'n as so,
•rso." '

Hi* ner\'ous dijiorders, brought on
Uy application, embittered his last
▼ears, and hastened iiis deatl». Ex-
tretne temperance, and the best me-
«kl> WTW* -Woih teuffiwfrt -to



SOS:



counteract the evils created by seden-
tary habits.

•^ Every writer has his peculiar me-,
"thods of composing. Richardson
professes to write without any rcgi>
Jar s}'stem: letter produced letter}
and on6 incident grew upon the con-
sequences of another > like* the French
flower-painter, who ne\'er plans hl4
''bouquet, but intermingles the rose,
th^ tulip, and the jessamine; as fancy
prompts, or the powers of contrast
prescribe. He wrote chiefly befbr«
oreakfast, and held a small piece of
board in his hand, on which he placed
hrspapcr.

Tlie most pleasing part of his cha-
racter remains to be mentioned — un-
bounded generosity. He sent Aaron
Hilh a hundred pounds, on an emer-
gency ; ten pounds recovered from a
suspicious debtor at D\iblin, here-
•quests his friend to divide am6ng hr's
parishioners, in a hard and steril sea- '
son. Wlien Boswell asked Johi^son,.
ti'hat he recollected of Mr. Richard^
son ? ' Johnson's memory furnished
•him with little to reply. It is to Ixf
lamented, that no friend 'was theil ■
empowered to whisper, " Richard-
son bailed you from a prison, when
you were poor, sick, and hopeless !•

If the 'above sketdi meet tlie ai>-|
probation of your readers, 1 may oi
induced, in a future numbe?:, to sub-
mit -some 'mention of various other
literary characters concerned in Rich-
ardson's correspondence,
And am Sir,

Your's, kc. I. N. B-

ON THE MANArr»=:MENT OF THE AF-
FAIRS OF THE POOR.

(Concluded from page 899.)
Letter III.
For the Universal Maga:dnc.

SIR,

THE raising a flind for the relief
of the poor, aird the applying of that
fund properly, hath Ix^en a branch of
political economy, unaccountably neg-
lected, by legislators and magistrates,
for more than a century ; and the pa-
rish officers have been left to follow
tlieu* own pliuis, aud to deliver in
such account at the end of the year ;
whidi they knew would not heir a



* This fact is ascertained by ;\ letter
'of Johnsoo'b, priotcd i».thc coliccticmr.

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^06 . Xh ike if^0t(gm€^i ^<Ai 4^f(M^$ ^ii^ l^<nn

tcWAxyy, and, if eiiaooiiaiwlt^sitougfat Jj^^^jiurttotbet^of tanuw ^Wr

to have been^ must have hecnieject- jiidice;^ of a h^^^jnrajc^ueapeopteta
ed by entry Jiotiest ..and .C3ndid person. "tJieir ^dvantag;ei ^peciaUy as the Wf^
Tl]>i scrdou^ consequences whidi hare tJQii^te Qf&priog .oi^ttie^dei^^ duQ^g
been produced, by th'Ls^c^;iei;al iiviU Uie existence uf the religious Rouses,
tei^tioii, have uiduced some to suppose were vecvmioperous, a^id oeing?»'boI|^
thai tjue.evjisw hichtUey see increasi^ .unptrovic(ed iojc^fisx^tA the sSBbctkiu
to an alar^uig magnitude^ derive kj^e^ of those they were ijelated tQ, inlp
origin from the cumpnUatory .svstejqa^ thair service ; as well as the appreben-
which they ;iay was iirst pqssed.iuto a skms of tnose.to wJbomdiey ^irere not.
law, in the reign .of Eli^beth^ as ^ Such &wai;9is of begg^« maiyhalW
temporary scheme, to appe^ethe cla* ^4 disciplined in aUtbe 2^ of lazi-
mors of a set o.f. beggars; which the Ae§s«^ndp'vQU9^oth^,4MpersiDg them-
•suppression of religious houses iiad selves iroi9 ^i^tript to district, aoj
thrown upon the public. cdenoupci^ig diversified .c\u:ses gainst

If the annals ot our ancestors upon ^^t aespojlers pf the charch^^d tli^e
this subject> may be dee^ied.au^hen- xohbers .oi the saints, wereswctent
tic, the poor were norlefttothecliance ,to deter a body of prudent le^slaton
pf a doubtful ex iiitenc^ from voluntary J^om adoring any measure, ihat v»
contributions, even.intiied^ys of ^ipg spre to mcar their ceiiisure. $u^
Alfred; but it may be diHicuit to qqY- .would have .been the system. of any
lect from any remains of this r^note poor-laws, that woqj^ have ba<l £btr ks
period^of eur History^ in what oiaar J)a$is a distinction oetween ^e idle
ner, or in what proportion, contribvi- ^d the industrious^, and tfaerefom tbp
tions were raisecl on the laity. In the l^islatuce was obliged to make a ooai-
Mirror,* which hath been considered ptiuix^ise between justice aadei^efli-
is a collection .of Saxon laws, and of .ency."

proceedings in their.courts of justice. If the author of the focegcnng ««!•
It was ordered by .that great and wise ti^ct had.examinetl our atatiite books
King, that the poor sliould be ^us^ /or Information, he .might h^nre dif-
ipiined, by parsons, and rectors p^ covered that those, whQm heiiathso
churches, agisted, by^their parishion- severely censured, vvere sot. quite ao
crs j imd that they. ought not to be left .Q^utiogs and shy, as he hath .sepiie*
io die for want of sustenance. . sented them \ for they, tried A-erj >e~

Tlie hbtory, and end(wments of vere measures .to" sup^iress idle, bi^
jnonasteries, seem to intini^te, (hat ging, and ^vandermt; people, befixe
a similar plan was continued, wilh they provided for ineir emplc^rmeot,
some variations, until their suppres- and for tlie sui^port of the impoteiit
aionj which so entirely changed the poor, L^ the compulsatory law.
fece of tilings, that in the reiyn of . In the I4£liz. c. ^, it was enacted,
Elizabeth, Cecil, and Walsingliani, .tJwt a vagrant above the ag^ of fouT-
and the.rcst of Her Maipsty'soHii)- teen years, should be gr^ously whip-
selJors, were driven by dire necessity, ped, and bored through the ms|]e4)(
to pas^ the c^>mpul.satory Uw, ^^"or the tie ear with. a hot iron of Se cqyj-
presenation of tlie poor. piiss pf m kich, unless he was takep

A late wrkcr on this subject enter- into semce by some acditahle .per-
tains but a mean opiiiion of tiie wis- .^on ^r a year. .
dom of these great men ; tor he says, .-If this 'cruel statute was .repealed,
*' theibolerieii of charit}' that olw-avs with some others, which wcrej^seJ
accompanied tiie impositions of the for tlie punishment gf .vagrapts in thie
church of Rome, "had trained up nw- 39 .tliz. c. 4, it cartaiiiiy was dqI
m^rous hordes of idle people, whose through any tear of thepi. It was
clamors \vereali but kiitr:cieiUtok^i''«t tly.ni enacted, fhatahe justLoesjihPuid
ijatein their own fdvour,and were whol- .erect Jiousqs of cv^rection, in eves/

. ; county, aty, aod borough toKHi,

->-. , • . , • j-Qj. J jjg j.^^^ p'tion of bejjgars, vagr^ts,

♦ Miroir, prmtffd at London, A. D. «a^ wanderers ^ of divers ..dfpomi-
1642. p. 10. ordeiur fuist ;.le$ poore Wationsi and if they did not.know their
fiiisswit snstenu-i par Ics persons rcttots J»risl), thoy ysere to be cpufiiiesid Ip
decsgliscand ptr ics parochimns qy<|ue .hard, labour, till they could bej?ro-
•LuineiuorusLpcr dd'uaitdv ^ust^uancjB. -vidcd .with, a ^ecvipi.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Oft ike MMOger^ekt ^

When ^ey declared the pfooe ef
>etr biftli, or where they lived last,
key were to be stripped naked to the
rzist, and whipped i and to have a let-
ir under the beal of the franchise, of
le date of their punishnient, and time
Uowcd them to return home ; but if
ley loitered on tlie road longer than
ley ought to have done^ they migh(,
r apprehended, be whipped again, a
ecood, and even a third tihie.

Does this look as if the legislatofs ki
he reign of Elizabeth w^re infiuep-
ed by any narrow policy? of dfd
aey sacrifice justice to erxpediency, \o
I'oid tlie Censure of vagrants ?

They who will candidly examine
ae acts tliat were jassed at dillerent
ines, to compel the idle to work -, and
tteud to the words of the statute of
|M» forty-third year of the reign of
£zabeth for raising a fnnd, as there
lentioned, they wul have reason to
axidude, Uiat it was not a plan hastily
ik^tedi bat part of a system, tvbicn
ad been graduaAy matuiius; and
lar it was half a century atter the
ippre^sioai of rehgiqu» hou^s# before
le taxim^ of property for the employ •
lept and relief of tlie poor.

The wisdom of those great legisla-
Mrs and lawgivers, 19 ^ot yet totally
ciipsed by the revolutions wldch tim^
ata tntrbaucedin the morals andha^
its of the people ^ for tlierr system
light still be rendered salutary, if wd
fex<e ia cut oif' the innovations whicb
ave been grafted upon it. But, let
beact first sp^ak for itself.

* The overseers, with the consent of
be magistrates, were to take orders
IT employing the children of such
arentsy as^ could, not maintain them,
iliey were also to set to work married
nd unnoarried persons, wb<^ were abk
hd could not procure it.

This was te be done by^^nen^
ixaticMi, and by wbtch> ihty Wera to
lise a cohip^tent sunl towards the
ecessanrrelief of the impotent, lame,
}d, ana bllnd^ who were not dble to
rcik.

Here the path was«o£leairiy marked
at for those who had the manage-
lent of the aflairs of the poor, that it
ertainly requited at first tne induence
f sc4f.interest and'parliality to errin

• If the jjudgment had been l^t un-



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 92 of 108)