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smelting plant, a sulphuric-acid factory, a ma-
chine shop, and a foundry. About 7,000 tons of
iron products are exported.

A narrow-gauge (30 inches) railroad runs
from Neivo-Rudyanskaya northward along Route
P to Shuralinski, the next siding. No. 117 (51
miles. 77 versts). It there leaves the main line
and runs 6 miles (9 versts) to Kalata. With the
narrow-gauge line the main railroad crosses the
Neiva and its swamps before reaching Shura-
linski. Beyond the main line crosses the Shurala
River.
8() Nevyansk. (Population, 25,000.) Railroiid res-
taurant. The town is about a mile from the
station. It has wide streets for fire protection,
a few stone houses, but mostly log houses with
wooden roofs. It has a hospital and a large
schoolhouse. A dam converts the Neiva into a
good-sized pond. The hill east of Nevyansk. and
the south slope of the table, and between
Nevyansk and Shurala, furnish good camp sites.
Water is obtainefl from shallow wells. I^ocal
supplies of grain, cattle, and sheep are small.



108 YEKATERINBURG TO PERM.

Pasturage is plentiful and good. Wood, of
which there are large supplies in the vicinity,
furnishes the chief fuel. Coal and petroleum
products are lacking. Health is generally good,
hut in winter contagious diseases, such as scarlet
fever, are prevalent.

Nevyansk has an old iron smelter, well-
equipped machine shops for making fuses for
large shells, and a foundry which before the
war made a .specialty of cast-iron pipe. Five
thousand workmen are employed and over 36,000
tons of iron and steel products are exported
annually.

About 2 miles north of Nevyansk the Byng-
ovski Iron & Steel Works are located on the
Neiva. Charcoal is used in the works, although
during the war some Siberian coal was used.
The neighboring village has a population of over
5,000.

Nevyansk is connected by a post road with the
main highway or Verkhoturye- Yekaterinburg
" Trakt." Another post road connects Nevyansk
with the mining settlement at Kalata and the
village of Verkhni-Tagil. This road is described
below :

Post Road from Nevyansk to Verkhxi-Tagil.

One mile: The road passes some reddish iron
hills from which iron ore has been mined. It
crosses the railroad and passes over a table-
land with cultivated fields on the north and
scrub-covered pastures on the south, and de-
scends into the valley of the Shurala River. The
river is small and never has much water. It is
spanned by two wooden bridges, both in fair con-
dition. The old dam is broken.



POST EOAD: NEVYANSK TO VERKHNI-TAGIL. 109

Three miles, Shurala : This village, on the
river, was formerly the site of iron smelters. It
has wooden houses with wooden roofs. A large
two-story house, occupied by the manager, has
the lower story of brick and the upper of logs.

The post road mentioned under Verkhne-Nei-
vinsk comes in at this point. Continuation of
main railway. ■

Four and one-half miles : A branch road turns
north, swings around to Nevyansk station, and
back to the post road again about 1 mile south-
west of Nevyansk. It passes a cement plant on
the river north of Shurala. This road is much
used in winter.

Eight miles: Kalata-Kalatinslvv works. Here
are located a smelter and a machine shop for
ordinary repairs, including a foundry. At Ka-
lata is a pyrite mine on the Verkhni-Isetsk estate.
In recent years (report 1912) there have been
extracted about 100,000 tons of ore, containing
about 25 per cent copper. This has been shipped
and sold for its sulphur and copper contents.
Magnetite also occurs here. The road climbs the
ridge to the west, then descends sharply into the
Tagil River Valley to Yerkhni-Tagil.

Thirteen miles: Town of Verkhni-Tagil, with
iron and steel works employing over 1,000 work-
men. Iron ore (magnetite) is obtained from the
Vysokoi Hill near by. The houses are mostly of
logs, with wooden roofs. West of Verkhni-Tagil
there are many wood roads, used chiefly in win-
ter for hauling timber and charcoal.

From Nevyansk the railroad leaves the valley
of the Neiva and swings close to the Urals. The
east bank of the ridge is ascended and a low
pass is crossed.



110 YEKATERINBURG TO PERM.

77 los Anatolskaya. Siiiiill .station in a ucjodwl country
on tlic west slope of the ridjje. Tiie valley of the
Ta^Xil lies at the west. The route proceeds north
into the Tagil Valley and follows the right slope.
SI 122 Shaitanka. (Population. 3,000.) There are iron
and steel work.s about 3 miles from the station.
The route continues north in the Tagil Valley.
88 133 Nizhni-Tagil. (Altitude, 730 feet: population.
35.000.) Railway restaurant. Nizhni-Tagil has
important Government iron and steel works,
with a modern plant equipped with new Ameri-
can machinery and tools. There are large ad-
ministration buildings, houses for employees, and
a modern hospital. More than 90,000 tons of
iron and steel products are exported annually.

Mount Vysokaya, at the west, has large iron-
oi'e deposits (65 to 70 per cent iron). The mines
employ 1,200 workmen. Statistics show that
126.000 tons were mined in 1913. Of this amount
90,000 tons were used by the Nizhni-Tagil smel-
ters.

Near Nizhni-Tagil are gold and platinum
mines, the most important of which are Avro-
rinski, Pavlo-Anatolyevski. Sosifovski. and Pav-
lovski. About 1,500 men are engaged in these
mines, using 160 horses. Up to 1913. 180 pounds
of platinum were mined and 54,000 pounds of
gold.

Nizhni-Tagil is the junction point of two
branch railroads. One runs east 82 miles (121
versts), to the Abipayevsk Iron & Steel Works,
and is described below as Route P-1. The other
branch runs southwest 35 miles (53 versts), to
the Visino-Utkinski mines, where iron and steel
works are located.

This route is not described further in this
handbook.



GOROBLAGODATSKAYA. Ill

From Nizhni-Tagil the maiu line runs north
for about 7 miles, then bends northwest, and
crosses the River Tagil. It then climbs out of
the valley to the northwest. A siding intervenes.

ll] Laya. The station lies between the Teplaya Hill
on the east and Sinaya Hill on the west. About
half a mile north of the station are the Verkhne-
Daiski and Nizlmi-I)aiski iron and steel works.
They have two old blast furnaces and several
open-hearth furnaces. From Laya the post road,
which has been near the railroad, runs nortli
and diverges from the raili'oad.

](>8 Baranchinskaya. (Population. S.UOO.) About 2
miles west of the station, at the junction of
Akhtaya and Baranchi Rivers, lies the Nizhni-
Baranchinskaya iron and steel plant. It makes
large shells, time fuses, and held guns for the
Russian Navy. The plant is equipped with mod-
ern American tools and machinery, Manganese
iron ore comes from the Blagodaty Hill, about 9
miles distant.

About 5 miles north are the A'erkhni-Baranov-
ski iron and steel works, under the same man-
agement as the works referred to above. Tiie
village at the works has a population of 3,000.
Tlie railroad continues north.

177 Goroblagodatskaya. (Altitude, 700 feet.) Rail-
way restaurant. Government iron works locatetl
here export over 4.5.000 tons of iron and steel
products annually. About 8 miles north Jiian-
ganese iron ore is obtained fiom Mount Blago-
dat. A branch railroad runs 1-5(3.0 miles (230
versts) fiom here to Shakhta via Nadezhdinski
Zavod. This railroad is descril)ed as Route V-2
in this handbook. The main line now curves to
the northwest between hills and ascends toward
the watersheds between Asia and Europe.
87569—18 — PT 4 8



112 YEKATEHINBTTRG TO PERM.

127 192 Aziatskaya. Last stop on Asiatic si<lo of Urals.
A forested country. The pe<jple make cliarcoal
for steel works and carry on some farming.
The ascent continues.

137 200 Khrebet TJralski. " Summit of the Urals." The
railroad makes many turns through the hills and
mountains from liere westward. Before the next
station is reached large foundries are passed.

149 220 Evropeiskaya. Tlie mountains are low ; the timber
is small. The people make cliarcoaJ and work
in various iron plants. The line descends west-
ward. First stop on Eui'opean side.

152 230 list Tiskos. Small station, overlooking the Koivy
Valley. The people are engaged in making char-
coal. The railroad crosses the River Koivy,
descends into the Koivy Valley, crosses the river,
and climbs out toward the northwest.

161 243 Tyoplaya Gora. On the western edge of the Koivy
Valley. A marshy district extends to the west.
About half a mile from the station are the Tep-
layar Iron & Steel Works, which are supplied
from the Voznesenskoi iron mines near by. Ex-
port from station, 7,200 tons annually. Within
4 miles north of the station, near the junction of
the Polubenk and Koivy Rivers, is Krestovozd-
vizhenskoe village. Near this village gold and
platinum are found. In 1914 the output of gold
was 540 pounds, of platinum 36 pounds. Since
1880 statistics show that 2,160 pounds of platinum
were mined here. A large part of the platinmn
was found near the River Is, in which region
1,500 workmen were employed in 1914.

The line next climbs out of the Koivy Valley
and strikes westward.

170 257 Biser. (Altitude, 1.510 feet; population. 4,000.)
Railroad restaurant. At the southern end of a
ridge. On the River Biser, S miles south of the



BISER. 118

station are the Biser iron and steel works. The
annual output is over 18,000 tons of iron and
steel products. Iron ore comes from eight mines
near by, the most important of which are the
Kurviusk, Voronzhesk, and Petrovsk. For the
next 57 miles (85 versts), or until Yermak is
reached, the route runs southwest over an upland
surf:ice between the Vizhai Valley op the north
and the Koivy Valley on the south.

271 Vizhai. In a forested country. Charcoal making
is the chief occupation.

284 Koiva. The forests and charcoal making continue.

29G Pashiya. Railroad restaurant. Forested region.
About 6 miles north are the Arkhangelo-Pashiski
Iron Works. The village near l)y has G,000
people. Eight miles south of the station are
the Kuse-Alexandrovski Iron Works, in a village
of 3,500 people. Pashiya exports more than
36,000 tons of iron and steel products annually.
From this station to Yermak the railroad swings
around the heads of several valleys, tributaries
of the Koivy Valley.

307 Bagul.

320 Vsesvyatskaya. Near the head of a valley.

334 Arkhipovka. The upland surface becomes rough
and rocky.

342 Yermak. In rocky country. The valley of the
Chusovaya soon opens out westward and the
. descent begins.

349 Chusovskaya. (Altitude, 405 feet.) Railroad res-
taurant. The town is located on the right bank
of the Chusovaya. The Chusovskaya Iron and
Steel Works are near the station, which exports
over 23G.OOO tons of iron and steel products an-
nually.



114 YEKATERINBURG TO PERM.

A Itr.Miicli railroad wliich runs north from
(Jliusovskaya 130 miles (196 versts) to Sole-
A'arni is desiguated Route P-3 in this handboolx.
Iloute 1' I'lms soutli, crosses tlie Chusovaya
Kivor by a steel bridjre and traverses a stretch
of flat land. It then crosses the River Lysva, a
))ranch of the ('Inisovaya. and climbs out of the
viilloy.

242 36r) Kalino. Railroad restaurant. Situated nearly on
tlie upland surface. The station exports 18,(XKJ
tons of iron and steel products. Branch line
S(»ntheast to Lesvinski Zavod (population, 3,000)
20 versts (13.2 miles), where there are machine
an<l foundry shops.

The I'oute crosses a iKirtion of th»* uphnu!
surface.

253 382 Selyanka. At the head of the valley openinj; west-
ward. Forested country. The roTite continues
on the upland.

265 400 Komarikhlnskaya. Small station in a valley. For-
ested country. The route now descends into the
valley and follows it to its junction with the
Sylva Valley, 17 miles beyond.

272 411 Valezhnaya. A town in the valley. The station
exports 4.500 tons of a variety of jtriiducts. The
railway crosses the Sylva River over a steel
l)ridge.

282 425 Sylva. (Altitude. 325 feet.) Railroad restaurant.
On the left hank of the navigable Sylva River.
The station exports 7,200 tons of various prod-
ucts. The railroad follows down the Sylva River.

288 435 Lyady. At the junction of the Sylva with the Chu-
sovaya. There is water transportation to the
east, south, and west.

300 453 Levshino. At the Junction of the Chusovaya and
Kama Rivers. A bronze factory is located here.
Larue warehouses are near the wharves on the



NIZHNI-TAGIL TO ALAPAEVSK.



116



BOS



40.")



•.u^ 4m



rivers. Agricultural products are hrou^lit up the
river to tliis point, and carried by railroad to the
mining and industrial centers in the Ural Moun-
tains. The boats return with iron and steel
products for interior Russia. About 14 miles to
the north are large steel works which make
open-hearth steel plates up to one-half inch in
thickness, besides nails and horseshoes. The rail-
i-<iad proceeds down the Kama.
Motovilikha. A suburb of I'erm on the Kama ;
population. 80,000. A large Government arsenal
located iiere is described under Perm in notes on
Route N.
Perm. See Route N.



Route P, Branch 1.



Distance

from

Nizhni-Tagil.

M. V.





IS



29



:',!)



44



NIZHNI-TAGIL TO ALAPAEVSK.



Nizhni-Tagil. The route goes northeast as it as-
cends the flank of the Bogorodskiya Mountain.
It then goes through u low pass, descends the
eastei'n slope, and crosses a valley.

Salka. Small station. Rolling couniry. The route
continues down grade.

Verkhni-Salda. (Population, 5,000.) Near the
station is an iron and steel plant with a smelter,
machine shop, and foundry. The output is 10,000
tons of iron. The plant emjjloys 1,500 people.

Nizhni-Salda. (Population, 12,000.) Near the sta-
tion is an iron and steel plant, consisting of fur-
naces, a steel mill, machine shop, and a foundry.
Water turbines and steam engines of 1,500 horse-
power are used.



116 GOROBLAGODATSKAYA TO SHAKHTA.

The route curves to the southeast through roll-
ing country.

Oft 90 Yasashnaya. A small station. A branch railroad

runs for a short distance eastward to Verkne-
Saldinski, which has important steel and iron
works. Route P-1 continues northeast.

.SO 121 Alapayvsk. (Population, 10,000.) Railroad re.s-
taurant. A mining and smelting town on the
Neiva River. There are several iron and steel
works within a radius of 25 miles. A newly
constructed extension of Route P-1 crosses the
Neiva River and continues southeast across up-
lands and valleys.

44 00 Yegovshinskoye. In the neighborhood there are iron

ore smelting plant.*^. At this point Route P-1
meets the newly constructed railroad from Yeka-
terinburg to Irbit. It is reported that the rail-
road of Route P-1 has been extended through
Yegovshinskoye to Bogdanovich. It may not be
fully completed.

Route P, Branch 2.

GOROBLAGODATSKAYA TO SHAKHTA VIA NADEZHDINSKI.

Distance
from
Goroilagodatskai/a.
M. V.

Goroblagodatskaya. From Goroblagodatskaya Route

P-2 goes to the northeast through a low pass in a
hilly ridge.
4 6 Kushva. Railroad station near several Government

iron and steel plants, among them the Kushva.
This plant has four blast furnaces, open-hearth
furnaces, a rolling mill, and a lumber mill. It
has a machine shop equipped with modern Ameri-
can machines, tools, automatic and turret lathes
for the manufacture of 3-inch to 6-inch shells and



VYYA. 117

detonators. The iron ore comes from Mount
Blagodat nearby.
6 9 Blagodat Siding. At foot of Blagodat Hill. A

branch railway runs a short distance northwest
to Verkhnaya.

] 1 16 Verkhnaya. Nearby are Government iron works,

Verkhny Turiuski, and a foundry. Some of tlie
Government artillery equipment was made here
during the war. The railway continues north-
east and gradually swings to the north.

29 43 Vyya. From here a branch railroad runs 12 versts

(8 miles) northwest to Nizhni Turinski Zavod,
an important mining and manufacturing town.
Another branch runs 28 miles north to Lesopis-
naya, an iron and copper mining center (popula-
tion, G.OOO). Here are located Government steel
and iron works, consisting of several blast fur-
naces, open-hearth furnaces, a steel mill, foundry,
and machine shop. They produce cast iron and
sheet steel.

From Vyya Route P-2 strikes to the northeast
through a low pass in a hilly ridge and runs
across uplands and valleys. Platina siding inter-
venes.

47 71 Zoreliho. Small station. The Tura Valley lies at

the north. Just before Verkhoturye is reached
the route descends into the Tura Valley and
crosses the river.

65 98 Verkhoturye. (Population, 4,000.) Railroad res-

taurant. At the head of navigation of the Tura
River. Capital of a district of the Perm Province.
Headquarters for the platinum working of the
surrounding region, which supplies about half
of the total Russian output.

Many roads converge here. They follow along
the uplands and tap the rivers at numerous
points. There is a post road from Yekaterinburg,



118 GOROBLAGODATSKAYA TO SHAKHTA.

wliich was t'ormerly .1 main higliway Ix'fur*' tlit-
railroad was l)uilt. It is ^'enorally open for
wiioeicMl traflic from aljout April 1 to Noveinhei-
1, ami for sleighs the rest of the year. The road
is clayey and wouhl be nearly impassable for
heavy motors after heavy or prolonged rains.

The route proceeds northwestoi-ly from Vork-
hoturye across an upland.
7S 118 Lyalya. In the valley of the Lyalya where the
railroad crosses the I'iver. Another upland is
ci'ossed.
St) 1H4 Lobva. In the Lobva Valley where the railroad
bridges the river. A small valley is ascended.

102 lo.") Vagranskaya. Near the head of the valley. A
short branch line runs southwest to the Koptya-
Ivovskaya iron mines, on the Lobva River.
Route V-2 runs north across an upland, de-
scends into the Kakva Valley, crosses the river,
and reaches Nadezhdinski Zavod on the opposite
slope.

121 182 Nadezhdinski Zavod. An important iron and steel
center. This town supplies more rails for the
Siberian Railroad than any other. Passenger
trains do not run beyond Nadezhdinski Zavod,
but freight is carried on on two small branches :
one branch runs east 9 miles to Filkinskaya. at
the .iiuiction of the rivers Kakva and Sosva and
the center of a mining region. Near by are
cement works, with 6,000 tons output. The other
branch, which is considered as a continuation of
Itoute P-2, runs northwest along a valley slope.

127 192 Shakhta. Junction. Near the head of the valley.
A branch railroad runs 10 miles northwest to
Rogoslovski 74i\fH\ (population. 3.(XK)). where
copper and gold mining and smelting are carried
on. The gold mines yield 20() to 1.100 ounces pf-i
annum.

Route P-2 goes north acro.ss an upland.



CHUSOVSKAYA TO SOLEVARNI. 119

]3<) 196 Anerbakhovski Rudnik. On the right slope of the
Tui'ga A'alley. Near the station are iron and
steel works. Iron ore (50 to Go per cent iron) is
found near by. The deposits are estimated to
have 2.250,000 tons. Other deposits of magnetite
ore, about 4 miles distant, are estimated at
360,000 tons. The railroad crosses the valley
and river to the oppo.site slope, to the next town.

18:; 2<Mi Lurinski Rudnik. Nearby are coi>per deposits
with some seams said to be 17.5 feet in thickness.
A smelter is located here. The route proceeds
across uplands and valleys.

157 280 Shakhta. On Vagrankye River. Nearby are large
iron and copper mines and some smelters. One
of the most important is Petrovski-Zavod.

Route P. Bkaxch 3.

CHUSOVSKAYA TO SOLEVARNI.

DiKtancc

from

Chusovakaya.

M. V.

Chusovskaya. Route P-3 runs north and climbs

out of the Chusovaya Valley. For the first 106
versts, or until Kizel is reached, the route runs
across uplands and valleys at the western base
of a ridge of hills and mountains.
12 18 Utyos. Sninll station in a rugged forested country.

25 37 Baskaya. The line bends to the northwest and

passes through a 350- foot tunnel. It soon de-
scends into the Usva Valley and crosses the river.
37 55 Usva. In valley of same name. Station exports

18,000 tons of various products. A branch rail-
road runs to near-by coal mines, where there are
about 80 coking ovens. The coal and coke are
used at the Tagil iron works.



120 CHUSOVSKAYA TO SOLEVARNI.

43 65 Nagornaya. Small upland station. The railroad

soon descends into the Kosva Valley, crosses to
the right slope, and ascends the valley a few
versts to Gubakha.

52 78 Gubakha. (Population, 1,000.) Near the station

are lignite coal mines. About 63,000 tons were
shipped in 1913. Part went down the Chusovaya
and Kama Rivers to the west, part went by rail
to the manufacturing centers in the Urals. The
route crosses an upland.

60 91 Polovinka. Small upland station. The route pro-

ceeds across a rolling upland.

70 106 Kizel. (Population, 8,000.) Station exports ISO.OOO
tons of iron and steel and other products. The
iron and steel works obtain ore (52 per cent
to 62 per cent iron) from near-by mines. A
branch railroad leads to lignite coal mines 3
miles distant. Annual coal output, 90,000 tons.
The route now diverges from the range it has
been following.

84 127 Zopi. (Population, 3,000.) An iron and steel plant
uses iron ore from near-by mines. A branch rail-
road runs 7 miles to Lunevka, where are lignite
coal mines at the base of a conspicuous hill.

The route now goes toward the southwest and
then curves to the northwest.

95 143 Vsevolodo-Vilva. (Population, 1,500.) There is an
iron and steel plant one-half mile from station,
which turns out 50,000 tons of products annually.
105 158 Yaiva. In the Yaiva Valley. Station exports
9,000 tons of mineral products. The railroad
crosses immediately the small river Yaiva by a
steel bridge. It then climbs out of the valley
and runs due west across an upland.
115 174 Shishi. Small upland station. The route now
descends into the Kama Valley.



SOLEVARNI. 121

128 193 TTsolskaya. Important iron and steel center on the
navigable Kama River. There are large iron
and steel plants in the neighborhood.

130 19G Solevami. With Usolskaya this town forms in
reality a part of Dedynkhin, an imiwrtant iron
and steel center. With Solikamsk and Cherdyu,
large river ports up the Kama. Dedyukhin has
lively trade in products from the Ural mining
centers and foodstuffs for them. A post road
connects the three towns.



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CHELYABINSK TO YEKATERINBTJRO.



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124 CHELYABINSK TO YEKATERINBURG.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

MILITARY IMPORTANCE.

This roiitt' is of hitih iniportance militarily for two reasons:
First, it forms an alternative route from Omsk to either Mo.scow
or Petrograd. If the Omsk- Yekaterinburg line were overloaded
or cut by the destruction of a bridge, for in^ance. Route Q
would relieve the difficulty by maintaining rail communication
with Petrograd. It would act similarly to relieve, difficultes on
the Omsk-Chelyabinsk line. Second, it taps a busy iron region
that could turn out many products indispensable to military
operations. Iron is mined, smelted, and manufactui-ed at many
places. These activities are becoming more and more dependent
upon coal, since the local forests which were formerly abundant
have been drawn upon almost to the point of exhaustion. At
present, October, 1918, the coal is being brought from tlie east,
thus helping to overload the Siberian Railway. Normally, it
comes from the southwest, from the great coal fields of the


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