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drained areas. These are therefore taken over for
farming, and are the inhabited sections. Tbey look
like the Dakota prairies, about 2.5 per cent culti-
vated. The soil consists of 1 foot of dark loam
.with grayish clay subsoil.

253 381 Onmtinskaya. With a Cossack guardhouse. Along
this stretch the route follows up a small western
branch of the Vagal. The railroad towns are usu-



76 OMSK TO VYATKA.

ally on tlic highway and also on a river. The town.s
from which the stations take their names are often
out of sight of the railway line. Brush and poplar
cover wide areas.

•2()1 4U2 Vagal. Ilaih-oad restaurant. Vagal is aisD located on
the Vagai River. The route then passes to the
headwaters of another small stream. The land is
Hat as far as the eye can reach, with about one-
fourth under cultivation. The other three-fourths
are in pasture and hay. The only tiinher is fair-
sized white birch.

l!i)S 44li Zavodo-Ukovskaya. The Tobol River is crossetl by a
bridge more than 1,000 feet long.

310 4G8 Yalutorovsk. (Population, 5,000, 5 per cent Tar-
tars.) Railroad restaurant. Yalutorovsk is located
at the junction of the Tobol and Iset Rivers on the
north bank. The station ordinarily has a Cossa<-k
guard. River boats ply the Tobol from Kurgan
on the south past Yalutorovsk to Tobolsk on the
north, but are apt to be hindered by sand bars ex-
cept in the late spring. Fairs are held in January,
March, September, and December. A fair highway
runs due west from Yalutorovsk and follows up the
Iset River for over 200 miles to Ostrovskaya,
^^•hence a branch railway runs north about 28 miles
to Rogdanovich, on the main railroad. Route N.

Our route proceeds northwest from Yalutorovsk
on a line roughly separating the swampy land at
tlie northeast from the highly cultivated land at
the southwest. A gootl highway runs in the same
dii'ection as the railroad and not far from it. The
soil is occasionally sandy and in low ridges. The
trees are small white birch and poplar.

^33 r>02 Bogandinskaya. On the small river Pyshna. About
10 versts beyond the station a large lake is iiassed
on the right. The country is very flat and bushy
without much cultivation.



TYUMEN. 77

537 Tyumen. (Altitude 280 feet, population 50,000.)
Railroad restaurant. Tyumen is situated wliere
the chief highway from Russia across the Urals
touches the tirst navigable river of Siberia, the
Tura. The town is well built and stands on both
banks of the Tura, here spanned by a bridge. Tyu-
men is a district town of the government of To-
bolsk. (Photo. No. 17. Photo. No. 18.)

Military facilities. — Barracks. — As this city was
once the point of embarkation for all exiles and
prisoners going east, all buildings used as prisons
would be available for barracks. These would be
in addition to the regular barracks.

Camp sites. — The best camp site would l)e on
the left l)ank of the Tura River near which is an
island, where Messrs. Ignatyev have ;i shipyard and
shop. The race course on the outskirts of the
town would be available for aeroplane landing.

Transport. — No automobiles and not many horses
are available. Chief dependence is on the river.

Repair facilities. — Fairly modern equipment in
the railroad shops.

Hospital facilities fair.

Labor. — Mostly Russians and friendly.

TJie city. — The streets are broad and straight.
As in all Siberian cities, only the main streets are
paved.

Health.— Yi'wQV water is supplied, but as it is
muddy it must be filtered. There is no sewage
system. The sewage is carried out of the city and
dumped into pits. Notwithstanding these condi-
tions, the general health is fairly good.

Food. — Since this is a dairy region, food supplies
are fairly abundant.

Fuel. — Cordwood. This is cut above the city on
the river and floated down on rafts. Poor coal may
also be had from the Ural Mountains.



78 OMSK TO VYATKA.

Manufacturing. — The people of Tyumen are well-
known for their industrial skill. Local industries
include four lumber mills, five shipbuilding yards
handlinc; annually about $250,000 worth of river
craft and barges, two flour mills (output 7,500 tons
per year), bell factory, brewery, sheep-leather fac-
tory, cloth factory for soldiers' uniforms, fur fac-
tory, three machine shops handling chiefly agricul-
tural machinery, potteries, soap factories, and
match and veneer factories. A large shipyard, sit-
uated on the left bank of the river Tura and be-
longing to Trape/nikova. has stationary and marine
boilers, a machine shop, foundry, blacksmith shop,
and woodworking shop. A large flour mill 1 mile
from the city has its own repair machine shop.

Transportation. — The banks of the river Tura
have been strengthened so that railroad cars may
be brought direct to the steamers to facilitate load-
ing and unloading. Landing places belong to the
Ship & Trading Co., Kurbatov & Ignatyev, and sev-
eral others. Steamers go down the Tura for 273
miles (412 versts) to Tobolsk (population 21,400)
and 755 miles (1,140 versts) up another branch of
the Obi River to Omsk, and from Tobolsk. 1,197
miles (1.807 versts). up the Obi proper to Tomsk
(pp. 91 and 92, Part III). A good highway follows
down the Tura to Tobolsk. Another road follows
up the Tura River.

From Tyumen the I'oute strikes due west across
the fertile plain amid wheat fields, pasture lands,
and wooded tracts. It runs to the north of the
Pishma River and roughly parallel to it.

869 557 Podyom.

382 576 Karmak. On u small stream. The route now passes
through great wheat fields, which stretch away 4 or
5 miles on both sides of the track.



KAMYSHLOV. 79

394 594 Tugulym. The level Siberian plain now liejiius to
give way to hilly land, for here begins the Pietlniont
region of the Central I'rul Mountains. The valleys
become deeper and deeper and the flat upland
tracts between the valleys become more and more
narrow as the Urals are approached.

At about verst G08, there is a phint for treating
railway ties. Light timber abounds.

404 610 Yushala. Near the boundary line that separates
the province of Tobolsk and Perm.' Beyond the
station a sweeping view is obtained of the Pishma
Valley at the south. This view continues for about
65 miles to Kamyshlov. Many good-sized villages
are seen in the valley, which is about 4 miles
wide. Valley at the south from 3 to 4 miles wide.
Poklevskaya. (Altitude, 225 feet.) Railroad res-
taurant. Country well cultivated for long distances
on both sides.
Oshchepkovo.
Aksarikha.

469 708 Kamyshlov. (Altitude, 325 feet. Population. 9,9tKJ.)
Railroad resturant. Kamyshlov is a district town.
Irbit (population. 8.600). lies about 74 miles to the
north of Kiimyshlov and is connected with it by
dili.gence. ( See Route X. Branch 2. )

Along this part of the route much of the land is
under cultivation, especially at the north. Fine
crops are the rule. Wheat and oats are the chief
crops. St)il is very dark. At the south there are
forests in patches.

483 72!t Pyshminskaya. Soil very dark and rich. Country
is well settled. Pat<-hes of white birch and poplars
scattered among the fields.

About verst 741, it is reported, railway branches
run both to the north and south to newly developed
coal mines. Railways and mine owned by a private
company.
875G9— 18— PT 4- 6



^55


641


444


070


458


690



80 OMSK TO VYATKA.

496 748 Bogdanovich. (Altitude, 550 feet.) Railroad res-
taurant. The station exports 80,000 tons annually
of various products. A branch railroad (Route N,
Branch 1) runs south and southeast to Shadrinsk
on the Iset River. Broad views are obtained of
the country, which is nearly all under cultivation
as far as the eye can reach. Oats are a favorite
crop bore.
509 767 Gryaznovskaya. The town lies on the highway well

to the north of the station.
533 789 Bazhenovo. (Altitude, 785 feet.) The town is lo-
cated on the Bolshoi Reft. Twenty-three miles to
the nortli are emerald min.es. Forests are scat-
tered and trees small.
536 809 Kosulino. The route winds considerably to find the
best grades. Soil is a brownish clay, with just a
tinge of red.
548 827 Istok. In the bottom of a valley. Pine woods pre-
vail here, with some trees as large as 10 inches in
diameter.
555 837 Yekaterinburg Station, in the eastern end of the city.
558 841 Yekaterinburg. (Altitude, 870 feet; population,
75,000.) Raili'oad restaurant. The chief station
is at the northern end of the city. (Photo. No. 20.)
Location. — Yekaterinburg, a district town in the
Government of Perm, lies on both sides of the Iset
River, a branch of the Obi at the eastern base of
the Ural Mountains. (Photo No. 21 and Photo
No. 22.)

Details of city. — The main streets, broad and
straight, are cobbled and generally have sidewalks,
but the clay side streets and country roads are
very muddy after rain. There are no street cars,
and passenger traffic depends on several hundred
4-wheeled cabs.

The houses in the center of town are brick or
stone ; those on the outskirts, log. Roofs arc V-



YEKATERINBURG. 81

shaped and covered with roofing iron or boards.
Lighting is usually by electricity, but kerosene i.s
used in the poorer houses. Wood is mainly used
for fuel in heating the houses and coolving. Coal is
abundant.

Large barracks are on the west side of the town.

Importance. — Yekaterinburg is the most impor-
tant place in the LTral Mountains. This is due pri-
marily to its location at the eastern entrance of a
convenient pass over the Ural Mountains. Because
of this location the main railroad from Petrograd
to Vladivostok passes through this city. The im-
portance of the city is further enhanced by tlie rich
mineral deposits of the Central L'^rals. It is a trad-
ing center for many mining towns.

Military facilities — Barracks. — The number of
men that can be quartered in barracks is not as
great as at Chelyabinsk, although there are a large
number of buildings in course of construction and
some have been finished. Mention may be made of
the Gostiny Dvor, a large concrete building holding
1,000 to 1,200 soldiers.

Billets. — A large number of private houses are
available.

Camp sites. — Many good camp sites can be
formed in the neighborhood of the town. Schert-
tash in particular, a summer resort 3 miles away,
on a lake with good drinking water, would furnish
by far the best camp site.

Repair. — Since Yekaterinburg is a manufactur-
ing city, good facilities exist for repairs. The
Za^•od and A'erkhiii-lsetski works are hut two of
many iron works with modern equipment. In ad-
dition, a large shop is operated by the railroad.

Transport.— Mechfinicnl means of transport are
very limited and transport animals are not avail-
able, as they have been used of late for food.



82 OMSK TO VYATKA.

Labor. — Plenty of labor is available, chiefly peas-
ants, who are for the most part Great Russians.

Acrojflanc lamlinf/ places. — The large hiiiiio-
(Ironie, used for hoi-se racing and other sports,
would furnish a good site for aeroplane landings.
This lies between the Verkhni-Isetski Iron Works
and the town.

Hospitals. — Facilities very good. Three private
hospitals, belonging to local physicians, may be
noted. The eye hospital is of unusual excellence
for Russia.

Inhabitants. — The intelligent classes would be
friendly, but since this is a factory town it has
been the center of Bolshevik activity.

Health. — The w^ater supply is obtained from
springs and wells on the outskirts of the town.
There are neither wells nor cisterns attached to
individual houses. The water is hard, but good.
Since the pumping is insufficient, much water has
to be carted into the city. There is no sewerage
system. The health conditions are unusually good.

Communications. — A telephone system covers the
town and outlying districts, with about 800 sub-
scribers. Wooden poles are used to support the
wires. Service fair. Regular Government tele-
graph service.

Tran-fportation. — Besides the main east and
west railroad, the city has two others. From
Yekaterinburg a branch railroad runs north (see
Route P) to many mining centers. These are. in
turn, connected by rail with Perm via Bissersk.
Another railroad runs south and skirts the eastern
l)ase of the I'ral IVIountains from Yekaterinburg to
Chelyabinsk. (For details see Route M.) Here it
connects with the main line from Omsk to Mos-
cow. Some trains between Petrogi-ad and Vladi-
vostok use this Yekaterinburg-Chelyabinsk con-



YEKATERINBURG. 83

nection. A Government highway also runs along
the railroad. Another highway runs north from
Yekaterinl)urg. The country roads are very good
and motor transport could be used.

Industries. — There are three large Hour niills, a
foundry and machine .shop, wire-rope works, match
factory (output 60.000 boxes), a six-story steam
mill almost in center of town near a i^ond, h
cloth factory, and several oil manufactories. In
Verkhni-Iset, less than a mile away, are works
consisting of blast, refining, and puddling fur-
naces, rolling mills, and machine shoi)s. These are
on a lake 7 miles long by 2 miles wide. Output
of works is about 6,300 tons of steel and 4,.500 tons
of commercial shaped steel. Roof iron is also sup-
plied. One thousand five hundred men are em-
ployed. The Yates foundry and shops are near the
railroad station.

Strategic center. — From a military point of view
Yekaterinburg is a strategic point of the first rank.
It guards a main railway route over the Urals antl
taps mineral regions which produce war necessi-
ties, especially platinum. The forces that hold the
city and the surrounding heights are likely to domi-
nate the four railroads and two highways that
converge upon it. Mort'over, the plains, both at the
east and west of the Central Urals, are likely tc.
be dominated for considerable distances by the pos-
sessors of this city. There is no center of greater
strategic value between Omsk and Perm.

Fortijicaiion. — Although the city is unfortified
in the ordinary sense, yet the large iron works
with their great piles of ore, scrap iron, and pig
Iron were used as fortresses in the revolution,
trenches having been dug at many places. Forces
controlling these could dominate the town, and
with the great sluices at the iron works could inun-
date it.

I



Route N, Branch 1.

RAILROAD— BOGDANOVICH TO SHADRINSK.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

Tliis brancli railway runs to the af^rieultural and mining re-
gion south and southeast of Uogdauovicli, passing througli hilly
country whicli slopes to the plains at the east.

Tlie line runs southwest 38 versts (25 miles) to Sinarskaya.
ciiiefly over upland, then turns sharply to the southeast and
follows down the Iset Valley, a tributary of the Tura. It
crosses the Iset or its tributaries at intervals, but never is far
from the river.

A telegraph line and post road run parallel to the railroad.
Occasionally they lie on the opposite side of the river from the
railroad. The telegraph continues down the valley to Kres-
inovskoye, about 20 versts beyond the terminal of the railway,
and the post road follows the Iset to Yalutorovsk. Other post
roads connect this line with stations on the Siberian railways.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

Distance

from

Bogdanovich.

V. M.

Bogdanovich. From Bogdanovich the railway goes

southwest, crosses a small valley, and runs along
an upland surface called Barsuchya Steppe. It
descends into the Iset Valley at the junction of
the Kamenaya and Iset Rivers. The country is
chiefly agricultural. About 20 per cent is for-
ested, with birch a"nd pine predominating.
2.1 3S Sinarskaya. On the north side of the River Iset.

This station exports 80.000 tons of iron, steel,
and agricultural products annually. The town
has a population of 10.000. It has four churches,
84



SINARSKAYA. 85

several schools, a small hospital with 15 beds,
and about 160 little domestic shops, whose out-
put amounts to $675,000 annually. Several flour
mills are not far distant. District fairs are held
here four times a year.

A few miles up the river are located the rov-
ernment iron and steel works of Kamennaya.
Here, too, are machine and blacksmitli shops,
where some gtin parts and shells are made.
Near by are asbestos, gold, and tungsten mines
and small deposits of hard coal. During the
war some tungsten steel was made, but to what
extent is not known.

Post roads run from Sinarskaya to Yekaterin-
burg and Bogdanovich. A third goes to the
southeast, parallel with the railway. A railroad
is under construction to the important mines of
Sinarski, at the south.

The railway crosses the Iset River and con-
tinues southeast.

38 58 Kolchedan. The line continues southeast, close to

the river.

49 74 Chuga. On the river at the junction with a small

branch. The line turns to the east, keeping close
to the river.

56 85 Kataisk. A post road runs south to Chelyabinsk.

The line bends to the southeast, then east.

69 105 Dalmatov. (Population, 4,000.) On the lliver Iset
at the junction of a small branch. The town lies
on the opposite side of the river from the sta-
tion. It has several churches, public schools, and
a large monastery. Home industries havfe an
annual output of $50,000. District fairs are held
twice a year. The town is the center of an agri-
cultural region.

The railway continues down the valley, crosses
the river, and follows the left valley slope.



86



YEKATERINBURG TO IRBIT.



84 127 Leshevo-Zamarayevo. "JMic viliii^'t^ lies sfujtli of the
station.

J)!) 140 Shadrinsk. Jtailroiid rostiuirant. (l'oi)ulati<tn.
12.000.) 'I'li« town lies on the north bank of the
Iliver Iset. It has a large monastery and sev-
eral churches and schools, including a high
school for boys and girls. There are about 308
manufacturing establishments, including .several
tlour mills, with' an annual output valued at
$2,000,00<J. Most of the industries are of the
domestic type, employing only the members of
the fanuly. Three times a year fail's are held.
At such times local agricultural products, such
as grains, butter, hemp, horses, and cattle, are
exchanged for simple manufactured goods from
western Europe. Salt is found near by. About
20 per cent of tbe surrounding region is forested.
Post roads run northwest to Kamyslilov, south-
east to Yurgamysh, and northeast down the Iset
to Yalutorovsk. The railroad is projected to
Kurgan on Route L.

EouTE N, Branch 2.

YEKATERINBURG TO IRBIT.



Distance from

Ycka-

teHnhurfj

(roughly

estimated. )

Miles. Vorsts.

Yfekaterinburg. This line curves around the south

end of a ridge and runs northeast. It crosses a
small valle.v, rises to the upland, and crosses it.
10 28 Monetnaya. A station on the upland. The roatl

continues northeast along the upland and de-
scends into a small valley.
MO 4." Riidyanskaya. A station in a small valley. The

road follows the valley a short distance, then



IRBIT. 87

rises out of the valley, crosses a divide, and de-
scends into another small valley.
C,r, Ryozh. A station in a small valley. The roa<l
rises out of the valley, continues northeast over
some hills, and descends into the Irbit Basin.
!>.". Yegorshino. (^n a small tributary of the Irbit
River. Near i»y aie inm mines. A uorth-and-
.south railway nitets this line at Yegorshino (see
Route P-1). The line turns almost to the east,
leaves the valley, crosses some hills, and entei's
the Irbit Valley, but soon leaves it again.

117 Boyarskaya. On the upland. Nearby, to the south,
are the Irbitski iron works. The line continues
northeast along the upland.

142 Khudyakovo. The line drops down into the Irbit
Valley, which it follows for a short distance, then
continues northeast and avoids the great curve
made by the river before it enters the Neiva.

170 Irbit. (Population, 21,000.) In the Perm Govern-
ment, at the junction of the Irbit and Neiva
Rivers. Irbit is famous for its annual fair,
which is held from February 1 to March 1. This
is a general market for goods from European
Russia, the Caucasus, a part of Siberia, and the
Steppe district. Buyers assemble from all over
Russia, western Europe, China, and even the
United States. Generally 57 per cent of the busi-
ness is with Eui-opean Russia and the Caucasus,
40 per cent with Siberia, and 3 per cent with the
foreign countries. The annual trade has
amounted to $28,000,000 at its maximum, but the
average is .S16.000,000.

Furs, which eventually enter the markers of
London and Leipzig, are the most important
articles of trade. Wool, cotton, flax, heniii, tea,
leather, and hides enter into tlie trade, and manu-
factured goods in wool, metals, silk, homemade



88 OMSK TO VYATKA.

(ku.starni) leather goods, and felt are bought
and sold.

A post road runs south from Irbit to Kaniysh-
lov on the Siberian Railway, and another north-
west to Verhoturye (Route U-2).

It is reported that the continuation of Routt-
N, Branch 2, northeast to Turinsk, on the Tura
River, has recently been completed.

CONTINUANCE OF ROUTE N,

From the northei*n station of Yekaterinburg
the route first runs northwest about 10 versts
(7 miles) along the eastern borders of a large
lake. Along this stretch the track is used in
common with the railroad north to the Central
Urals. The grades are so heavy that two en-
gines are required to pull the train. It often
happens, however, that the casual traveler cro.sses
the Urals in this section without realizing it.
The " mountains " as seen from the train are
less imposing than the Berkshire Hills of west-
ern Massachusetts. The approach from the east
is much steeper than the descent toward the
west. The forests of the Central Urals are
chiefly evergi-eens, with a scattering of birches
^f fair size. The evergreens yield logs up to 15
and 20 inches in diameter. The larger lumber,
however, has already been taken from the for-
ests near the railway.

17 26 Khrustalnaya. In the vicinity of the watershed

between the headwaters of the Ob flowing into
the Arctic Ocean and those of the Volga flowing
into the Caspian Sea.

27 40 Revda. The railroad winds into the Chusovaya

Valley and finds this town on its slopes. The
valley and its small swift river are crossed to the
left bank. The line follows down the Chusovaya



BILIMBAI. 89

Valley for 25 versts (17 miles). The land is very
fertile and well cultivated.

29 44 Railroad Siding No. 70. A branch railroad runs

south for G versts up a mountain valley to Bar-
anovskaya.

30 .14 Bilimbai. In the Chusovaya Valley. Tlie town of

Bilimbai, of considerable size (Population 7,(X)0).
lies on the opposite side of the river. Near the
station on the small River Bilimbaya are large
steel and iron works. About 3 miles from the
works, on the River Chusovaya is a wharf be-
longing to the works, from which more than
15,000 tons of steel are exported into the interior
of Russia. In the vicinity of the station are
large deposits of gold and iron ore. Near by is
a hospital. Farther on, a highway from Bilim-
bai crosses the river and the railroad.

47 71 Koiirovka. Railroad restaurant (population 4,500 K

On the high left slope of the Chusovaya Valley,
close to the River Utk. The Utk Iron & Steel
Works, near station on the Chusovaya River,
export 15,000 tons of steel annually. Farther
down on the Chusovaya River the Utk-Denidova
Steel & Iron Works are situated in a village of
7,000 persons. Nearby is a wharf, also a small
shipyard for building barges and tugs. Soon the
railroad leaves the Chusovaya Valley, turns to
the west and rises with heavy grades toward the
Kirgishan Pass. On the other side of the pass a
broad view of the country reveals a high plain
into which an intricate river system has cut an
equally intricate system of valleys, varying in
depth according to the volume of water.

66 99 Sabik. The route descends gradually. An occa-

sional broad view westward is obtaiiaed. The
railroad keeps to the surface of the upland plain,
and bends to the northwest to avoid valleys.



90 OMSK TO VYATKA.

70 110 Sarga. Deep valleys extend from the town both
to Ihe northeast and south. Four miles south
of the station is a town of 15,000 people, which
is supported by important iron works. Large
iron deposits with ore running from 45 to 55 per
cent of iron lie near by.
00 1'?(i Shalya. Jtailroad restaurant. Slill anolluM- iiji-
land town. The valley of the Sylva lies to th-^
north. The Sylva Kiver rises in a lake at the
northeast. About 3 miles from the station, on


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