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his gesture. tliU subject, throughout his ejttejiswc

Here the laui^h went round ok all dorarmons. I do not enter iulo the
the odd stories the gods brought with auestioo, which country is r^t in
them, abo\it the balance of Europe, Uie'maxini 5 but you must atlo^" me,
and the freaks of kings and people, tliat having hved all my Ufe in a
prime ministers and prieste. All pxiotry^ where the king must bear
<}uarreDing was. forbidden for ihe on his shoulders the i^proacb of all
twelve days, and every day during thenoischief tlwt is done ia it, I mu*
their sojourn there^ feel mvself very pleasantly ciicuni-

. Aa-tes'is ^dptvcuclo ysXw^ fjMKa:>sa'9'i staaocd to be in a country, where the
tsrHT't, the laugh, like AbdoQah's, king is the only mao in it who wofet
went round, and from tiie table o*' the does wrong.

gods it was circuiated tliroti^bout th* The Scotchflian^ per force, received
iDtetior of Africa. Sudi a laugh ^le apology ; but from that noomeot
Europeans can have no idea of ^ it k- he set down the African oa his tablets
Ibrbidden by the laws of politeness, a«^ a concealed JacobiR, and deios
Dor ought it to be admitted into good mined to lay an information against
company, till every heart is as free him at tlie alien office. Tfe« rest of
from guile and malignity, as was the company were more curtoos ia
Abdoliah's, when he burst mto such a their enquiries af^ this singular
fit, merely on so trilling an occasion cmmtry, where sucli liberties vi^ere
as words very solemnly uttered— the taken with the sovereign ; and Ab^
Jking can do no wrong. doUah had enough to 3o to answer

Abdollah*a friend, the merchant, interrogatories. Tbev were unacS-
hcgan to ^be uneasy at thii continu- -mous, howeveri witn th« 6xoe|»tion
;tnce of this iaugli ^ the Scotchman, of our merchant, l^at there was no
a very solemn rmm, was quite dis^ |)ossibility df living in such a couBiry,
comp(>sed ; he had not the remotest tor if such liberties were taken with .
conception of what could have occa- the -sovereign, what would becoeoe
fiionea the laugh ^ though he felt un- of pritne ministers; especially as Ab^
rasy at being evidently the author of dolJah told them^udi » thing as a bill
It. ' At last the features of Abdollah of indemnity was unkno's^n in the an^
were restored to their asual compla- nals of tneir history. AbdcJJah
cency; and a glance from his fritnd's lai^hed no more tliat' evening; wd
eye, directing liim to the S^otchmiiu, in his way home, the me^ch^ant >ex-
convinced him that his explQsion re< plained to him tlie impropriety of
quired an apolojgy. Gentlemen, says laughing . in such a company. Yocr
he, lei not my Kugh oflend any one laugh, says he,, when my wife sent
here present. It was not meant to the parson to you to change your le-
hurt any one, and is only of tliat ligion, was ail fairj but to talk of
^species of laughter to which, in couv- .government is a- ticklish thing in this
mon \i'ith my country, I am subject, country. Who knows whether th««
I ha])e the gentleman who spoke last might not be a member of the Sod-
will beUe^.e this, and accept an ap<i- ety for tine Suppres-sion of Vice among
los^y from a stranger, for a conduct us, there is nothing those follows
which he allows to be very reprehen- detest so much as a laugh; and I
sible. The [proverb of my country, really hope tliat We may neither of
aays, laugh with the Inugiiers, but do us get ipto trouble upon this occa-
not begin a laugh wliare all cannot sion. AbdoUah smiled at this re-
join you. The fact is, that 'nhen I mai'k, and proiiused ai^ infiexibk g»*
heard it said, the king of tlvis country vity of countenauce ki future in
can do no wrong, my own country strange company; but the laugh was*
pame at that moment forcibly into my renewed when they got home, at the
. mind, and tlierc every thing that is infallibility and peccability gif th(^
done wrong is imraediotely laid upon r^pective sovereigns. .
the king. Now the contrast betweeq truest, VL What are the pmer
tliese opposite maxims, tick4ed my means of redress when a persDs oaa
fancy beyond nieasure, I could ngt beeo surcharged by; an assessor of tli»

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^ Answers t6 thi Hisioiiad and PkSosophkal Questions. 59$

(axes, andthe exp6nce of going to the to get rid of it> it is evident that tho
.^tetSngfbrredress^ is greater toanthe Person surchdrged had better stay at
suroharg^? noniej and pursue his own occupa<»

Ans. The tax laws in this coantry tlons : if the surcharge is greater'than
^re as voluminous as the taxes them- the expence of g(Mng to the place, still
^ves are burdensome. No other the person surcharged had better stay
country ever saw so many decrees at hdtnej if it is not greater than that
upon such a subject j no bth^r coun* Expence and the worth of his day'a
tiyever pdid so much to the supjJort labour; aiidaday to sohie persona
of its gbvenimenh In sUch a case, may be of cohsiaerable importance,
the conduct of the tax ofticers is doubt* £very persoh 8urchai^ed> then, must^
less a subject worthy of investi^tion 5 before he appeals, taKQ into consider-^
^nd, if tney giv^ the people more ation its expence 5 and if the surchai^e
trouble than is absolutely necessary is a £alse one, his tax is materially Iti*
for the purposes of government, they creased, without any benefit to go^^
ought to be .held up as the objects of yemment. Hence we conclude, tiiat
Just and merited Censure. It was held it is not to the into'est of government
out to us, that cases had 'occurred iU that j)er$ons should be harassed by
Vhich persons h^d been put to more Vexatious surcharges^
trouble than was necessary i thus, that The inspector stands in a very dif-
a man should be surcharged for 'a lerent situation. Bv surcharging a
horse or a servant, when he had omit- number of people, ne appears to his
led keeping it for some thue, and the employers in the light oi a very dili-
inspector might havp kndwh this &ct, gent arid meritorious character. * Sup-
Without giving the {person the trouble t^K)se him t6 have made a hundred
ofdancinghalfoveracou5tytoproveit: surcharges, df which twenty to be
Whether there have been such cases well-foufaded, fifty ill-fdunded, but al«
br not, we will not nowenouire. — lowed, because the persons surcharged
^ere is a probability of sucn cases did not att^d the meeting, and t Jurty-
arisinfl[, and it is right that the nation discharged by the anpearance of proof
'should be upon their guard against of the persons surchaiged; the evi->
Ihem. If the parliaments Were of dehce Will be strongly m favour of the
short duration, tne probability of this inspectors. The tax-ofiice may con-
occurrence would be much diminish- sider him as a iucUcious officer, and
%d : bilt, iil the present severed state set down the false surcharges to the
of the House of Commodsfivm their account of unavoidable mistakes.—
constituents, the prospett of redress. Hence the chances in favour of the
i£ such a case should occur, is hiate- Inspector gaining credit and money by
rially diminished. To answer, how- improper conduct, are great; and
fever, our question as it is put, we there seems to be wanting some regu«
-must take things, as they are: and, lation with respect to this office.

/feven if We lived in a despotical go- The tax-office looks only to the

' Vernmenti it woUld be the interest of amount of taxes; it has notnidg to do
that governmeiit that it should not with the laws by which they are made^
happen. Unless a government gains but, in interpreting them, it has great
something by oppress! n/i; its subjects. Weight. Here then is a question^
it is not worth while to harass them whether they are to lean, in a doubt-
to no purpose* fill case, to the part of the revenue, or
In cases of a surcharge, three par- to the part of the subject > We have
ties are to be considered : the persbn no hesitation in saying, that it ought

' Surcharged, the inspector surcliarging, to lean to the side of the subject; fyt
and the tax-oifice, whose officer the the sttbject may be put to great trouble
latter is. The person surcharged we in gaining redress, and that trouble
will suppose to be willing to pay the may equal the injury done to him ia
taxes to the utmost j he makes his re- the first instance; Whereas the tn^m-*
t\xm bond Jidei he receives a summons bers of the tax-office ought not to be
to wait on the commissioners of the considered as gainers by their adjudia
district, at a distance of ten niilesfrofti cation. In what way the tax-officd
him. Now if the surcliarge is equal acts upon this occasion, we will not

;to thcejtDence of gbing (q the place take upon vw poiiftyely xo dete^nine^

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526 • Answers- to ffte Phtkaophicnl und tlisimeal ^uertiotff.

rfot fiavmg sufficient materials 'wiicre- reign aod subject, could oppoiie jf.
on k) form a judgment. "^mb should therelore recommend ta *

* 'Wecomethemnwvtothecaicofa those, who approve of the idea. Iff
person surcharged, ^ere the Cxpence petition the House at Lords upon thi»
of niaking tiic kppeal h greater than subject ; state concisely ttc evil,
the stucharge. As the remedy by which they either leel or apprehend^

?;o!ng to the commii^sioners fs greater under the present system of taxation >
han the disease, it is evident that he and pray lor reFief, either by the mode
had better stay at home ; and yet an here po'mted out, or bjr any otber^
Englishman, from the ideas he learn- which to their Lordsliips* sa}>erxor
ed of lilKTty from his fat!iers, does not wisdom may appear more adviseabJe. •
like to sit si ill under such ojrpression. Qtrpstions to be answered next
One thiiig only remains for him to do, month.

i«rliich is to wrhe to the tax-office, to Quest, I. What are the chief oc-
make a reunlar complaint acatnst the currences bctwceii the baule of Thcr-
man surcimrging him, as a liar and a mom-la; and the erecting of the «e^
slanderer, and JesirhK; that he may be ta])fcs of laws in the forum of Rocue ?
cii.^missed from hh office. In case of Quest. II. To what reflections do
a gentle n'laa being insulted by a ser- they gite rise?

Vaur, upon a mr.ch less cause tlian Quest III. \!\liat are the chief oc-
tiiis, tlK* master of tjiat servant would currencea between the act for estabfish-
be thought a very bad charaaer, if h« ing septennial parliaments aad lK« rebels
ietaiiK\\ Iniiii and the members of Hon in 1^45?

the tax-office ought to be considered Quest. IV, To what leflectioiis 69
texactly in tlic same Ijght, if tliey pro- ihcv give rise I

tecte<l a wretch who was a nuisance Quest. V. Does London afford to
to siX'icty, and endeavouring to bring a leflcctrng mind, a peaier number of
an odiuin ou the government , of the proofs in favour of civilization, or the
^xmtry. wantoTit?

Still this does not meet entirely our Quest, YJ, Is similarity of hand*
question. It is not every man who writing, without any other loading cir«
'chooses to enter into a correspondence cbmsunce, sufilcient proof^of ga£ J
with the tax-office on the misconduct . -^—.^

of its servants. Something is wanted on tbb armies engagsd iw thk
*to protect, the subject from insult, present war.

and this should be louiided on a gene- WITHOUT desiring or expecting'
ral biLsis. TJlie great excellence of our to become, . what in aliages has been
constitution is in its checks ; but there at once pattering to the anibition of the
' does not seem to be a .sufficient clieck monarch and destructive to the Jiber-
'on tlie tax-ofiice. Appealing does not ties of the people, viz. a military go-
re^lrefts the 'gi'ieAancc, uor prevent a •vernmeiit, we may j^ay all dueatten-
*per.-on who has been called one year tion to that part of our securitjr, as as
'fcefore the commissioners, from being independent nation^ which is ren-
•sumiiioned n^aiii upon as idle a pre- dered particularly important and in-
tence. A check of this Jcind meets tciesting at Ibis crisis, by theviens
'the evil: let the cxpences of every andthcpowcrof our most formidable
person, who has been falsely sur- eneniy.

charged, be defrayed by the person Every man, of late years, has been
•w'ho has made the surcl^irge, or by taught to look more, to the navy and
the tax-office, and let the^^e exuences army of Great Briiain, than to the
* be defraved upon a very liberal foot- senate, for the salvation of the state;
"ing. The consequence then would not that we are destitute of patriots
be, that the inspector would be very in the cabinet ; but the conduct of a
^reunite in making his surtLaiges,and few leading member* in it, who ba>^
'tlie tax-oflic^e veiy earetul in the ap- shewn themselves more attentive to
*|x;Irjiinent ofiUoiTia^rs. ^ private interest than swayed by pub-

' Siicii redress cannot be obtained lie \irtue, have set so pernicious an
; without an act of parliament j and it example, tliat the wise and cautious
'seems hO,tbasi hi e, that no one, who Jlnglishman cannot- rei>ose with con-
chas a r«j;aiid £>r the- well^re of sove- ^eiice in thi'u: measures. An ex*

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^ the Arrm^ engtigedm tb^peseui fFtfk 5tf .

.^CDeaoaa ministec would have pre* or discomfit^ in the manoer we have
Vented the QdcesfiiQrotcoavertiog^ the lately ^'itDe$.sed> trogps which have'
commercial habits ofthe kingdom into had the reputation of being the best
chose of so warlike a cast. One of discipline, and be^ commanded of;
the shrewdest politicians that ever ^v >n Europe,
entered into a British senate, ec* Tlip mUiUtry art^*like every other,
claimed^ a short time before his deatji, is carried to the epreatest perfection
to thai ass^mbl^r, " By your forcing by those nations u^hich make it their
our rivals into a belligerent attitude, study and their practice. The power
you will force our clerks tp^miit their Mchich assail^ is gpneraUy most confi-
pens for iii;eIocks. I wish," added he, dent in his skill ; but tliis confideice
•* we majr live to see them •return in does not arise solely from an opinion.
f>eaoe agam to their counting-houses.** of tlie individual bravery of the soldi-'
All capable of bearing arms are mi- ers composing sucji {in army : the as-
litary, or must in time be suclu for vaulted and the vanquished may have,
had we a peace at this instant under possessed and demonstrated an eqtiajl
the same admimstration, or, in other share ot courage ', and from this qua-
iXrords, under the same system of po- lity tliey will tace again and again the,
Jitics, our preparations, or at least foe, at tlie hazard oflife. TbePrench,^
Our cautions, must be continued. We 9nd the Spaniards too^ continue the
may, by the valour of our arms, avert bloody contest witli our tars, after tlie
tJbe blow of our antagonist again and cliance turns greatly against tliem»
agaifi ; but while he continues to che- and although they have throughout
nsh the same ambitious and hostile been conscious ot the superior force
design, we are compelled, nolejis vo- and dtexteriry of their opuonents. In
lens, to remain on our guard. Thus ••'his species ofwarfere we nave n4)thin5
^hen are we constrained, at tlie bar- to dread, nothing to wish tor -, but 4u
zard of changing the disposition of whatever we may have to do with ouif
the people bf^England, t6 cherish a adversary on land, we may with great
military occupation and chaructcr, in reasoq ei^pre^ our sglibitu^e, ai}d with
order to. stem that tide of victory and equid propriety enter into cnquiriea
4;oasequent pretension, which aims at and discussions which are at once ap«
more than it would appear at this plicable to the case of our allies aiuK
moment rational to point out. TTiere ourselves.

are those who flatter themselves, that At difii^nt periods of timtf, diffe-
tiie late brilliant victories by s^ rent nations have triumphed in arms,
have left no tiecessity to be anxious There was an xra when Spain rod^
for the achievciuents of the army : unmolested on the gcean ; another,
such persons are gready mistaken, when France had the same ascendeu-
Should the soldiers of the Gallic em* <^y s nay, the i)avy of the little re-
peror continue to advance in the public of Holland at one period .claiAi'*
same fortunate career against the ed the dominion of the phanneli au4
Bussian and Austrian forces,^ as tliey was Hot backu-ard in asserting it whea
have hitlierto :iffainst those of the lat- <iisputed. It is, then, at alJl tunes use^
ter only^ their leader may force the ^^1 to enquix5e into tlie changes of for-
cabtnet of Vienna into a separate tune in maritime and military states ^
peace, however miwilling its sove- bat, particularly atpresent, it is desir-
reign may be to ratiiy it -, and tlaose able and expedient to discover th«
who cannot discover a train of eviU causes whiji have cojUributeil to ag-
connected with such an cwnt^ are grandizea neighbouring nation, in a
certainly not gifted with a i>erspioak proportion beyoiul the airy dreams of
cious sight. They may, pernaps, 9 Louis XIV.
console themselves, at worst, unaer Before I proceed to the more im-
the reflection that they are not likelf mediate cause of tlie success of the
to fed its ill effects for a ^ood while Freneh, in their warfare wnce tlie re-*
to come. Without entering, there- rolution, it may nut be amiss to re-
fore, into the enquiry, now quite use* mind the rejvdei*, Uiat, very early in the
less, liow we have been brought into miUtaryhistory of Europe, they made
so precarious a condition, it behoves a considerable figure in arrps, and were
us to consider by what means our particularly distinguished for the im-
$fismy ba$ been able to overthrow prot^emenis they evinced in thatpait

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528 'iPliihi Arpues engaged in the present Wkr.

of the force denominated the Infantry, better Known^ and more h^hlj.afK
For. these improvements, th^ were m predated ; .but the fitst nation which
a great measure ip4ebted to the Swiss, gave respectability and importance ta
to whom they had been opposed, or Uiis m(3de of warfare, was the Swiss,,
by whom th^ had b§en joined. Be- who, as has been observed, raised the
fbre the commencement of the sixr discipline of infentry to a degree of
teenth centurj', th^ £urppean armies perfection which has sddom been
assumed nothing like the appearance since ecjualled, aqd perhaps never ex-
which may be compared to that of the celled.

S resent day. At the period spoken d*, When in action, the Swiss were
ie Helvetic states poured forth nu- remarkable for their discipline and
nierouR bodies of troops, whose assist- firmness, but, above all, for theh'fider
ance they sold to tlie highest bidder, lity and unshaken attachment to esKi|
Nevertheless, the service of the indi- other. Their armoiur consisted of a
vidual appears to have been voluntary ^ casaue and breast-p]ate, or^ when these
bis motive and his reward being ge- could not be procured, the skin of a
nerally a share of the subsidy, or, a bufialq or other beast; their usual
chance of the six)iU Previously to this weapons were a halbert (which, when
time, a regular standing army of in- not employed, was slun§ at their back)^
fantry, set apart firom me community a sworn, and a pike of eighteen feet in
for the purposes of war, was un-. length. When united togpther, they
l^nown. Sudden levied were jaised, formed a kind of mbveable fortifica-
as the exigencies of aflairs required, tion, called the Afri^^oTz^agai^ist which
and, when Uie contest ^vas over, they the utmost efforts of the cavalry wera
iaffain retiirned to the general mass of of no avail. They were said to be iq
the inhabitants. Tl;is was the case in the army what the bones are in the ■
Alfred's war^ with tlie Danes, and the human body; but when once
was adopted by that gooji and wise broken, they were not easily enabled

frince, yt^ith more success than by the to renew the conflict. Before the emi
'rench, against thosp depredators of of the fifteenth century, the French
lx)th countries. The strength of a sovereigns had frequenUy experienced
|!'rench army, for five or six centijries, the value of such assistance, and the
consisted almost entirely in the num^ ill effects of their resentment : they
ber of its armed ca\'alry, who were may be considered as having set the
denominated gens-d'armes, lanciers\ox e^mple 6f a regular system of in&n-
men at arms, and, when united tpge- try to the other nations of Europe.
ther, were emphatically called the Qne qf the earliest "establibhments of
latiie, Jntp these nnks none were this nature in Ffance consisted of ^
iadmitted, for a lon^ time, but gentle- body of 6000 men, subsidized from
men by birth. Everyman at arms the. Duke ofGueldres by Louis XII.
brought with him into the field a cer- who were denominated the bafides
tain number $>f horses and attendants, noires, or blapk bauds, because they
which varied iji different countries at fou^h^ under a black . standard ; by
different times. The full appoint- which naipe they acquired great re^
inenf of a man at arms in France, was pytation in t|)e wars of Italy,
sixhorses, and four men on foot, two We may almost t)e tempted to say
of whom were archers 5 but in Italy that somp of the spifsnces, like all the
the number of horses seldom exceea- natural bodies, move in a circle j for
cd three. When in actual engage- it will be discovered by those who mi-
ment, the arphers generally composed nutely attend to the conduct of the
the second and third ranks, jn which French armies, * that their corps df
station they were also at hand to ren- reserve, providefl for supporting the
der any seiyice to tlie men . at arms> armies drawn up in more compact or-f
who, froni the nature and weight of aer than thek enemies, has a consi-
their armour and offensive weapqns, derahle resemblance to the disposition
stood ii^ frequent need of awistance. of the early warriors spoken qU
In the contest of Charles ylll. of * As, howeyer, out inquiries havQ
Prance, in Italy, and particidarlyat more' to do with the military charac-
fhe battje of the Faro, the use ot the ter of the armies of the present day,
foot soldiery, or fanti, began to bf ttm Y^Hx the historical progrew gf



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Cn the Armies /mgaged'h thefrrescnt fFar. 5*29

fiie mtiitaxy art, we shall coniine our abandoned that regular order of rar-
facts and reasonings to the events of ing battle, and contrived all in mtk
tbe late and present war. ' power and ingenuity, to reduce'their

It cannot but appear iparvellous to war&re to important afi^irs of post^^
the generality of noankind, that as the " Instead of lines (says a writer, ii|
French Revolution disorganised the French, upon the late campaigns oa
military of that country, and banish- the continent), that could not be pre-
«d, or put to death, so many of its served, without difficoky, the Frencli
l^est officers, who reused to embrace formed close columns*. They re-
republican principles, the Access of duced their battles to attaeks on cer?
th^ Gallic forces should have been so tain points, and sometimes on one
^[reat as we have witnessed. Let the only, The Austrians, on the cour
effects of zeal, however, of any kind, trary, continuing in the use of their
be duly considered, and that wonder ancient tactics, by forming themselves
will cease in a great measure. The into lines, in a manner ahnost uBr
population of France fed that zeal, moveable, were pierced and broken
3md, but for the vast number of re- through, by brigade after brigade,
emits daUy flockiqg to the standard notwithstanding the bravery of their
of freedom, the cry of " liberty and troops, which did, in feet, sometimes
Equality'' would nave be^n beard in drive the French back ; but fresh
vam. Almost all their first actions, troops coastantlv succeeding each o-
with the pwers which assailed them, ^er, they scarce!/ once failed, at last,
even with those of the Spaniards, of forcing the pomt attacked. It is tq,
were defeats. If the army, headed be remembered, that when the Fretich
by the Duke of Brunswick, had not had thus broken the lines which in-
been assailed by sickness^ it would eluded the towns of Conde, Valcn-
have cost the new disciples of liberty ciennes, and Quesnoy, they overran
s.ome thousands, perhaps some scores the Low Countries, as far as Maes-
of thousands of recruits, to have tricht, without impediment ^ while all
repelled their invasipn. Continual the old tacticians of Europe wondered
eonflicts made tlieir young and in- at their temerity, iu leaving those
experienoed officers aaepts in the art fortified places behind them. Now,
of war, and accustomed their men although tlie French marched into an



Online LibraryUnited States. Supreme CourtThe Universal magazine, Volume 4 → online text (page 96 of 108)