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SIBERIA AND
EASTERN RUSSIA
' Part 4

WESTERN SIBERIA AND

E ASTERN, F?USS!A







COPY No

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THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET.



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INDEX MAP Of POUTES IN EASTERN RUSSIA AND SIBERIA




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CONFIDENTIAL

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

The information given in this publication is not to
be communicated, either directly or indirectly, to
any person not duly authorized by the General Staff



SIBERIA AND EASTERN RUSSIA

PART IV

WESTERN SIBERIA AND EASTERN RUSSIA



MILITARY MONOGRAPH SUBSECTION M.
MILITARY INTELLIGENCE DIVISION
GENERAL STAFF



THIS REPORT CONTAINS INFORMATION ON THIS SUBJECT
OBTAINED BY THE GENERAL STAFF TO OCTOBER 1, 1918




WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1918



War Department,

Document No. 863.

Office of Chief op Staff.



There are 3,000 copies of this publication.
This copy is assigned to



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

INSTBUCTIONS FOR USli OF BLANK PAGES IN HANDBOOK.

At the end of this book blank spaces are provided for new or supple-
mentary information. They are headed "Additions and Corrections."
Officers obtaining such information are instructed to transmit it at once
to the following address : Military Monograph Subsection, Military
Intelligence Division, General Staff, Washington, D. C.

Officers should remember that seemingly small bits of information
may be of great value. For example, the length of a bridge, the number
of houses in a village, the name of a good guide are each worth noting
and transmitting to Washington.



r)K



Part 4.— CENTRAL SIBERIA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Route L. — Omsk to Chelyabinsk: Page.

List of stations 7

General description H

Detailed description 12

Petropavlovsk 15

Kurgan 19

Chelyabinsk 23

Route M. — Chelyabinsk to Syzran:

List of stations 27

General description 34

Detailed description 37

Branch 1 — Poletayevo to Kustanai 37

Troitsk 38

Verkhne-Uralsk 39

Miass 40

Zlatoust 42

Berdyansh 44

Vyazovaya. Branch to Tirland 45

Ufa 49

Buguruslan 53

Branch 2 — Krotovka to Surgut 54

Samara 55

Batraki. Bridge over the Volga 60

Syzran 61

Route N. — Omsk to Vyatka:

List of stations 62

General description 69

Detailed description 72

Ishim 74

Yalutorovsk 76

3



797821



4 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Route N. Omask to Vyatka — Continued.

Detailed description — Continued. Page.

Tyumen 77

Yekaterinburg 80

Branch 1 — Bogdanovch to Shadrinsk 84

General description 84

Detailed description 84

Sinarskaya 84

Shadrinsk 86

Branch 2 — Yekaterinburg to Irbit 86

Irbit 87

Bilimbai '. 89

Kungur 90

Perin 92

Glazov 96

Vyatka 98

Route P— Yekaterinburg to Perm via Nizhni-Tagil:

List of stations 100

General description 104

Detailed description 106

Verkhne-Neivinsk 106

Xev>Tisk 107

Post-road, Neivinsk to Verkhne-Tagil ' 108

Nizhni-Tagil 110

Biser 112

Branch 1 — Nizhni-Tagil to Alatayevsk 115

Branch 2 — Goroblagodatskaya to Shakhta via Na-

dezhdinski Verkhoturye 116

Branch 3 — Chusovskaya to Solevarni 119

Route Q — Chelyabinsk to Yekaterinburg:

List of stations 122

General description .• 124

Detailed description 124

Kyshtyn 125

Mramorskaya 128

Wagon Road-^Omsk to Perm:

General description 131

Detailed description 131



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 6

Routes in the Khirghiz Steppe: Page.

General description

Route W-1 — Petropavlovsk to Uspenski Mine 133

Detailed description 137

Akmolinsk 141

Karagandy 144

Spassky 145

Sara Su 146

Uspenski 148

Route W-2 — Pavlodar to Kar-Karalinsk 150

Route W-3 — ^Khak-Chan to Akmolinsk via Bayandi-

Kuduk 151

Route W-4 — Bayan to Aul-Karagandy Coal Mine . . . 151
Routes W-5 and W-6 — Kar-Karalinsk to Karagandy

and Uspenski 152

Route W-7 — Petropavlovsk to Jusali 153

Route S — Ufa to Simbrisk:

List of stations 155

General description 157

Detailed description 158

Simbrisk 160



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Route L,

TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILROAD— OMSK TO
CHELYABINSK.

(495 miles, 746 versts.)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

GENERAL CONDITION.

Route L is part of the branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway
which runs to Moscow. The region througli whicli it passes is
one of the great granaries and grazing fields of Siberia. It is
also as densely populated as any other part. At the western
end it enters the mineral region of the Urals.

Numeroiis caravan routes from the south join the railroad,
especially at Petropavlovsk and Kurgan. In ordinary times
herds of cattle, sheep, and horses are thus brought to market
from the dry Kirgliiz Steppes. In 1909 there were no less than
9,500,000 head of mixed stock in western Siberia, the greater
part of which were accessible along this route. Before the war,
the meat-packing industry was developing along modern lines
under British control, with Kurgan as the chief center. A re-
frigerator railway service especially for meat and butter was in
operation between western Siberia and Petrograd and othei-
Baltic ports. During the war the packing plants were operated
chiefly for the supply of the Russian Army. It would seem to
be an easy matter, therefore, to revive the meat packing and
butter business to meet the needs of a new army.

The reader who would get a good idea of general conditions
in western Siberia is advised to read the account (»f Route W,
page 133 ff, including the " General Description " :ind the " Do
tailed Description " as far as Akmolinsk.
CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY.

The route crosses a typical section of the Siberian plain. Only
river valleys and clumps of woods interrupt the level char-
acter of the region. Open prairie is common. This constitutes

11



12 OMSK TO CHELYABINSK.

excellent wheat and grazinj^ lands. Tlie soil is so deep and
line that wheel transportation after rains is greatly hindere<l.
IMPORTANT CITIES.

Omsk is one of the most important cities in Siberia. Since it
has a great barrack capacity and is a bu.sy market for supplies of
all kinds, it is fitted to serve as an important base. It is the
junction of the railroads to Moscow and Petrograd and is the
center of navigation on the Irtysh River.

Petropavlovsk is at the head of navigation on the Ishim River
and is a point upon which many caravan routes converge from
the Kirghiz Steppes at tlie south. This city and Kurgan are
the most important cattle markets in Siberia.

Kurgan is at the head of navigation on the Tolxil River and
a great meat-packing city.

Chelyabinsk lies at the junction point of the Trans-Siberian
Railway with one railroad to Yekaterinburg (Route P) on the
north and another to Kustani at the southeast. Express trains
from the Far East often proceed by route P to Petrograd.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.



Omsk. From the Omsk station the route
descends into the valley of the Irtysh.
One and a half miles beyond the station
the Irtysh River is crossed on a high,
steel bridge 2,100 feet long. It consists of
six spans of 3.50 feet each. The embank-
ment on the east is 68 feet high, on the
w^est 45. The piers are laid on caissons.
The abutments and piers are made of
granite brought from Chelyabinsk. The
girders are of open-hearth steel. The
breadth of the river bed is about 2,450
feet. Dams projecting into the river have
been constructed to regulate the current.



Distance


Distance


from


from


Vladi-


Novo-Niko-


vostok.


layevsk.


3,542 M


587 V




388 M



KAMYSHLOV LAKES. 13

Just beyond the bridge is a siding, called
Post, from which a branch railway runs
one-third of a mile do\ATi the Irtysh t(i
a sawmill .-ind tie-preserving plant, both
of which supply their products to the rail-
way. Two flour mills stand near by.

For most of the distance between Omsk
and Petropavlovsk, the next important
station, the railroad follows a valley cut
by a river whose course is now marked
by a series of muddy, salty lakes known
as the Kamyshlov Lakes. The valley
slowly drains toward the Irtysh. but only
near that river is the drainage evident
enough to be called a stream. It is kno\\n
as the Kamyshlovskaya River. During the
summer the lakes are nearly dry, and their
bitterness is increased. Then they becomo
covered with weeds, which, as they rot,
produce a repulsive odor and an unhealth-
ful condition. This valley of lakes con-
tains a series of Cossack settlements and
is ordinarily occupied by Siberian Cos.
sack troops called " the bitter line." The
valley is followed by a post road.

3,54.5 M 591 ^' Kulomzino. At this station the Trans-

392 M Siberian Railway for Petrograd diverges

from the Trans-Siberian Railway for

Moscow by striking to the northwest.

Route L continues westward.

3.571 M 633 V Marianovka. Small station. Cossack scttle-
420 M nient of Burganski 3 miles at the north-
west. Five versts beyond the station the
railroad crosses a highway. One branch
goes to the south, the other runs westward
roughly parallel with the railroail. Three



14 OMSK TO CHELYABINSK.

sidings before the next station. At tlie
third siding or platform stop, Polcrovsl<i,
tlie route crosses a noilh-south road.
From Pokrovski a road follf)\\s the rail-
road to a point beyond the next station.

3,600 M GT.") :m Moskalenki. The village from which the sta-
448 INI tiou is named is several miles to the south.
The level country is covered with numerous
birch trees. For the next hundred miles
the country is dotted with salt lakes, some
of which are good-sized. Three sidings in-
tervene before the next station is reached.

3,628 M Tier Isll-Kul. The surrounding country is level
475 M yet well drained. Copses of birches
abound. The water supply is from Lake
Isil-Kul, li miles from the station. In
winter the lake often freezes to the bot-
tom. Twenty farming settlements are
tributary to the station, with a population
of about 10,000. A north-south road is
crossed at the station. The route proceeds
to the west. Roads are crossed at about
versts 732 and 749. Lakes are particularly
numerous. Four sidings or platform stops
intervene.

3,660 M 765 V Bulayevo. Village of same name near sta-
507 M tion. Water supply is from swamps and
wells near station. The i-oute winds to left
and right to avoid lakes and swamps. The
^\agon road to Petropavlovsk closely fol-
lows the railroad to the next station.
Three sidings intervene. Two roads come
in from the south.

At about verst 798 the highway to Petro-
pavlovsk crosses the railroad and a road
comes in from the south.



PETROPAVLOVSK. 15

3,690 M 81U V Tokushi. Settlement of same name uear
537 M tlie station. A near-by lake furnishes a
good water supply. Swamps, lakes, ami
birch woods are scattered between the cul-
tivated tracts. In this vicinity the rail-
way reaches its highest point between the
Irtysh and Ishim Rivers. The line pro-
ceeds stright away across flat laud to
Petropavlovsk. Three sidings intervene.
3,711 M 842 Y Petropavlovsk. (Altitude 445 feet. Popu-
558 M latiou 43,000.) Situated about 2 miles
northeast of the station on the right bank
of the Ishim. The city has a medical station,
with a small hospital. The city is built on
level ground, except for a slight depression
on the south, which was once the bed of
the Ishim River. There are numerous groves
of large timber in the outskirts. In the
busine.ss section the buildings are partly of
stone and brick and are close together.
Otherwise the houses are mostly made of
wood, with iron roofs, and have open spaces
about them, at least on one side. The city
is lighted from an electric power plant, which
also operates an ice plant. There is no
sewerage system, each house having a cess-
pool. Di'inking water is obtained from wells
and hauled to the houses in wagons. ( See
fig. 1.)

Population. — Unlike the other cities <if
western Siberia, Petropavlovsk remains Asi-
atic and is strongly Mohammedan. One-
third of the people are of that religion.
They include Tartars. Bukharans, Sarts from
Tashkent, and some Kirghiz. The other
two-thirds are Russians.



16 OMSK TO CHELYABINSK.



Transportation. — The city lies on the
Trans-Sibevian Railway, where routes from
the Kii-^liiz Steitpes (Route W) most readily
convert^e. The main hijiliway from these
grazing lauds Is followe<l by a telegraph line,
and is much used both by di-ivers of herds
of cattle on their way to market and by
travelers. Besides this main southern high-
way, several roads and trails converge upon
Petropavlovsk from the north, east, and west.
At high water the Ishim furnishes water
navigation nortliward to the Irtysh and Obi.
(See fig. 1.)

Trade. — As might be expected from the
lai-ge number of routes from the south and
the Mohammedan character of the city.
Petropavlovsk carries on important trade
with the dry grazing lands of the Kirghiz
Steppes. At two small places, called Ku-
yandi (near Kakardinsk) and At Bazar
(Horse Bazar), two or three hundred miles
south of Petropavlovsk, great gatherings are
held each year by horse and cattle trading
Kirghiz and other wanderers of the steppes.
(See Route W, p. 133.) Many horses are
brought from these plaOes to Petropavlovsk.
Although the war at first drew heavily upon
the reserve supply of all except white horses,
the region has now had a few years to re-
cuperate, so that there should be large num-
bers still to be had.

It is reported that before the war from
250.000 to 400,000 head of cattle were annu-
ally assembled at Petropavlovsk. chiefly from
the steppes between the railroad and Turke-
stan. They were then sent westward on the
hoof or slaughtered and shipped in refriger-



PETROPAVLOVSK. 17

ator cars, principally to Moscow juiu Peti'O-
grad. For a time the war naturally speeded
up the city's trade in cattle. Now that the
Russian revolution has cut the trade to prac-
tically nothiii;? for nearly two years, the cat-
tle regions sliould have a renewed supply.

Besides animals and animal products, such
as butter, hides, and wool, the city exports
hay, wheat, oats, and copper.

ManufacUiring. — The other industries de-
pend upon the cattle trade. Slaughtering is
the chief of these. Close to tlie railroad
and not far from the city the Union Cold
Storage Co. has a new meat-packing plant.
Tannorie.s, tallow works, wool washeries, and
gut factories are all important. No less than
50 plants in town use animal products.
Most of these, however, are small, but there
is one large steam flour mill.

Barracks.— In August. 1916, about 10,000
soldiers were quartered in Petropavlov.sk
during their period of training. Tliey were
housed in various buildings, including dwell-
ing houses and some barracks one-fourth mile
southeast of the city. The barracks are said
to consist of a building about 50 by 250 feet
in size.

From Petropavlovsk tlie railroad descends
the i-ight bank of the Ishim and crosses the
river on a steel bridge of four si)ans, two of
SoO feet and two of 70 feet. Three piers are
laid on caissons. The abutments have con-
crete foundations. The route then ascends
the left bank of the Ishim. At about verst
856 the road from Petropavlovsk to the south
and west is crossed. At about verst 807 the
87569— 18— PT 4 2



18 OMSK TO CHELYABINSK.

boundary is crossed separating the Alimo-
linslc territory from the I'etropavlovsk dis-
trict.

Four sidings intervene before the next
station is reached.
3,739 M 884 V Mamlyutka. (Population 40<J. i The village
586 M is close to the station. Drinkinji; water is
bad. There are 10 settlements within ~>
miles of the station. The freight exports
amount to 1,300 tons of grain per j'ear.
The line bends gradually toward the north-
west and passes over flat country that is
at times swampy. Three sidings.
3,667 M i)26 V Pyetukhovo. Pyetukhovo village is 4 miles
614 M from station. The household water comes
from a neighboring lake and is bad in
winter. About 8,000 people use the sta
tion. Nine thousand tons of grain art-
exported annually. Several butter fac-
tories near by have an annual output of
90 tons. A medical station is available.
The railroad passes through a slightly
higher and drier region. Three sidings.
3,796 M 970 V Makushino. Railroad restaurant, midway
643 M from Petropavlovsk to Kurgan. The vil-
lage lies three-fourths mile from the
station. (Population 1,300.) The water
supply is from the shallow Lake Maku-
shino. In winter when it freezes to the
bottom, melted ice is the sole source of
supply. About 20,000 people are tributary
to the station and export a surplus of
10,000 tons of grain. Four sidings between
this and the next station.
3,825 M 1.014 ^' Lebyazya. Lebyazya village 4 miles from
station. (Population 1,700.) Water sup-
plj' poor, due to shallowness of wells.



KURGAN. 10

There are 3,800 people tribute ry to the
station. Export grain amounts to 9,000
tons annually, and export butter to 3G0
tons. Three sidings between this and the
next station. At about verst 1050 the
line reaches its highest point on the water-
slied between the Ishini and Tobol Rivers.
3,853 M 1,056 V Vargashi. Vargashi village 3 miles from the
700 IVI station. Young birch trees are numer-
ous. Surrounding country is level and
well drained. Grain export is about 200
tons annually. The route very gradually
descends to the west. At about verst lOGG
the Utyak Iliver is crossed on a 70-foot
bridge. At about verst 1086 the Tobol
Kiver is crossed on a steel bridge of six
spans; four of 350 feet each and two of
70 feet. A roadway is carried on its lower
chords. The height of the embankment is
30 feet on the west and 3.200 on the east.
The five piers are laid on caissons, while
the abutments of the retaining wall are
supported on piles. Bridge girders are
semiparabolic. Fig. 2.
3,871 M 1,092 V Kurgan. Altitude, 260 feet. Pojjulation,
724 M 25,000. Railroad restaurant. The town
of Kui-gan lies 1 mile south of the station
on the right bank of the Tobol River, on a
level, grassy tract. It has many substan-
tial l)uildings. a public library, and a
botanicaj garden, but is otherwi.se a typical
Siberian city. (8ee fig. 3.) Fig. 4.

iitrate<jie importance. — 3. Located at the
head of steam navigation on the Tobol
River.

2. A junction point of roads from the
grazing regions on the south, from Ishim



20 OMSK TO CHELYBINSK.



on the east, from Shadrinsk, Yalutorovsk,
smd Tyumen at the north, and from Che-
liabinsk at the west. A railroad is pro-
jected to Shadrinsk.

Military facilities — BanackH. — Two
hirjre flour mills and some warehouses bc-
lonjrins to the Union Cold Storage Co.
would be available for quartering soldiers.

Camp sites. — A possible site is on the
lands belonging to Sniolin Bros.

Repairs. — The railroad shops.

Transport. — A few horses might be avail-
able.

Aeroplanes huifUnn place. — The fair
grounds.

Hospitals. — Fairly good.

Food. — The vicinity of Kurgan is a good
dairy region. Owing to the large pasture
lands, as well as the grain-growing tracts,
there would be no question of supplies.
The Ural region draws its supplies chiefly
from this section (which extends as far
east as Is'ovo-Nikolayevsk). In Kurgan, as
well as in Petropavlovsk, the facilities for
obtaining pork and mutton are especially
good. The Union Cold Storage Co. has a
large canning establishment there, which
supplied the Russian Army with " bully
beef."

Fuel. — Cordwood. Some coal from
Urals.

Health. — (Uiod quality of water from
Ishini River, which is carried to the houses
in barrels. No sewerage system. Health
conditions good.

Trade. — Kurgan contains i-epreseutatives
of several English firms. It sends west-



KUHGAN. 81

ward great quantities of butter. Other ex-
ports are grain, meat, tallow, hides, game,
and fish. Many cattle are purchased
through Petropavlovsk.

Navigation on the Tobol i.s hi small ves-
sels because of the shallowness, and is car-
ried on with some diflifulty because of the
sinuous channel.

From Kurgan the route crosses the road
from the south, rises out of the valley of
the Tobol, passes a pond on the right, and
runs due west across the flat land. Be-
tween Kurgan and the next station there
are four sidings whose respective loca-
tions are approximately at versts 1097,
1103, 1109. and 1118. The line passes from
the Province of Tobolsk into that of Oren-
burg just before the next station is
reached.

3.900 M 1,127 V Zyiyanka. (Population, 200.") Located in the
747 M center of a farming region which raises
rye, wheat, oats, peas, hemp seed, flaxseed,
and sugar beets. In the vicinity of the
station there are six settlements with a
combined population of about 4,000. The
annual export of farm products is about
.■3,000 tons. There is a beet-sugar factory
in the neighborhood. Near by there is a
forest of Norwegian pines and birches
which has long been drawn upon for rail-
Avay fuel and ties. Sidings at about verst
1134. At about verst 1137 the line passes
from the Province of Tobolsk into that of
Orenburg.

3.912 M 1,145 V Yurgamysh. Settlement round station with
759 M about 400 population. A road with far-
reaching connections runs through the town



22 OMSK TO CHELYBINSK.

from north to south. It is estimated that
7,000 people live within a radius of 5 miles
from the station. The community supports
several steam grain mills and butter es-
tablishments. Thirty thousand tons of
grain are annually forwarded from this
. station to European markets.

The route continues through a dry, level
country with scattered birch copses. Sid-
ing at about verst 1160, and another verst
1172.
H.08?, M 1.177 \' Myshkino. ( Population. LWO.) Much of the
780 M surrounding country is cultivated, and
the yield is heavy. The station is reported
to send away 50.000 tons of grain annu-
ally. There are several steam flour mills
in the vicinity. Stockyards at this point
collect cattle from the surrounding region
and ship them westward. Three sidings
intervene before the next station.
B.OoDM 1.210 V Shumikha. (.\ltitude. ."80 feet: popula-


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Online LibraryUnited States. War Dept. Military Intelligence DivSiberia and eastern Russia (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 11)