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is als(. a railway lidspital and a baetenological
station. Several " kuniy.ss "' estahlishments par-
talve of the nature of ho.spitals. There are
sanitaria, where the sour milk of the Asiatic
Steppes is u-sed as a restoi-ative, to.2,eth(>r with
i)atlis and other devices. A hirj-e one. Post-
nikov's. lies in a park on the high bank of the
Volga, two-thirds of a uiile from tlie river. It
consists of isolated cottages.

The city contains a large factory, where car-
tridges were made during the wai-.

The railway yards and sliding.*, about a mile
east of the city, ai-e extensive enough to speedily
enlraiii a large body of troops. In April, 1918,
there were in these yards, but not on cars, seven
8-inch howitzers, eiglit 60-pound fieldpieces, nine
liussian field pieces, and two caterpillar ti-actors.
Many of the guns were new, and the mountings,
especially of the howitzers, were of the best.
They bore the name of the Midvale Steel Co., of
Pennsylvania.

Climate. — Although the average yearly tem-
lierature at Samara (Lat. 53° 11' N.) is only
39.2° F., the July average rises to 70.4° and the
January average falls to 9.3°. Moreover, the
maximum .sunmier temperatures while the.\- are
at their worst are depressingly hot. The winter
brings severe frosts with many snowstorms.
The accumulation of snow, however, is not
heavy. The Volga north of Samara freezes in
mid-November, but through communication with
I'etrograd by i-iver and canal usually closes late
in October and does not open until ^Vlay. Tlie
Volga near Samara is free from ice, as a rule,
from April IG to December 13.

Transi)ortatio)i. — Besides the three railways
already mentioned, Samara is served l)y roa<ls



58 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

both to the north {iiul south. Within the city
jjoods and piisscnsers are transported by liorses,
electi'ic cars, and automobiles. From the Volga
side the streets rise steeply to the center of the
city. The streets are well paved with granite
blocks. The grain supply is brouglit into the
city from the outlying districts on sledges or
low carts, according to the season. Often camels
as well as horses are used for transportation.
The country roads are so impassable in the
spring that the city people are often without
bread for weeks at a time.

The mouth of the Samara River forms a deep
and broad bay, which with the port on the Volga
can accommodate 50 vessels. Samara has the
most convenient wharves of the Volga towns.
Passengers and light cargoes are taken from the
Volga side of the town, while grain and other
heavy cargoes are loaded on the Samara River
side. A municipal grain elevator, capacity about
5,400 tons, facilitates the loading.

Manufactures and trade. — Samara is sur-
rounded by an important grain-raising and graz-
ing region. Hence the city's chief trade is in
cereals, flour, and hides, and the leading indus-
tries are flour milling and tanning. The flour
mills in the town and its vicinity have a total
capacity of about 180,000 tons annually. The
surplus grain of the region, especially to the
east, is collected at Samara and sent to Petro-
grad, mainly by river and canal. Other indus-
tries are iron foundries, soap and candle fac-
tories, and wagon works. Three great fairs are
held every year.

From the Samara Station the railroad curves
to the south, descends to the floor of the Samara
River Valley, and crosses the river by a steel



BEZENCHUK. 6»

bridge, 840 feet long. (Photo No. 13.) It then
curves to the west.

629 948 Kryazh. An industrial suburb of Samara. A large
flour mill, owned by Mr. Shikhobalov, has
a capacity of 18,000 tons annually. Near by are
stockyards and shTUghterhouses, which ordinarily
handle 200,000 head of cattle, sheep, and hogs
per year. These are chiefly brought on the rail-
road from Turkestan. Much grain and other
farm products are exported from Kryazh. The
route runs west roughly parallel with the Volga.

Go5 9.j7 Lipyagi. Small .station in a fertile farming region.
Near by is the village of Voskresenskoye, with a
population of 2,000. The route strikes to the
southwest.

048 978 Tomylovo. (Population, 2,000.) Good agricultural
district in the Volga Valley. The route crosses
the IVIochu River on a 280-foot bridge and curves
to the west.

004 1,002 Bezenchuk. The annual exports of farm products
from this station amount to 5,000 tons. The
large Bashkii'ova flour mill, with a capacity of
54 tons per day, lies near the station. The Gov-
ernment maintains an agricultural experiment
station and farm, which is equipped with hirge
buildings, repair shops, and loading platforms
for heavy tractors, etc. The loading platform is
the only one where cranes are found between
Samara and the Volga River. Beyond Bezen-
chuk the railroad crosses a small river and con-
tinues westward.

080 1,02-"') Mylnaya. Fertile farming country in the Volga
Valley. The line bends to the northwest as it
passes over flat country. One of the largest
shell-loading and chemical works in Russia was
established here by the Government in 1915. The
works covered hundreds of acres on both sides



60 CHELYABINSK TO SYZRAN.

of the railroad. In 1917 they were so far com-
pleted that they were provided with waterworks,
paved streets, and many substantial bricli build-
ings, as well as with large reservoirs for oil and
chemicals.

090 1,041 Obsharovka. Not far fi'om the station is the town
of Novy-Kostychi, with a population of 5,000.
Many flour mills have a combined annual ca-
pacity of 18,000 tons. The route continues across
the flood plain of the Volga and soon reaches the
imposing Alexander Bridge over the Volga.
(Photo No. 14.) This steel bridge is 4,710 feet
long and consists of 13 spans. The supporting
pillars are high enough to allow the passage ol
large steamers on the Volga. The bridge was
injured by the Bolsheviki in the fall of 1918, but
appears to have been soon repaired.

TUl 1,057 Batraki. (Altitude. 130 feet; population, 2,500.)
On the right bank of the Volga. Batraki is a
river port of some importance. Nearly 200.000
tons of gasoline and kerosene are handled yearly.
These ai'e stored in large reservoirs near the
station. Several flour mills have a combined ca-
pacity of 50 tons daily. Batraki is important
because it immediately controls the great Alex-
ander Bridge. East of the river the bridge is
approached across a low, level plain about 75
feet above the main level of the river. The
river banks are steep, but are cut here and
there by ravines, which break the continuity ol
the plain. Batraki lies on a narrow terrace west
of the river. This terrace is about the same
height as the plain on the east side ; it varies
in width from a few hundred feet to one-half
mile. At Batraki it is about one-fourth of a
mile. Back of the terrace there is a grassy
bluff about 50 feet high, and at the top of this



SYZRAN. 61

lies the great plain of the Volga Valley. In the
town of Batraki the railroad swings through an
angle of 45° or more and runs along the west
bank of the Volga.

Like all the towns along the Volga, Batraki
has no real wharves, but has several large land-
ings. Passengers are usually landed on small
floating docks. Freight, however, is simply car-
ried by hand from the deck of the steamer to
the land across long gangplanks. Neither here
nor elsewhere along the river is freight handled
by docks or cranes.
1.070 Syzran. (Population 46,000.) (Photos Nos. 15 and
10.) The chief town in a district of the Prov-
ince of Simbirsk. The center of the town lies
one-half mile south of the station.

Syzran lies on two small rivers, the Syzran-
Voloshka and the Kryumza. The ravine of the
latter divides the town into two parts.

Manufacturing. — No fewer than 5,000 oper-
atives are employed in cotton mills. Tanneries
and leather factories are also important. There
are several flour mills within the city. The
large villages of the surrounding region engage
in a variety of petty domestic manufactures,
the aggregate of which is important.

Transportation. — From Syzran two railroads
continue west and northwest to Moscow, one by
way of Pensa, the other farther north. Syzran
also enjoys transportation on the Volga. Tht.
landing place for steamers is usually at the
island of Rakov, 3i miles from the town. The
town may be regarded as one of the strategic
points on the Volga, since it would need to be
held if Batraki and the Alexander Bridge are
to be protected.



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Route N.

RAILROAD— OMSK TO VYATKA.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

MILITARY IMPORTANCE.

The railroad from Omsk to Vyatka is important for four
chief reasons of a military character : First, by this route
forces from Vladivostok would naturally effect a junction with
the allied forces from Aichangel and Murmansk. Second, the
route is the easiest outlet for the platinum-producing regions
of the Central Urals. One railway runs from Yekaterinburg
into the mining region and another from Perm. The control of
the platinum output of the Central Urals is a valuable military
prize, since over 90 per cent of the world's supply comes from
here and since platinum is essential in war manufactures. Third,
the mining regions tapped by this route also turn out a great
supply of iron. It is reported that during the war the Ural iron
mines were so speeded up that about 4.5 per cent of Russia's
supply was from that region. Fourth, the route is part of the
only railway that leads directly from Siberia to Petrograd, the
most important center in Russia.

STRATEGIC CENTERS.

Omsk.— (Population, 136,000.) (See Route M.)

Yekaterinburg. — (Population. 70,000.) The junction of four
railways — the Perm line on the west, the Omsk line on the east,
the Chelyabinsk line on the south, and the mining railway to
the Central Urals on the north. The city is also strategically
located at the entrance to an easy pass over the Ural Mountains.

Perm.— (Population. 105,000.) On the Trans-Siberian Rail-
way to Petrogi'ad at its junction with the western railway out-
let of the Central Ural mining district. The center of river
navigation in four directions.

Vyatka.— (Population, 60,000.) On the Trans-Siberian Kail-
way at a point where that route is joined by a river-railway
route from Archangel. Since Vyatka is also on the navigable

69



70 OMSK TO VYATKA.

Vyatka River which flows soutliward, it has easy communica-
(ion in four directions.

E;ich of the following secondary .stratej,'ic centers, Ishim,
Yalutorovsk, and Tyumen, lies on the railway where it is
crossed by a northward-flowing navigable river.

RELIEF.

The lir.st third of the route — from Omsk to Tyumen — traverses
a flat region varied only by slight swellings above the general
level and by shallow valleys cut by the rivers below the general
level. The second third, from Tyumen to Perm, is rough. From
the low eastern foothills of the Ural Mountains it rises into the
mountains proper and then descends to an upland which is
thoroughly cut up by river valleys. The last third, from Perm
to Vyatka, traverses a typical portion of the great Russian
plain.

FORESTS.

Throughout the route trees are to be seen, but they vary
greatly in size and numbers. In the first third the trees are
small and generally scattered in grovelike clumps. Timber is
plentiful here for fuel and light construction. In the second
third the forest as a rule is dense, especially in the Ural Moun-
tains, and can supply heavy timber for extensive engineering
work. The last third of the route resembles the first in having
birches and small pines chiefly, but here they occupy nearly all
of the country except where it has been cleared for cultivation.

SOIL AND AGRICULTURE.

All along the route the fertile soil permits excellent crops to
be raised wherever the forest is cleared. East of the mountains
the soil is black and well drained for the most part. In the
second third of the route a thick sheet of rich humus covers
the valleys, the uplands, and even the lower slope of the moun-
tains. In the last third much of the soil is light and made up
of a sandy, red clay, but even in this crops do well. Trench dig-
ging is easy througliout tlie route, except on the steeper slopes
in the Urals where granite is found.



MANUFACTURING. 71

Farming villages are scattered fairly regularly all along the
route and within sight for several miles on both sides, but as
a rule the cultivated sections are merely interruptions in the
continuity of the forests. The ordinary village is made up of a
group of one-story, dark-looking houses with thatched roofs. A
green-domed church is generally the most conspicuous object, as
it reaches high above all else.

Agricultural education is higher in this section of Russia than
in almost any other. This perhaps accounts for the large sur-
jjlus of agricultural products that is shipped, both by water and
by rail, chiefly to Petrograd. Rye, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes,
buckwheat, and hemp are raised. Cattle breeding is well de-
veloped all along the route, but especially east of the Urals.
Butter and cheese are the chief export products. It is obvious,
therefore, that this region should be able indefinitely to pro-
vision many thousand troops, providing the peasants continue
their normal work on the farms. ♦

MINES.

This route is the southern and western railway exit of the
Central Urals, which contain mines of platinum, iron, copper,
gold, coal, and salt, besides many precious or semiprecious
stones. Iron is the most important for local consumption, but
platinum is chief from the world's viewpoint.

MANUFACTURING.

The mines, farms, and forests determine the character of the
manufacturing industries. Along the first and last thirds of
the route flour mills and creameries are common. In the small
towns and villages windmills generally furnish the power, but
in the large centers steam plants are used. The close adjunct
of the flour mill is the grain elevator. The large towns have
grain elevators, but the small ones have storage sheds. In the
larger cities warehouses contain in ordinary times a supply of
farming machinery turned out by American firms, such as the
International Harvester Co.

Along the second third of the route iron furnaces, copper
foundries, sawmills, and machine shops are frequent.



72 OMSK TO VYATKA.

Hence, at least the larger cities are equipped to make iDill-
lary.i-epairg of various sorts. However, since local standards
are not high, the more serious repairs should have the immedi-
ate supervision of American mechanics. An important gun fac-
tory on the outskirts of Perm is a possible source of new sup-
plies as well as a repair depot.

STATISTICS.
See note on this subject under Route M, page 36.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

M. V.

Omsk. (See Station 15-5, Route K.) For the first
5 versts the route runs west along the Trans-
Siberian Railway, crossing the Irtysh on the long
bridge described fully in notes on Route M.

3 5 Kulomzino. At this station the route leaves tlu-
Moscow branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway and
strikes to the northwest. It follows the valley of
the Irtysh for 80 miles to Lyubinskaya. The land
is extensively cultivated and the fields are well
grazed by herds of cattle. An immense amount of
hay is taken fuom the meadows. Unusually fine
crops of oats are raised along this part of the
route.
33 50 Lyubinskaya. At Lyubinskaya the railroad comes
out of the valley of the Irtysh and rises to the level
of the general plain. Here a north and south high-
way is crossed. This highway connects at the
north with the main road from Omsk to Tyumen.
The railroad connects the two centers by a shorter
line. The route then strikes across the plain for
a distance of 233 versts before descending into the
next important valley.

Verst 67. — Birch trees are of good size. Some
of the trunks might be used for engineering work.
The land is high and well drained, with more ex-
tensive cultivation, especially wheat, barley, and



MANGUT. 73

oats. Soil is darlc brown aud about 10 inches
deep.

In the vicinity of verst 82 the land is more open
and freer from bushes. Barley, oats, and wheat
are commonly raised along here, and herds of
cattle are to be seen in the fields.
62 93 Dragunskaya. Three lakes are passed at the north
just before this town is reached. Large patches of
prairie all along the route, with a dense growth of
grass. Wherever the land is cultivated, good crops
are raised, especially of rye. Bushy stretches are
common.
93 140 Nazyvayevskaya. Railroad restaurant. Cattle rais-
ing and butter district. At this point engines
and crews are ordinarily changed. Two lakes lie
near the town. A typical portion of the monoto-
nous plain is crossed, diversified only by clumps of
bushes. The route bends more to tlie northwest.
121 182 Mangut. Situated on the shores of a lake of the
same name. A long undiversified stretch is trav-
ersed. Much of this region is open prairie, wnth
occasional large patches of white birch.

In the vicinity of verst 193 the country is very
flat and quite free from trees. There is no culti-
vation, but the land supports a heavy growth of
grass. Soil is only 6 to 8 inches deep, with a gray
clay subsoil. In some places the soil looks very
dry and alkaline.
147 222 Maslyanskaya. A town on the edge of the valley of
the Ishim, a branch of the Irtysh. The railway
now runs due west roughly parallel to the Ishim
Valley. Cattle breeding is an important occupation
througliout the valley. There is practically no cul-
tivation.

At about 250 versts the route dips into the valley,
crosses the river, and on the opposite bank reaches
the town of Ishim. The bridge across the Ishim is
900 feet long and ha.s four spans.



74 OMSK TO VYATKA.

17() 26(5 Ishim. Railroad restaurant. (Population, 1U,0(K),
one-iiftli Tarliirs.) A t,v))'cal Siberian city in a
cattle-grazin^i' country. Important as a meat-pro-
ducing center. The river lies on three sides of the
city. The river valley is 10 to 12 miles wide, with
hay meadows vyccupying the river flats.

Health. — Good water from the River Ishim. No
sewage system. Health conditions very good.

Fuel. — Cordwood. Coal from Omsk.

Food. — Since Ishim is in the midst of a dairy
country and not far from grain-producing regions,
food is normally abundant.

Military facilities — Quartering troops. — In addi-
tion to the usual barracks, a number of booths used
at the annua' fair are available as quarters. A
camp site mignt be found close to the bridge across
the River Ishim.

Repair. — There are no adequate railway shops or
other conveniences for repairs.

Transport. — Horses and oxen may be had for
transport, but there are no motor vehicles or gaso-
line.

Industry and commerce. — ^There are tanneries,
soap and candle factories, and flour mills. The
last use the power of windmills. In November and
December fairs are held at which peasants ex-
change cattle, horses, and farm products for other
necessities of life. About 4,000,000 rubles' worth
of property changes hands in this way annually.

The Ishim River is navigable for small steamers
as far as Ishim during the high water of May and
June. At other times the shallows make it difh-
cult to reach the city.

From Ishim a highway runs southward about 153
versts up the valley of the Ishim to Petropavlovsk,
on the Moscow branch of the Trans-Siberian Rail-
way. Another highway, in only fair condition.



ISHIM. 76

goes southwest about 310 versts to Kurgan and
other towns on the same railway. A large lake
lies to the southwest of Ishim. From Ishim to the
Ural INIountains the railroad roughly follows the
Government highway.

In the vicinity of verst 273 is a large level prairie,
with no trees in sight and little cultivation.
Houses in the village are low and weather beaten,
with heavily thatched hay roofs.

At verst 300 the soil is brown and good for grain.
Much of the land is cultivated. The land continues
flat with slight swellings. Because these swellings
are better drained, they are more cultivated than
the lower stretches.

202 oO-") Karasulskaya. Soon after passing Karasulskaya a
broad marshy stretch is ci'ossed. Brush and small
white birch are abundant. Hay meadows prevail.

225 339 Golyshmanovo. Here higher, drier land with normal
cultivation is reached. The town lies on the right
bank of the Vagal River, which the route crosses
directly. The railroad continues northwest in the
midst of a broad agricultural region. This region
is flanked on both the north and south by partially
wooded swamps that cover great areas. Hay is the
chief crop.

Such districts are common throughout the west-
ern part of the Siberian plain. They lie in the
interstream spaces. The banks of the rivers and
l)road belts on either side are the higher, better-


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