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rocky recess of the Ural Mountains. Tlie route
tlien swings down into the Pesma Valley and
crosses the river of that name on a 161-foot
bridge of three spans, one 105 feet long and two
2S feet long. (Photo No. 10.) Beyond, the route
again rises over ridge after ridge.
100 1.10 Zlatoust. (Altitude of station 1,495, of town
1,925 feet; population 34,000.) (Photo No. 9.)
liailroad restaurant. The t»)wn is 3 miles to the
southwest, situated in the valley of the Ai, which
is here danuned so as to form a considerable
lake. The town spreads from the Ai Valley into
the valleys of Gramotukha, Tesma. Kamenka,
Chuvashka. and Tatarka. It is dominated by
Kosotur, an imposing hill, and Urenga, the north-
ern end of a long ridge by that name. A road
runs west and southwest to the Satka Iron
Works (photo No. 8), thence to a railway station
called Suleya.

Ma7uifact lire s.— Because of the proximitj of
iron mines, Zlatoust has long been important- in
iron manufactures. In the large Government
arsenal located here alloy steel is made into
side arms, bayonets, guns, rifles, and maclilne



ZLATOUST. 43

guns, and chrome and nickel steel are made into
shells of all descriptions. Detonators and shrap-
nel are reported to have been made to the quan-
tity of about 50,000 per month. In ordinary times
the Zlatoust Works produce pij? iron, open-
hearth steel, railroad equipment, liardware,
knives, and forks. Other industries are soap
works, textile mills, and bakeries. For fuel the
town uses crude oil from Baku or Tashkent and
coke from the Donetz Basin.

The metal products have lately had tlie f<pl-
lowing destinations : pis iron to Xizhni-Xovgorod :
side arms to Moscow and Petrograd ; sliells to
Moscow, Kazan, and Perm, to be loaded; railway
equipment to Chelyabinsk.

The average yearly output of the Zlatoust
A\'orks from 1914 to 1017 was about HO.tMlO tons
of rolled steel. 15.000 tons of cast steel, lO.ono
tons of tool steel.

Hospitals. — Some of the Government iron
works have hospitals of their own. The town
supports a small hospital and dispensary.

The route from Zlatoust follows down the
valley of the Ai. Cuttings in the valley side
often reveal chalk. Fir and pine trees predomi-
nate in the forests which clothe the hills.

At about verst 160 is a platform stop named
Kusinsk, used chiefly for freight. The town
of this name is located about 9 miles away
down the valley of the Ai. Its population is
about 7,000. Government iron works and foun-
dries are located here. The works are supplied
with ore from the Akhteusk mine. situate<l
about 10 miles beyond. The ore is about 73 per
cent oxide of iron or about 50 per cent metal.
The output of the works is especially for the
navy and Government artillery works at vari-



44 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

ous centers. Wood and (•liiiicoiil are employed
as fuels.

The route continues down the valley of the
Ai, being perched in the main high upon the
valley slope. The valley makes a great sweep
to the northwest and north, while the railroad
continues to bear west. At aliout verst 176 the
Ai River is crossed by a 210-foot bridge, and a
steep climb is made out of the valley.
119 179 Tundush. The route now passes through a less
rugged region and approaches the Suleya ridge.
1.S2 199 Berdyaush. From this station a broad-gauge
bninch railroad winds southward, parallel wifli
the Suleya ridge, to the inip"r1;uit Satka Iron
Works, at Satka (population. 12,0(X)). and thenro
southwest to the famous Bakal mine (49 versts,
or 33 luiles). The Satka Iron & Steel Works
employ 5,000 operatives. The works consist of
several blast furnaces, rolling mills, steel mills,
and foundry and machine shops. The pig-iron
production is 50,000 tons annually. Shells of all
descriptions are made, as well as guns, gun car-
riages, and large forglngs. These munitions are
supplied ordinarily to the navy and artillery de-
partments. Wood and charcoal from the neigh-
boring forests are used as fuel in the iron works.
The iron ore is brought from Bakal by railroad.

The Bakal mine on the Bulandikha Mountains
is iu one of the most extensive iron deposits in
Russia. The analysis of the ore shows 81.44 per
cent oxide of iron, 57.36 per cent metallic iron.
6. 78 per cent silica, and 5.46 per cent aluminum.
The mine supplies ore not only to Satka but to
Simskaya, Zlatoust, and other centers.

It is reported that prisoners of war have built
another railroad from Berdyaush northward
through Zlokazovo and Grobovo to Kuzino, a



VYAZVAYA. 45

newly erected station on Route N, between Yeka-
terinburg and Kourovka.

From Berdyaush Route M 1 crosses the Satka
River on a 700-foot bridge (spans of 448, 210,
and 42 feet), and makes a great sweep to the
north to avoid the northern end of the Suleya
ridge. The line tlien continues southwest paral-
lel with the ridge. The country to the west
opens up broadly.

147 221 Suleya. From here a road runs 12i miles across
the Suleya ridge to the Satka Iron Works,
thence to the northeast to Zlatoust. Another
road with a telephone line runs to the northwest
with far-reaching connections. Within 3 miles
of the station is a quarry which turns out slate
shingles for roofing buildings. The route still
(•(Uitinucs to the southwest in nearly a straight
line, parallel with the Suleya ridge. The Ishelga
River is crossed by a 70-foot bridge. Before the
next station is reached two more rivers, the
Uluir and Sikiaz, are crossed by 70-foot bridges.

162 245 Mursalimkino. Small station. Broad views are
obtained at the west. The line continues to the
southwest, wath forested mountains on the left
and far-stretching fields and n)eadows on the
right. The level land on the right is occasionally
cut by deep ravines and valleys.

17(5 2()G Vyazovaya. (Altitude, LOGO feet. ) Important sta-
tion. Inclosed by hills clad with evergreen for-
ests. The scenery is parklike. The Yurezan
River, with its steep slopes and islands, is close
by.

From Vyazovaya a branch railroad goes due
south up the Yurezan River on its left bank to
(11 versts, 8 miles) Yn7-c;:;anski. Here are lo-
cated the Yurezan Iron & Steel Works. They
consist of 6 blast furnaces and large steel mills.



46 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

They roll commercial sizes of structural steel as
well as steel rails, fastenings, and bridge steel.
The annual output is about .50,000 tons. As last
reported, the iron ore was brought in carts from
the Bakal mine, 24 miles away. It is probable
that now it is received by railway.

From Yurezauski the branch line curves to the
southwest out of the Yurez&n Valley (32 versts,
22 miles) to Zaprudovka. The route climbs over
the watershed separating the two rivers and de-
scends into the Katav Valley (3-5 versts, 24 miles)
Kntav-Iranovski. This is another iron and steel
town. The works consist of 7 blast furnaces,
rolling mills, Bessemer converters, machine shops,
forge, and sawmill. There is also aft electrical
plant. Large warehouses and sheds for the stor-
age of metal and iron products have been built
near the station. The ore comes from the Bakal
mines. Before the war 40,000 tons of rails were
annually produced, but they were of low grade.
During the war the works manufactured am-
munition of great variety, but especially shells
from 3 inches to 6 inches.

About 77 miles south of Katav-Ivanovski is
Tirland, with more steel and iron works. Their
outinit is about 18,000 tons of pig Iron and steel.
Thirteen miles beyond Tirland is located the
town of Byeloryetsk, with still moi*e iron and
steel works. They have a capacity of about
0,000 tons of cast iron annually. The products
of both Tirland and Byeloryetsk are forwarded
to Katav to be sent away by rail.

From Vyazovaya, the main line. Route M, runs
to the north and northwest following down the
Turezan Valley on the right slope. The slope is
so steep that bare rocks are numerous. Occa-
sionally they rise almost perpendicularly.



SIMA IRON WORKS. 47

188 284 TJst-Katav. Amidst cliffs and rocky slopes. Iron
works are situated about 3 miles from the
station near the junction of the Yurezan and
Katav Rivers. They manufacture steel of all
commercial sizes and are especially equipped to
furnish railroad supplies.

The railroad soon descends into the Yurezan
Valley and crosses the river by a bridge with 3
spans of 70, 322, and 70 feet, respectively. Height
above low-water mark is 84 feet. A long climb is
made toward the plateau surface.

VJS 2!>!) Kropachevo. (Altitude, 1,200 feet.) Small station
at the crest of the upland between the Yurezan
and Sima Rivers. The Nicholas Iron Works are
located about 16 miles from the station. The
iron ore is obtained from the Bakal mine,
reached by Route M 3. It is reported that dur-
ing the war the Nicholas Works at one time
employed as many as 6,000 persons. The rail-
road runs west and descends into the Sima
Valley.

213 321 Simskaya. (Altitude, 62.j feet.) Small station,
deep in the valley. The town of Simskaya is
about 4 miles up the Sima Valley and is con-
nected with the railroad by a street railway
line. It contains the Sima Iron Works, which
has several blast furnaces and a Bessemer con-
verter. Iron ore is derived from the Bakal mine
viatftoute M 4. It is reported that a maximum
of 8.0tK> men were employed here during the war.
Sima has a good-sized hospital. The town is
surrounded by tree-clad mountains. There is
much limestone in the mountains, and natural
caves are common.

The route to this point from Miass is a double-
track railway. It continues as a single-track
line and follows the Sima Valley westward for
87569— 18— PT 4 4



48 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

the next 37 railes or beyond the Ulu-Teliak sta-
tion. Before the next station is reached the
railroad crosses the Sima River four times on
bridges whose respective lengths are 245, 175,
175, and 280 feet. The first bridge has 3 spans,
35, 175, and 35 feet.

221 334 Minyar. (Altitude, 520 feet.) The Minyar Steel
Works are located IJ miles from the station.
The reported war output was about 15,000 tons
of cast iron and 4,000 tons of steel annually with
a maximum working force of 10,000. Their
specialty is sheet work and steel plates of all de-
scriptions.

The route curves gradually to the southwest
and runs between two mountain ridges, the
Vorovei ou the right and the Anjigordak on
the left. At about verst 349 the railway track is
built into the side of a perpendicular limestone
rock, the Kazaramen, whose base is washed by
the waters of the Sima.

Before the next station is reached exit is
made from the Ural Mountains. Beyond this
point there is much ruggedness, but it is caused
by valleys cut by rivers below the upland sur-
face rather than by hills and ridges rising above
the upland surface.

234 353 Asha-Balashevskaya. (Altitude, 435 feet.) Rail-
road restaurant. Close to the station is a steel
plant with a large blast furnfUe. The route con-
tinues to the southwest, crossing the river Asha
on a 105-foot bridge.

248 37-1 Ulu-Telyak. Small station. The line now ci'osses
the streams Telyak and Ulu on 70-foot bridges
and climbs out of the Sima Valley. It soon
reaches the highest point between the Sima
Valley and the Ufa Valley.



TJFA. 49

399 Tavtimanovo. High on the watershed between the
two valleys. The route gradually descends
toward the Ufa Valley as it swings from tlie
northwest to the southwest.

417 Iglino. Small station on the left slope of the Ufa
Valley. Well-forested section. Two stream saw-
mills are located near the station. The line now
curves to the west.

430 Shaksha. Near the bottom of the Ufa Valley.
The river Tauzh is crossed by a 70-fnot bridge.
The left bank of the Ufa is followed.

43S . Chernikovka. Nearby is a great tallow factory
with an annual capacity of G.OOO tons. Tiie rail-
way soon crosses the Ufa River on a 1,500- foot
steel bridge (photo No. 10) and ascends the right
slope of the Ufa Valley to the town of Ufa.

450 Ufa. Railroad restaurant. (Altitude, 310 feet.)
( Population, 106,000. ) Located on the right bank
of the river Byelaya near its .iunction with the
Ufa. The station lies on the Byelaya, li miles
to the north of the town. Ufa is the capital of
a province. The better part of the town con-
tains two cathedx'als and a few churches; the re-
mainder is a scattered aggregation of small
wooden houses. In the middle of the town is a
large square and a little to the south are recrea-
tion grounds. Both are suitable for camp sites.

TraV'Sportation. — Besides the main railroad
(Route IVI), Ufa has a newly built railway direct
to Simbirsk, on the Volga River (Route X). Tbis
railway leaves Route M at Chishmy, tlie second
station west of Ufa, on the main line. Steamers
ply from Ufa down the Byelaya, thence down
the Kama to Kazan in 2J days. On the average,
the river is open for navigation by the lltb of
April and freezes over by the 4th of November.



50 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

Ill suimiifi- Ui(! river is souietimes so low fliat
steanieis can not proceed above Birsk, about 50
miles downstream from Ufa in a straigbt line,
but nearly twice as far by the river. Above Ufa
the river is navigable at high water to the
Byeloryetsk Works. A roadway runs north to the
important town of liirsk and another goes south
to Sterlitamak. Telephone lines follow each road.

Industries. — There are several private mining
enterprises in the vicinity whose products are
manufactured in the city. There are 15 copper
factories and 13 iron and steel mills, which em-
ploy together several thousand men. There are
also many small factories making wax candles,
candies, rope, and wooden products. Large gaso-
line reservoirs near the station might well serve
military purposes.

Leaving Ufa the route almost immediately
crosses the Byelaya on a 2,100-foot bridge, having
6 spans of 350 feet each. (Photo Xo. 11) The
arches are semiparabolic and the track is on the
lower chord. The piers and abutments are laid
on caissons lowered to the depth of 57 feet below
the ordinary water level. The railroad proceeds
sti'aight across the flood plain of the Byelaya.
313 472 Yumatovo. At the mouth of the Dema Valley.
For the next 58 miles, or until Rayevka station is
reached, tlie railroad follows uo the Dema Valley.
The valley and the upland support occasional
farming settlenieuts. The forests are of young
growth. The steep slopes of the Dema Valley
consist of friable schistose sandstone containing
copper ores. Remains of mines are occasionally
seen along the valley. Mines in operation are
rarely seen. Much of the surrounding country
is of limestone, and, as is usual in such regions,
caves and depressions called " funnels " are



CHISHMY. 61

commou. These are places where percolating
water has dissolved the limestone, forming caves,
the surface of which has fallen in so as to form
a hollow.

The route crosses the Uza and the Kolomysh,
branches of the Dema, on 140-foot bridges.

32S 494 Chishmy. From Chishmy a newly built railway
(Route X) runs due west to Simbirsk. Route
M continues to the southwest. The River Daly-
shly, a branch of the Dema, is crossed on a 70-
foot bridge.

343 518 Shingalc-Kiil. Small station. Continuing, the line
ci'gsses the River Urdiak, a branch of the Dema,
on a bridge of 175 feet. At a siding or plat-
form stop called Karakalinsk copper ores are
successfully taken from the friable schistose
sandstone of the Dema Valley.

358 540 Davlekanovo. The station is near Itlvulovo, a
small Bashkir settlement. Trade is confined to
the winter season, when travel is easy over the
snow and ice. Not far from the station are a
number of farming estates of considerable size.
A station grain elevator has a capacity of 540
tons. Proceeding, the route crosses the River
Tiulen, a branch of the Dema, on a 140-foot
bridge.

370 558 Rayevka. (Altitude, 380 feet.) Railroad restau-
rant. A wide view of the Dema Valley is ob-
tained at the east. The route soon leaves the
Dema Valley by curving to the west. The River
Kyly is crossed by a 175-foot bridge.

383 578 Shafranovo. The line winds considerably across
several valleys, which are tributary to the Dema.

393 593 Aksenovo. The route climbs to the west and north.

406 613 Glukhovskaya. (Altitude, 1,235 feet.) An upland
station. Here the line readies the watershed
between the Byelaya and Kama River systems.



62 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

Tlie route desceuds as it swin^^s around a semi-
circle.

418 630 Aksakovo. On the edge of the upland. A branch
railroad runs 13 versts (9 miles) to the north to
Belebei, a district town, with a population of
5,000. It is on the left bank of the Belebeika
River. The surrounding region is extensively
cultivated. Much grain is exported from Aksa-
kovo. Rye flour also is sent away in considerable
quantities. It is milled by small water wheels of
primitive construction.

The route descends to the southwest through
rough country.

430 649 Priyutovo. Small station. The surrounding region
contains many small farms.

441 665 Taldy-Bulak. In the valley of tlie River Ik. The
valley is well cultivated. The River Ik is crossed
by a 105-foot steel bridge and passes from the
Ufa district to that of Samara.

454 6S4 Abdulino. (Altitude 530 feet; population 2,000.)
Railroad restaurant. Water power is here avail-
able and is used by flour mills. Four of these,
not far from the station, have a reported output
of 20,000 tons of flour yearly. They belong, re-
spectively to merchants named Markov, Sviridov,
Rogov, and Zhidkov. A steam flour mill pro-
duces about 22 tons of flour per' day. A grain
elevator near the station has a capacity of 550
tons.

The surrounding country is highly productive,
especially of cereals. About 70 per cent of the
grain fields are planted with rye, which is the
chief crop. Buckwheat comes next. A good har-
vest yields no less than 13,000 tons of buckwheat
in the region tributary .to Abdulino. A road goes
north down the Ik Valley. Another goes south.



BUGURUSLAN'. 53

The route cliiubs out of the Ik Valley aud
continues to the southwest.

467 7(»r) Sarai-Glr. (Altitude 82.") feet.) Here the water-
shed is crossed between the Kama and the Volga.
A north-south road passes through the town. The
. route descends as it proceeds to the west.

479 728 Philippovka. A small station. Descent continues.

492 742 Asekeyevo. Small station. Railroad follows down
the valley slope of the Kisla and crosses the river
on a 210-foot steel bridge.

498 7.51 Zaglyadino. In the Kisla Valley a road comes in
from the southeast. The route now turns to the
north\\est and follows down the Kisla on its left
slope.

ills 773 Bugiiruslan. The town of Buguruslan lies 2 miles
north of the station. (Population 21,500.) It is
a district town of the Pi-ovince of Samara.
Buguruslan stands on a bench above the River
Kinel, with long slopes rising steeply to the up-
land surface on the west, north, and east. The
Tarkhanka joins the Kinel at this point. The
town trades extensively in grain and flour, espe-
cially rye. As much as .54,000 tons of rye flour
is milled annually by water power in a plant
belonging to Mr. Shuvalov. The town ships an-
nually 8,200 tons of buckwheat meal. A large
grain elevator serves both town and station.

One road runs due south about 100 versts to the
important town of Buzuluk. another goes north-
east and north about 100 versts to Buturuslan.
another important town on the Ufa-Simbirsk Rail-
road. A third road runs to the northwest. The
railroad continues down the Kinel Valley due
west.

.524 701 Pokhvistnevo. (Altitude 220 feet.) Railroad restau-
rant. Just beyond a north-south road is crossed.
The line curves to the southwest.



64 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

540 814 Podbeylskaya. Small stiition. The region is well
(ultivatefl. The route soon crosses the River
Malaya-Kinel, a branch of the Kinel, by a 210-
foot bridge.

555 837 Tolkai. The important town of Kinel is near by. It
is the center of the local trade in grain, especially
rye. The route proceeds soiithwestward.

.500 8.53 Mukhanovo. Small staticm on left slope of Kinel
Valley. The route soon crosses the River Kur-
tamak, a small brancli of the Kinel. by a 70-foot
bridge.

.575 807 Krotovka. Junction of a narrow-gauge branch
railway (Route M. 8) that runs to the north.

Dixtaiicc

CJ^*^ , ROUTE M, BRANCH 2.

Krotovka.

Krotovka. The railroad strikes due north and
soon crosses the Kinel River on a long bridge.
The I'oute then follows up a branch valley of the
Kinel.
M V

5 7 Timashevo. At this point is located tlie Timashevo

Sugar Retiuery. It produces both granulated
and loaf sugar to the extent of 11,000 tons an-
nually. Gasoline from Samara is used as the
source of power in tlie refinery. Tlie route soon
climbs from the left to the right slope of the
branch valley.

20 30 Sarbai. High up on the valley slope. The route

soon reaches the upland surface.

32 48 Kabanovka. An upland town. About the highest

point on the route. After crossing the upland,
the I'oute begins the descent along the valley of
the Surgut, a northward flowing stream.

54 81 Surgut. Beyond this terminal station across the

River Sole lies the town of Seririyevsk. It is famed



SAMARA. 65

for its mineral springs. The waters are 67° F.
and contain a large percentage of sulphurated
hydrogen. The medicinal effects are supposed to
be excellent. Many people come here for treat-
ment, and during the season, from May 10 to
August 2.5, several doctors are in attendance.

CONTINUATION OF ROUTE M.



From Cheli-
nbinnk.



From Krotovka the route continues westward
along the floor of the Kinel Valley. The Kutuluk,
a branch of the Kinel, is crossed on a 175-foot
bridge.

589 SS9 Turgenevka. Small station.

601

600 900 Kinel. Railroad restaurant. From this station a
railroad (Route T) runs southeast to Turkestan.
The route now crosses to the right bank of the
river by a 420-foot bridge. It then ascends a hilly
section to the siding Padvoka, the highest point,
and descends to the valley floor again, crossing
a small stream by a 70-foot bridge.

Gil 922 Smyshlyayevka. Small suburban station. A road
and telephone line run to the north. The route
strikes southwest toward Samara.

625 942 Samara. (Altitude 185 feet; population, 144,000.)
(Photo. No. 12.)

Situation. — Capital of the Province of Samara.
Situated at the junction of the Volga and Samara
Rivers, at the southeastern curve of the great
" Bow of Samara," which the Volga makes in a
long sweep to the east, south, and west. Within
the bow as well as at the north and northeast of
the city the land is generally rugged. The valley
floor of the Volga here narrows to a few miles,
while both up and down stream the width is
measured by tens of miles.



56 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

Strutrf/ir value. — Tlie city is of hij^h strategic
iiiiportaiicc : (I) It lit-.s DHiir the junction of tlio
Siberiiin and Turkestsin Ilaihvays, as well as on
a direct line to Moscow. (2) These routes are
met at Samara by the gi-eat north and soutli
water highway, tlic Iliver Volga. (3) The port
liere is tlie best one on the river. (4) The city
lies at the point where the Volga "Valley
contracts to its smallest dimensions, and
thus the city is surrounded by hills in-
stead of being in a flat plain, as are most
Russian cities. Since the five lines of trans-
portation diverging fi-om Samara — three by rail
and two by water — are all of first-class impor-
tance, the control of the city is of vital necessity
to any military expedition in this region. In
order to hold the city the entire " Bow of
Samara " would have to be held strongly, else the
city would be put in serious hazard, as the height
of land in the eastern part of the bow could domi-
nate the city with heavy artillery. Moreover, if
the neck of the bow is held. Syzran would be
within the line. This would be desirable, since
Syzran constitutes .the western bridgehead of
Samara. Elsewhere the open Volga makes an
effective military barrier, since the river is nearly
a mile wide.

Military conveniences. — As headquarters of
the Twenty-fourth Army Corps, Samara has in
ordinary times many military conveniences, such
as barracks, " sklads " (storehouses), hospitals,
and drill grounds. As no repairs have been made
on the barracks since the war began, they are
now so dilapidated that they can not be used.
The theaters and factories, however, are avail-
able. The Zemstvo Hospital, in the northern
quarter of the town, contains 250 beds. There



SAMARA. 57


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