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iassed, neither magistrates, nor ofii-
BTS could liave mistaken the intentions
f the lawgivers. Their power was

i^ 4falfsofihe fibor. . S6p

giufrdedwithstforiglimifs. Tbeywer
to compel the idle to work, to providte
e'mprloyment for those vAw were wil- .
ling, and to supply only stidi with re^
liei, as they found 'inar|)ab)e of labour.

While the sick, the weak, thelame,
and tJie helpless, form a conskierable
number of those, wjio compose parish-
es, counties, and kingdomSi it will be
a bold, and probably a rash step, which
may bie attended >vithfatql consequen-
ces to> thousands, in times like the
present, to repeal at once the coni-
pulsatory law, ior ^ic relief of the old,
and impotent poor.

It must be acknowledged by preju-
dice itself, that as the parochial fund
hath for many years been disposed of,
it hath been an eucooragement to
drunkenness, idleness, and vke; and
it hath been the means cf nearly anni-'
hilating that provident care, and that
independelit spirit, which once glowed
with great vigour, even in tiie brcas',
of the lower order of Englithmen
Wlial hatlf been' the consequenct
of this degeneracy ? Instead of receiv-
ing assistance with gratitude, they will
HOW insolently demand as a right, much
more than the law ever inteuUed them.
Tl>e8e,itmust be confessed, aie alarm-.
ing evilSi and it is highly necessary
some ^tep should be taken to checi^
them ; but before we iiKJculate with
new innm ations, it may be prudent to
inquire more particularly from whence
the old ones originated -y for if we dis-.
cover the source of tlie evil, we may,
if we eudeaVour, apply gradual restora-
tives, jsndi in time, a reinedy..

if we attend to the proceedings of
legislators, and parish omcers, for more
thaiY a century past, we shal! have
risason to conclude, that ihey^ have one
and all lost sight both uf the ktter
and the spirit ot the compulsatory law^ *
and the innovations which th^ have
Introduced, have superseded even the
intention of th^ framers of it;

III a statute passed in t lie tliird and
fovttth y^nrs of tlie reign of WilUarri
and Mary, it is said, tliat the cburch*-
WaM^ns land the overseers gave re-
lief to what poor persons, and to what
number tiiey pleased> by which meani
the rates for the reJiet of the poor
were daily iucreORed, contrary to thft
true intent and meaning of the coni-
puisatoryi statute of the forty-third
year oi the reign of £iizabelh.

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Oh (h0 Mmagem0U of the Affairs of Ike Pear.

Though Ac evil was seen and «:-
JtnowJenged by the legislators of that
aije, they did not appfy a remedy in
the least calculated to resist, and coun-
teract the e\-il. When |)eaiiciQ»8 inno-
4^atiohs are once introduced snto hu-
man systcniis, and suftered to remain^
their natural progress is generally from
bad to worse.

It appem^ by the statute of the Sdi
<7eo. J. c. 8» thai the justices had
adopted the plao of ord^nns^ relief, as
impnidently as the parish otheers ; and
ihat the^ had all of theui lost sighl of
enp ploying the poor* Though tlie error
yas agirin seen and confessed, tiie
legislature still remained Wind to the
<!tv\\ consequences of on iudiscriniinate
Tcliof ; and alltlint was done, was the
limiting the power of tlie ma^strates,
with trifiini; restrictions, wWch have
))een but little attended to ; and relief
is continued to be ordered, both to the
cnost worthy, and the raost worthless.
• The evils which have arisen from
this source are incalculable ; and they
have long cried aloud, but hitherto in
vain, for rechess. The present meth^
of conducting the aiiairs of the poor m
lYiany parishes, is a mixture of abfiur-
ditv, gross n^lcct, and,; to say no worse
of It at present, mismatiagement. Th^ -
{)ersons nominated by the parishioners,
Jind appointed by the magistrates of
fhe district, are compelled to act as
merseers for the year, and if they "be
desirous of doing what is right, meir
time will elapse before they can make
riieraseives acquaijited with the na-
ture and duties oi their office. ^

they know but Iktle, they depeiijjtf
on those who preceded them tor infer*
mation : and there is very often i:
large towns a general methcxl tram-
tnitted from Uie one to the other;
which is, to make the office advas-
tageou£ to tlicmselves and their friendi,
and. the party with whom they are
connected. Many and ver>' exiraor-
•dinary expences Save beefn incarred
by trafficing; and in many instances io-
iquitous practices are intrrxluct d -, ani
the returns of the parisii officers to
parliament io Easter 1603> cont^
many manifest proofs of great mis-

As a compajratire state of expences
between diftereiU towns may strike
the eye, when reasoning will not atr
tract notice, I shall procSice a few inr
stances from that large volun^e of im-
portant information publislied lor the
use of the lords, and the commons, te
shew how nmch some reform is want-
ing, both in the laws ^d in the cx<
ecutien of them.

The expences for keeping a pfnper
for a year in the M-oritnouse, in sij?
neighbouring towns in tlie county of
Middlesex, '«ught to be nearly tile
same^ as the price ofprovisions can-
not be materially diflerent hetii-een
them. I shall therefore exhibit in th^
following taUe, the names of the
places^ tnenumberof paupers in each
noose, the whole expence for keeping
them there for a year.; how much tacS
person^ and how many vi^grants re-
lieved 5 all which may be seenwitk
one g^nce of the eye.

. Names of the

ofpau|>ers ,
in the

Total eipences for

keeping the nan-

pcrs u each House.

Expcncc for a sin-
gle pauper.

Numbers of
VaFrams re-



M*5 »5 ai

14 X x|


1144 17 wj

»i 10 81


Tottenham 7
All-Hallows S


6a6 x6

to 8 a|



490 15 3

a4 » 5

Hornscy •


883 8 6

5 4 "I





7M 3



4nec(hlefof J>r: Pak^*.

^ ^rhe great' diftr^nee in ^he expen- ed two shiUingps oach \ &ad' «Kir at
ffcs for keepiag^ the poor in a work- this low caioukfion, tiiore h another
iouse, in the zfotre mentioned towns, idss to the roimty of saso/. 12v*
» by no nsea&s peculiar to the neigh.- a»d Hornsey and £n&eld paid a oon^
Kmrbood of London^ or the cotmty of siderable pvoportinn of it> throu^hi
S£$l(U«sex 3 ibr greciter disproportions • the ItberaUivof tiieir officers^ and tbeis
-asBf be found In adjoining parishes^ in - ntf^ligeiice in not doin^ their duty.
AKer counties, \yy any one who will Wn«i the load which presses so
be at the trouble ot con^oiting the heaiHy upon thousands, is not only
volume of the returns fo? intorma-* '

- I believe provisions are aa dear in
Kent, as in most of the counties in the :
kuigdom'; and from the inquiries X
have made, which are rather extensive,
the poor are in general asr well cloth-
ed aiid fed, as in any ot her county in'
•the kingdcm. The average price, for* «*ery branch of their duty j with pen*

acknowlectged and ptthltshed to th&
world, are we to continue bending
under it; without endeavouring to ap^'
ply an effectual remedy ? One thing
a)>pear6 certain, that overseers ought-
ndt any longer to be left to follow their
own inventions. Printed instructions
should be prepared, to direct theiii in

keeping a pauper m
ibr a yisa in Middlesex,is 14/. 13^. i^^.
fn Kent, I3t. \4s. yd: As there is I65.
§d: again&t Middlesex in this average
acooant, <he provisions ought to be
dearer, of the poor ought to live bet-
ter, or the niana^eniefft is vvry defec-
tive in some of flie parishes. In Tot-
tenham there appear to be eood re<
gulalion^ y iGT the expence or keeping
a- pauper in their house for a year, ia
no more than 10/. 8f. 7.\d. and it
JOBY be done very weM, with frugality,
an(Fcare« for that sum ; but, I will al-
Jow^ lOA 10^. for a , medium for the
county of Middle«e«, and try what
this calculation will produce.
" The nuoiber of paupers returned in
^ different workhouses in the coun -
ly of Middlesex, annount to 15,l«0,
which nmltipiied 1^ lOZ. 10^. will
produce 1 59,453/. It this sum be sub-
tracted li-oin the wliole expences of
the paupers in all the worknouses, it
will leave 64,595/. 25. !{</. expended.
Or squandered m one year, and in one

alties fer neglect, or aisobedience*
Theii^ proceedings showild be freqiient-^
ly, andv closely inspected, to prevent
any error, peculation, or fiiauo.

They who are intrusted urith this
important duty, and accept it, either
separately, or as a branch of any office
they may hold hi society,- ought
also to have printed (I'lroctious to guide
tlieni, with penalties for neglect, or a
wiliid misapplication of the law.
- I am perfeetlv sensible, that it will
be deemed an invidious undertaking,
to expose to the public eye any thing
which may appear Ukelraud, negli-
gence, or a stretch of powet- In those
who take oflk:es, regardless of the du-
ties attached to them; but when we
find ourselves rapidly sinking under
«be burdens which are laid upon, us,
it is incumbent upon ^very good sub-
ject to exert his endeavours, in the
\ie9X. \99y he can, to correct ev^ery
abyse and misapplication of public
nxmey, raised for any particular pur-
pose. Inapressed with tlip necessity of

county, more than there ought to Jbringiag forward at this time, the illo-
have been, in tliis single article, if gal proceedings of tliose who have

there had been the same attention
paki in all the workhouses, that there
was at Tottenlwm.

Notwithstanding the existing laws
against vagrants, vagrancy appears^ by
me retunis of the parish olficers to
parliament; to be encouraged in many
places. At Hornsey they acknowr
Wge that they relieved 9,61 7> and
at Enfield 50a nonparishioners, and
fnofet of them are considered as hav»
ing been vai^uts. In the whole coun-
ty they reheved 3:^,506 persons of
the same description ; which upon, an
tverage, are apposed to hav€ re^iv-

Y«1.1V, . • ,

the command of tiie money raised for
the relict of the poor, I shall in a fea-
ture letter poi#t out some of the more
gross misapplications, which may per-
haps shew tlie urgency of a remedy
equal to the pvils.


ankcdotrs of dr. falby.

To the Editor of the Universal Mag,

[Continuc4 from page 417.]


IT is a conmion saying, that exam^
pile goes much farther than preccpr,
and youmiglu imngine^ that thcexau)<i

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3|a Jneedoies tf Dr. PdU^l

|de of sach a tutor as we had» whom intent on his sport, <Hi the banka dt
we all loved, and who on many ac- the Cam ; meditating perhaps that
counts was deservine of the respect important question, the happiness oif
ill which he was held, would have a an oyster ; or drawing a panllel be-
powerful influeiice upon us. Negli* tween a weak and fixMish King; ten&<
0gnce in dress might be expectecTtq ed by his subjects the best of kings,
Become the characteristic of a chris* and the. worst pigeon in a dove house;
ijan^ and our heads would be frizzed or determinbg me best possible wa^f
out, in imitation of Paley's scratch, of making a subscription to the thirt3F«
Thecontrary,howe\'er,took place j and nine articles, without believing one
it seemed, that as much pains as were word of them ; when, all at onoe« ha
employed by our tutor to furnish the was roused fiom his reverie, and takeQ
XDside, our frizeur should take to ^m unprofitable fishia^, to a more
adorn the outside of our pates. What- active employment of his &cul-
ever may be said of the degeneracy of ties.

the present race, in one respect, the Halloo ! master \ says the Toioe.
younkers now at college are far su- how deep is this brook? Where can
perior to us, who had their rooms be- I get over it ? Paley left his rod on the
ibre tliem. They do not look so much bank of the river, came to the bnx)k
like monkies; their countenance bears where, on the other side, he saw a
with it a manly semblaiKe ; they are butcher's boy, with a tray of meat be-
Dot, as we were, tortured by a hair- fore him, on horseback, who was
fires^ser, nor do they give an opportuni- afraid to cross the brook>lest on mount-
ity to a professor of divinity to make in^ the bank on the other side, he
a long harangue on the crowd of £ar- might lose his meat, 'lis too deep,
biton^ares, besieging the college gates, says Paley, for you to come over here.
This rpally took place about the timp but by going a few rods higher, yon
that Paley left college. The present Bis- may leap your horse over, tho^h I
hop'Wats6n wasf^ousfor his thun- should tnen be afraid fbrvour way.
ferine oratton^^ and the way to the se- Dang it, master, says the ooy, I dont
iiate house, from his house, lay by like to zo all the way back ; I wish you
£manueland our college gates. Here, would hook the tray over for me, and
I have no deubti he ym beset fre- I will go and leap over, where you
quently by bur hair dressers : the lion say. Come, it is not so very de^,
growled, and we had in cpn?equence and you have been over yoor breeches
a most violent declamation against the already. Here, pulling a penny out
laoh larlilonsorum, portas colUswr of his pocket, here, says he, is a peor
rum ol'sidentiun^, Tne good bishop ny, you shall have tor your pains.
ibrgot the pains bestowed on his owQ Ihank you, replied P^ey, thank you.
^ig by these gentry, ' and that it was Pown slid he instantly into the brook,
just as prepqsterous to entrench him? the water did not come quite up to his
self in such a quantity of horse haijr, breast ; the boy ^ve him the tray,
as it was for us to fill pur beads with pUoped away to abetter spot, and sol
powder and pomatum. back alndost at the time that Pafey

Paley's scratch did not comrpand had set his load on the bank, and was
Te^)ect out of collie; and his garb climbing up it to iretum to his fishing,
was not always so smart as that of his The boy rewarded his porter, gave
Dupils. He was remarkable for his him the pennyj which Paley podceted,
love of fishing ; and the first question and returned in triumph to his col-
lie asked, on the preferment given to le^, to recount ' t|ie success of that
^lim by tlie bishop of Durham, was fi^y's labour.

whetlier it was near a trPUt Stream. . JBaley's fondness for fishii^ may
You may imagine his joy, at hearing be accounted fpr, £rom the natural
that there was one, at the bottom of indolence of his character, which may
, his garden. His picture, from which be seen in his writings b^y those, who
your engraving was taken, is drawp are not content with a superiidal ex-
witli a pshing rod in hishaiid^ but aminatipn of them, lliis indolence
you may be sure that the butcher^s boy distinguished him, when he was an
wouW not have waade the naistake he iinder-gradiitate j and Newton and
did, if he had seen the original, in the (x)cke.were not unfrequently,' in the
-hat, wig, and costume, that the pain- middle of the day, the companions o(
"-r has invented^ Paley was one day ins pillow^ On om of ^os^ day^

\AnecSoies of Dr. Patey*

'Vifixcn he was medttatrng on his exer-
cise in the schools, the porter sum-
rnoned him to the Master's lodge
a(boiit noon ; up got Paley in haste,
dressed himself as fast as he could,
^Ktkd hurried to the lodge, wondering,
all the way he went, what could oc-
casion the summons. What are the
question^, sir, said the master, that
you hate sent to the moderator ? I
understand that you assert, that a fu-
ture state cannot be proved by tht
light of nature. Master., replied Faley i
I aont assert aiiy thin^ upon the sub^
ject ; I have only |)Ut it up ^s a ques-
tion, and I thought it was of no confte-
quente which side I took ; but I am
sure. Sir, if you don't like it, I shall be
ready to alter it. Alter it, to be sure>
said the master^ in a menacing tone,
alter it immediately. Away went Pa-
ley, after most obsequious reverence
paid, away he went to the moderator,

f>at his question in the negative, alid
vy two or three hours, made his the-
ws serve for the alteration.

This trait marks the future man.
l^^o one saw deeper into anv question
than Paley ; he was formeci to medi-
tate for hours together on the actions
of a Paul } but the conduct of a Paul,
k was out of his power to imitate.
We are not to be very much sui^nsed
at this, in bookish and contemplative
men. We are not to expect the ener-

fjr of a Nelson ; whom, by the way,
cannot speak of, without recollecting
6ome pleasant hours spent with him
at our college ; we are not to expect
the energy of a Nelson, in a man who
was accustomed to fish on the banks
Qf the sluggish Cam,and whose labours
were very slight in a study j who de-
lighted in a good dinner, and whose
summum bonum was a rubber of whist
in the conversation room. We might
just as well expect Lord Nelson to
nave confined tiimself to books, as
Paley to bestir himself like that illus-
trious hero. Each man has a differ-
ent part in life allotted tobim; and
the being is, what he is, a variable
sort of animal,- with some predomi-
nant character, which suffers very lit-
tle change from the cradle to the
grave* There are some who can
biend the tiieditatioos of the* study
Vith the business of active life; but
I'aley was not in that tntBaber.

From his indolence of character,
ttid foudnew to e»se> wo loay


account for the inconsistency, with
which he has been charged in his re*
ligious and political conduct. Paley^
the protege of the bishop of Carlisle,
and the friend of John Jebb, might
naturally be expected to have been a
Socinian in religion, and a whi^ in his
politics. What his real sentiment*
were in both respects, is little doubted
by those, who had an opportunity o£
knowing him thoroughly. Th6 Laws
ic^dced were the best acquainted with
his inmost sentiments, and tliey knov/^
best, whether the saying of their &«
ther is true, with respect to the pren
sent Lord Chief Justice of the king's
bench. Here, says he, in his usual
good-hUmoured way, I have beea
trying all I can, to make him a whiffy
and in comes Palev, and spoils all 5 na
positivel^r will make him a tory. On
his teligious sentiments, there is a
saying indeed of Paley's, too often
repeated in the universities, and which
comcides but too intimately with h»
famous chapter on subscription; ''I
cannot afiToixl to« keep a conscience.^*
Yet, though Paley might not have
the en^gy to follow Jebo, in religions
zeal and ardour, nor to speak out so
plainly as bishop Law on certain top«
ics, which excited much horror m
the class, then prevalent, under the
name of the orthodox clergy, but
which is now sinking into oSlivion ;
yet, Plaley was the farthest in the
world from a preferment hunter ; he
would not give himself the trouble to
root after it. The indolence of hia
character preserved him in some
measure fix>m that disgraceful mode
of gaining preferment -, and, besides,
he was above it, from a sensation of
its un worthiness. He was,' indeed,
the author of the term Rooting, an
expression after his time, much used
in the university of Cambridge) de-
noting that baseness and serviKty ox
cliaracter which, like swine rooting;
in a dunghill, will perform the basest
acts for a rich patron, to gain his pro*
tection, and a good benefice*

Paley wa» a likely man to havd
preached a sermpn on the text attri-*
Duted to him, when Rtt, ai^er his
elevation tx> power, made his first ap-^
pearance in the church of St. Mary,
where the university hears its Sunday
sermons. The rooting indeed about
that young man, he would have held
in the utinqist contfiiopt, wad would

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havemnde it the subject of incessant and lam^ted -th^ ibej^y m dammoA
ridicule }• and the topic was aa ex- Mrtth the nation, had bcea so deceK-ed.
ceilent one to exercise the talents of a But who conld have l)eliewed> tliat
good preacher — Ix) \ htre is a younff the son of Cluitliam would have so
lad amongst us, with s basket ofbread. b.elicd the hopes entertained of bim^
and two small hshcs; bat v.4iat are e^tcd «U his predecessors in tlie arte of
they among so many? Piiley would corruption, haven IhII of indeamity
havc made assurailv a good sermon for givmg the public moiie^ to niefii'^
on this subject, swing, ho^^iever, only bers of parliament, and ogkI in teing
that \vhich every one might lauj^h at, the advocate o^'Lord Melville ? -Oh I
o%er a bottle With F*itt'anQ the Heads, spesjiallaces f

But Paley had left tlic university be* I "sliaJl never forgot one instance "Of
f.')rp tins young man was candidate far servility. Pitt himself was ashanoed
asciit in p»«rliainent, bcfurci the time ol'it. How it happened, that I shoold
when iic wns kicked almost out of it, be at the university church that dsfj I
Hot disnirbin;; its jv^ce j when the do not know, but so it was. lYctetiy '
old grave dons enquired of each othcr^ some election liad brought numbera
Who is this incmudcut ^-oung man, of us to the place. In tins cburch tlie
\\ ho presumes thus to Knock at our members olthe university have tbetr
doors, and to intrude h-rrwdf into a respective «atfl allotted them. The

E^st he is so litde qualifi:d t6 fill ?— doctors wt in a gallery opposite to the
ittle did they think at that moment pulpit, which is in the centre of the
that six slioit months only would <^rdi ) tlie under graduates in two
elapse, when thin voimg naan, on his galleries, one <m each side of tbo
return, with the tit lef; ol First Lord of clmrdi, and under tbc pulpit is thm
the Treasury and Chancellor of the place of the masters of arts, and it la
£xchcquer,'would£nd them running called the pit. To this place Mr.
before his wishes, courting bis sniiles, Piit came ; it was his ^<^>er place |
breaking their pi'omises, and anxious and sat Inmself down near to me^
to prove their solicitude tor the Scarcely was ii« sealed, whan tte
powers that be. vice-chancellor ej||)ied ytti,theiie vaa

That Avas a ver^' remarkablo epoch a bnstle with him and tlie heads on iii«
in the lite of Mr. Pitt, ami will not be left hand : for a moment or two they
forgotten by tiie few, who, on iiis were in deep conrniUation, and tiyea
coming down, gave him their support, after a signal from the vice, the beadle
on the strength of his father's charao- mipnoached to him, and received his
ter, the knovr-iec^e the)' possessed of charge. Down came he into the pit «
his taientn, tiie ideas they entertained and mere OMnmunicated to Mr. Fiit
of iiis principles and honesty. How tlie summons of tlie vioe-dbancellor^
lanientiibly were tliey deceived !— to take his seat in the throne, vulgar-*
There were about tvt cmtr of them j ly called Golgotha. Pitt ceceived khm
among thein some of the fiighest cha- summons wi3i evident \einb(vrasment,
meters, and one whom it would ha% e he would Imve blushed, if he couki.
done the minister honour to havfc He quitted us, and t^ doctors wen*
pntroniscd, and to ho va placed in that eager to set him before them« Buor
aiuiation to which, by his talents, he human nature!
is so justly entilleii. The history cf Palcy could not iiave done this : h»
those twenty men, contrasted with would hare l€^ Pitt in his ^nopcr
tiiat of the men who treated Pitt with flace : Ho wotild hate voted most
the utmost insult, would be curious, assuredly for him, beaaise he was one
The twenty, in g^eral, stood firm oftlicsemen, that would always be
bv their principles : Mr. Pitt deserted for thepow^ers that be : bat he would
his! They sicad forward for him, not have displayed any marks «f
when lie st<x)d in need of support i sncakia^inbin vote. Yet Pialey cookl
biu such untjiictable men were nor bustle about sometimes in scnateliouse
the mvn for his purpose. He pre- business: and there was one occasion,
ierred (Lose who would root for pre- in wh^h he exerted himself id a man-
tbrinenl, those who would throw the . ner not at all to his credit. Many rf
dour in his thee, uheu he wa^ out of the partioilars I lune. heard, but bgK
pcnvcr. Ihe twenty men retained auffident to enable roe to give a de-
thpir pi hiciples, gave up the muiiiiterj tailed acooittt i>f ib» traomettoo. M

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Memoirs of tie late Hoheri Orme, Esq. 5IS

ttiiouldJiedbletogain^therinfor- such peraonal obligatloiH to Mr.

jUalion* 1 will ^umnKini^ate it to you Orme^ £ot the iiddit^r, iirecision and

kn my neKt. j[n the mean time Ico^ lioaest impflrtiality with which die

Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 93 of 108)