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tiie bank of the Sylva River, are steel and iron
works, wliieh manufacture open-liearth steel and
sheet steel. Soon after leaving Shalya the rail-
way crosses a valley.

101 152 Vogulka. In the center of a large upland tra<t.
I'roiu the margins of this tract the laud slopes
;ibruptly into valleys.

Ho 171 Shamary. This town is located at the junction
of the valleys of the Sylva and the Volgulka.
The railroad rises out of the valley by a curve
and crosses another upland surface in about 20
versts. It then crosses a shallow valley to Kor-
don. on the opposite slope.

130 190 Kordon. llailroad restaurant. Still another up-
land surface is traversed and another shallow
valley crossed.

142 214 Tiilumbasy. In the center of a small upland tract.
The line goes to the edge of the miniature
plateau and gradually descends into the valley
of the Sylva.

152 220 Shumkovo. The Sylva River is crossed and Kishen
is reached down the valley.

100 242 Kishert. A valley town. Leaving Kisherr the
railroad crosses the Sylva on a 70-foot steel
bridge and continues down the Sylva to Kungiir.

172 261 Kungur. (Population 18,000.) Kungur lies in a
fertile valley at the junction of the Iren with



KUNGUR. 91

the Sylva. It is the most important town he-
tween Yekaterinburg and Perm. Highways run
fi^m Kungur to the south, east, and west. Still
another runs northwest to Perm parallel to the
railroad. Unlike most important railroads in
Russia the section from Yekaterinburg to Kun-
gur is not followed by a highway.

In the spring and early summer Kungur has
transportation by side-wheel steamers down the
Sylva to Perm. The river curves so much that
the distance by water is about twice as great
as by rail. Exports by this waterway amount to
12,000 long tons annually.

In ordinary times Kungur manufactures
leather, boots, gloves, overcoats, iron castings,
and machinery. There are 33 tanneries, 3 soap
factories, several flour mills, and 3 brickyards.
Nearly 1,000 families are engagefl in making
shoes and gloves. There are itsually stored in
the city quantities of cereals, tallow, linseed, and
tea.

From Kungur the railway strikes to the west,
leaves the valley of the Sylva and follows up
the valley of a small branch stream. As it pro-
ceeds it gradually bend.s to the northwest.

187 283 Yergach. A small town located between the rail-
road and the stream. Seven miles Avest are the
hills called Ostraya, Belaya, and Savle with cop-
per deposits. At their foot is a copper smelting
village of 4.000 people. The route gradually rises.

203 306 Kukushtan. This town is on the stream where
it is crossed by the railroad. In the neighbor-
hood is a large copper smelter. About 10 versts
beyond the railroad reaches the level of the up-
land. About one-third of the region is forested.

216 326 Miiiyanka. (I'opulation 10.000.) A road runs to
the southwest to a town 7 miles away, containing



92 OMSK TO VYATKA.

important copper smelters. A shallow valley is
crossed, a stretch of the upland is traversed, and
Term is reached. ,

235 355 Perm. (Altitude, 300 feet ; population, 105,410.)

Location and characicr. — ^Perm, the capital of
the Pi*ovince of Perm, stands on the left hank of
the navigable Kama. The town is mostly built
of Mood with broad streets and wide squares but
has a somewhat dilapidated aspect. f Photo
No. 23.)

Chief buildings. — The most important buildings
in Perm are barracks, capable of holding 20.000
soldiers; an artillery school; the district anrl
Perm government buildings ; large fair build-
ings; several boys' and girls' high schools; the
Perm district drug store and warehouse ; and
the warehouse at the wharf on the River Kama.
(Photo No. 24.)

Transportation. — Besides being on the chief
railroad from Petrograd to Siberia, Perm is the
western terminus of a railway network of the
mining towns of the central Urals (see route
P). of which Yekaterinburg is the southern ter-
minus. ^Moreover, Perm is the focus of four navi-
gable waterways, southwestward down the Kama,
northward up the Kama, eastward up the Chu-
sovaya, and southeastward up the Sylva. Dur-
ing the ice-free seasons, especially in the spring
when the rivers are deepest, these waterways are
busy roiites. They are used chiefly to convey
heavy iron goods into Russia. During the sum-
mer regular steamboat communication is- main-
tained with Kazan, 605 miles to the .southwest.

Perm is also served by three Government high-
ways. One runs north roughly parallel with the
Kama. Another runs southwest to the important
town of Okhansk, thence westward. Both of



FEHM. 98

these are followed by telephone lines. The thirrS
runs south with the railroad we have followed.

The city annually exports by rail 73,000 tons
of goods and imports 54,000 tons. By the Kama
River it imports 126,000 tons and exports 144.000
tons.

Industries. — Perm has such close touch with
the iron, copper, and coal mines and forests of
the central Urals that it has naturally become a
manufacturing center for iron, copper, and
wooden goods. The city has important sawmills,
shipbuilding yards, machinery works, copper
foundries, and chemical factories. Tanneries
also are important, as well as soap and candle
factories. A phosphorous plant, situated just
outside the city on the bank of the River Dan-
ilikhy, is one of the largest in Russia. Before the
war it sent goods even to Germany, Sweden, and
England.

About 3 miles northeast from the city is situ-
ated Motovilikha, a large Government arsenal,
employing about 15.000 men in 1916. Population
of the town is over 30,000. Enlargement of the
plant during the war, with the addition of equip-
ment from the United States and England, has
made it one of Russia's modern arsenals. Its
buildings include a shell and shrapnel plant and
a main machine shop equipped with large steam
hammers with a capacity of 50 long tons. The
output consisted of 3-inch field guns (about 32
or 34 batteries, 1917, per month), rifles (about
10,000 a month), machine gims (about 100 per
month), 16-inch rifle cannon, shells from 3 to 6
inches, shrapnel, detonators (about 25,000 per
month), hand grenades, and time fuses. The
plant was also building ships, tugs, marine and
stationary boilers, and steam engines. It was



94 OMSK TO VYATKA.



being run by the Bolsheviki in the summer of
1918. About one-half mile from the arsenal on
the River Kama are two islands. Just opposite,
on the left bank of the River Kama, are the Nobel
Oil Co.'s kerosene and gasoline reservoirs.

Near Perm is a copper smelting plant belonging
to the Government and under the same manage-
ment as the gun plant. Copper ore is brought
to the smelter from five different copper mines,
situated from 4 to 21 miles distant. Annual pro-
duction of this plant is 90 tons. The copper
smelted is the best from the Ural ilountains.
It is used by Government mints.

Strutcffic value. — Perm possesses high strate-
gic value. This results chiefly from the fact
that the city is such a center of transportation.
The forces holding it would be able to cut the
chief railway from Petrograd and northern Rus-
sia to Siberia. Moreover, such forces would com-
mand the easiest exits of the mineral resources
of the central Urals. Perm would make an excel-
lent base for troops operating at the west. The
richness of the regions to which it has easy ac-
cess makes the city economically valuable.

CONTINUANCE OF THE ROUTE.

The route leaves the station in the western
part of Perm and soon crosses the Kama on a
bridge 970 yards long. The bridge affords a com-
manding view of town. From the height near the
western bridgehead light artillery might readily
sweep the whole city.

The railroad soon turns down the valley of the
Kama and gradually rises to higher levels on the
right slope. At about verst R70 the route bend's
to the northwest, leaves the Kama Valley, and



SHABUNICHI. 96

climbs to the upland surf:ice. Several siiiall
branch valleys are crossed.

251) 31H Shabunichi. A town on the upland surface with a
wide outlook over the surrounding country.
From this station 4,000 tons of steel products are
shipped annually. In general, the land is fairly
well cultivated with some patches of forest. The
route crosses a number of -branch valleys of the
Kama.

276 416 Grigoryovskaya. A town near the edge of a broad
upland tract. An iron plant near by exports 180
tons of goods annually. The route now maRes a
broad sweep to the north around the head of a
branch valley. At about verst 429 a road is
crossetl.

For 84 versts (56 miles) to Kuznia the rail-
road runs parallel with and 8 versts south of the
Orba Valley.

294 443 Mendeleyevo. Between the head of two minor val-
leys. The village of Karagaiskoye lies 7 miles
north of the station ; population, 1,000. The
route now strikes to the southwest.

310 468 Vereschagino. Railroad restaurant. Village of
same name lies 1 mile north of station. In this
region are fine forests of pine and birch. The
station exports 4.000 tons of farm and forest
products. A road runs to the north and to the
south. The one to the south connects via
Okhansk with Perm, a distance of about 110
miles. The town is at the center of a large
upland tract. The route continues to the south-
west.

324 489 Borodulino. Near the northern maj'gin of a broad
upland stretch. Nine thousand tons of farm
products leave the station annually. Small biirli
and pine are abundant in clumps. The region is
still fairly well cultivated.
87569 — 18 — PT 4 7



96 OMSK TO VYATKA.

340 513 Kuzma. On the boundary line between the Perm
and Vyatka districts. The route follows along
the edge of a minor valley, crosses an upland
stretch, and descends into a minor valley to Kez.

353 533 Kez. Near the station is the village of Yuski. Pop-
ulation, 1,000. The railroad climbs out of the
valley to the upland, across which it strikes due
west for 13 versts. Thin forests of birch and pine
prevail.

At about verst 551 a road runs south. The route
then descends into the Cheptsa Valley, the largest
encountered since leaving the Kama. The river
is crossed by a 105-foot steel bridge and the town
of Cheptsa is reached on the opposite slope.

367 553 Cheptsa. The station exports 2,000 tons of farm
and forest products. A glass factory is located
nearby. Fine forests abound. The railroad now
follows down the valley of the Cheptsa on the
left slope. Broad views are obtained on the right.

387 583 Balezino. The station is on the left bank of the
river. The town itself is 6 miles down the river
on the right bank. Population, 1,200. The farm
and forest products exported amount to 900 tons
annually. At about verst 590 is the Kesmym,
from which a road runs east to Balezino. The
route now rises out of the valley, crosses several
branch valleys, and returns to the main Cheptsa
Valley at Glazov.

404 610 Glazov. (Population, 4,500.) Railroad restaurant.
Located midway from Perm and Vyatka and the
most Important town between them. The town
has a boys' and gii'ls' high school. Glazov is at
the head of navigation of the Cheptsa River.
During the summer small boats ply between here
and Vyatka. From Glazov a road runs north 42
miles, then westerly for 110 miles to Vyatka,
connecting many towns en route.



ZALONZNINSK IRON WORKS. 97

District fairs are held from tlie 1st to the 6th of
December. The station exports 13,000 tons of a
varietj' of products by rail and 3,000 by the River
Cheptsa.

About 40 miles north of the city are the
Verkhne & Nizhne Zalozninski Iron & Steel
Works, located near iron deposits.

From Glazov the railroad runs to the north-
west and follows the Cheptsa Valley practically
all the way to A'yatka. It is usually located well
up on the left slope and often crosses stretches
of the upland. The valley is from 3 to 4 miles
broad and from 7.5 to 100 feet below the upland
surface. Throughout this route from Glazov to
Vyatka wooded land alternates with well-culti-
vated stretches in which villages are numerous.
Women ordinarily do much of the farm work
with primitive implements. Grain is generally
harvested with a sickle, then gathered and bound
by hand.

Many cattle are grazed in the wet meadows of
the valley floors, and crops are commonly raised
on the valley slopes. Grnin, however, does best
on the upland surface.

428 645 Yar. On a spur of the upland between the main
valley and a branch. Nine hundx'ed tons of farm
products are exported. There are iron works not
far away. The branch valley and several others
are soon crossed.

449 677 Falenki. On the left valley slope. The routt;
now bends to the west and traverses pine woods.

468 706 Zuyevka. Railroad restaurant. In a branch val-
ley near Its .iunction with the main valley.
Seven miles from the station on the right bank
of the River Kosy is the town of Kosa, where
district fairs are held in I\Iarch. The route now



98 OMSK TO VYATKA.

passes through a well-settled and well-cultivated
section. The soil is a lifiht, sandy, red clay,

4X8 730 Ardashi. On an upland stretch. Four hun(U-e<l
tons of farm products are sent away yearly. The
route gradually diverges from the Cheptsa Valley.

505 700 Prosnitsa. Near the head of a small branch val-
ley. Five hundred tons of farm products are
exported.

520 785 Poloi. In the midst of a well-settled farming coun-
try. Three hundred tons of products are ex-
ported- At about verst 791 a road comes in from
the south and joins the highway, which continu-
ally follows our raihvay route. This road comes
from Kazan, about 3G0 versts away. It would
become of great importance if a battle line were
established from Murmansk to Soroka and thence
to Vyatka, Kazan, and the Volga.

From Poloi the route gradually curves to the
i-iglit and swings through the Cheptsa Valley to
the southern part of Vyatka. Throughout this
last section of the route the town of Vyatka is
visible from the train.

534 805 Vyatka. (Altitude, 440 feet; population. (iO.CXK). i
(Capital of Vyatka Province. Situated on the
left bank of the navigable Cheptsa.

Details of city. — The. city is built upon the val-
ley slope and reaches from the river bank to the
edge of the upland surface. IMost of the streets
therefore are steep and badly gullied except
where carefully paved. It is reported that 500
of the houses are of stone. The rest are of wood.
The upland surface adjacent to the town is not
l)uilt up except for the Government buildings.
The upland is partially wooded. Much of the
rest is in gardens and parks. The height to the
north of the town would be :\ suitable location
for light artillery to conmiand the highways that



VYATKA. 99

converge upon Vyatka as well as the city itself.
It might serve as a camp site.

From Vyatka a railroad goes to the west to
Vologda and Petrograd. Another runs northwest
238 miles (359 versts) to Kotlas on the Dvina
River. Thence steamers ply northwest to Arch-
angel and southwest to Vologda. In ordinary
times a steamer leaves Vyatka twice daily dur-
ing the open season for Kazan. Length of trip,
2i days. Roads run parallel to each of the
three railroads that serve Vyatka. Another runs
to the northenst about 22 miles to Slobodskoye.
thence east and south to Glazov.

There are tanneries, shoe factories, furniture
factories, lumber yards, brickyards, and several
small machine shops.



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104 YEKATERINBURG TO PERM.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

MILITARY VALUE.

In ordinary times this route is used principally as a mining
railroad. The main line makes a great northward sweep from
Yekaterinburg to Perm, while branches diverge to a large
number of mines. The main line is of such quality that in spite
of the grades and curves it could be used as a substitute for
the Trans-Siberian line in case the latter were cut or congested
between Yekaterinburg and Perm. In times of war, as in
l)oace, however, the chief function of the route is to get out ores.

TERRAIN.

For the first quarter of the distance the railroad follows the
valleys of the Neiva and Tagil, which are approached by a low
ridge. The Neiva Valley is a rolling country, through which
the river makes many turns among lakes and swamps. About
half of the region is wooded, but cultivated areas are common.
Both the Neiva and the Tagil Valleys are important mining
regions.

After crossing the Tagil Valley the railroad climbs the east-
ern slope of the Urals. It makes many turns, with increasing
grades, to the pass, which has an altitude of 1,545 feet at its
highest point near Khrebet Uralski. This point is about half-
way between Yekaterinburg and Perm. The mountains are
not high, being merely good-sized hills.

Down the western slope, which forms the tbird quarter, the
grades are steep and the country mountainous as far as the
Chusovaya River. The last quarter almost parallels the Chuso-
vaya to its junction with the Kama, about 10 miles from Perm.
The country is gently rolling and partly timbered. The rail-
road cuts have abrupt, rocky slopes.

RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIES.

riatiiiiim. — Ninety-five per cent of the world's supply of
platinum comes from Russia. Although small quantities of this
precious metal have been found in a number of places, the
commercially important fields are limited to small areas on



EESOTTECES. 106

both sides of tlie Ural Mountains in the region tapped by this
railroad. Most of the platinum is found in the alluvial deposits
of the river beds. The most important are the deposits along
the Is River, on the west slope of the northern Urals, and
along the Tura, on the east slope. These regions supply about
80 per cent of the total Ural output. Other deposits are found
in connection with the gold mines in the Neviansky, Verkhni-
Isetski, Belim])ayevski, Alapayevski, Syssert Kyshtym. and Miass
properties.

In 1912 the production of platinum was 300,000 ounces. Since
then it has decreased so that in 1917 it probably did not amount
to 50,000 ounces, in spite of the world's increasing demand.
The reasons for the decrease in production are, first, the with-
drawal of labor for military mobilization, and, second, labor
demoralization since the overthrow of the Imperial Govern-
ment of Russia. A little placer washing by hand has been
carried on by the local inhabitants. In the summer of 1918 it
was reported that the dredges were not working.

l7-on. — Manganese, magnetite, and pyrite ores are mined at
several points in this region. Hence smelters, steel mills, and
machine shops are distributed along the railroad. Aside from
Yekaterinburg, the most important centers for iron and steel
products are Nevyansli, Nizhni-Tagil, Baranchinskaya, Pashiya,
and Chusovskaya. Hundreds of thousands of tons of iroti
products are ordinarily manufactured in these regions each
year, and these centers are well prepared to manufacture all
sorts of munitions of war.

Other ores. — Copper, gold, coal, and salt are also found in
this region. Tyoplaya Gora is the most important gold-pro-
ducing region. Coal of comparatively poor quality is found on
the west slope of the Urals and is reached by a branch rail-
road running north from Chusovskaya.

Forests. — The country along the railway was originally cov-
ered with scrubby trees, chiefly birch and pine. These have
been the chief source of building material, fuel, and charcoal
for the iron works. Thus the forests have been cut off and now
coal is being introduced by rail to replace the wood and char-
coal in heating and smelting.



106 YEKATERINBURG TO PERM.

.'^0/7 nnd mendoics. — Many fields are cultivated, and natural
niendows make cattle j-ais^injr profitable. Alost of the people,
however, are ensaj^ed in mining and in related industrie.s.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

Distance from
y (katerinhuru .
Miles. Vcrsts.

Yekaterinburg. See station 31 of Route X. Route

P starts from the north station of Yekaterinburij.
In common with Route N, it uses the stretch of
track which skirts the eastern shores of Lake
' Iset. Just beyond the lake the two routes sep-
arate. Route P continues to the northwest.

14 21 Iset. Small station near Lake I.set. Railroatl

crosses small river by a steel bridge about 3S
feet long soon after leaving the station. Xeai-
by is Byeloryechansk. a pyrite mine on Verkhni-
Isetsk estate.

2G 39 Tavatui. Small station near south end of Lake

Tavatui, which stretches about 12 miles (IS
versts) to the north. The railroad now bends
to the north on the west side of Lake Tavatui.
which can be seen occasionally. Not far away
are reddish hills from which iron ore has been
taken.

40 no Verkhne-Neivinsk. (Altitude. 875 feet; popula-

tion, 10,000.) Railroad restaurant. The station
is near the north end of Lake Tavatui. The town
is about a mile enst on the river Neiva. A hill
east of the town affords a very good camp site.
A branch post road runs west to Shurala and
thence to the village of Verkhni-Tagil, on the
Tagil River. The post road is generally in fair
condition. A gravel surface has made it better
than the aA-erage. This road continues westward
to Route N and is suitable for motor transport.
Yerkhne-Xeivinsk has steel and iron works



NEVYANSK. 107

and a machine shop for making detonators for
hirge shells. Tlie fall of water created by a dam
across the River Neiva is used to generate elec-
tric power for the iron woi-k>!. Gold mines near
the station.

The railroad bends to th»- northeast, crosses
the river, turns to the north, and skirts the east-
ern shorej^ of n large lake.
OS Neivo-Rudyanskaya. Near the northern end of
the lake. The railroad runs north down the
Neiva Valley. A swampy region is passed on the
west.

The town lies west of the railroad across the
Neiva (population over 3,000). It has an iron


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