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Donetz Basin.

TERRAIN.

The first two-fifths of the route runs across an upland cut by
many river valleys. The remainder is among the Ural Jloun-
tains. But because the route follows in the main the direction
of the mountain ridges there are no difficult engineering struc-
tures like tunnels or long bridges. The Ural Mountains seen
from the route would be called mere hills by the casual traveler.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

Miles from Distance from

Vladivostok. Chelyabinsk.

4,042 M V Chelyabinsk. From Chelyabinsk

this route runs northwe.st and
north for 153.1 miles to Yekater-
inburg. At about verst .5 the



KYSETYM. 126

line crosses the river Miass by a
2S0-foot steel bridge, then as-
cends toward the watershed of
the River Ufa and Miass. Leav-
ing the latter, it crosses the
River Zyuzelga and reaches the
first station. A post highway
connects Chelyabinsk with Yeka-
terinburg.
4, 058 16 M 24 V Essaulskaya. From here the line

runs through the steppe adjoin-
ing the Ural. This steppe is
dotted by lakes of various sizes.
4. 076 35 M 52 V Argayash. Small station. Is situ-

ated the Petrovski machine
name. Beyond it the railroad
leaves the Orenburg Government
and enters into the confines of
the Perm government (Yekater-
inburg district), where it passes
through forest regions before
reaching the Ural Mountains.
4,098 56 M 84 Y Zyshtym. Railroad restaurant.

(Altitude, 1,400 feet.) A mile
and one-half from the station is
situated the industrial center of
Verkhni-Kyshtym. Population
about 18,000. The Kyshtym iron
works, making water pipes, tele-
graph and lamp posts, some ma-
chinei'y, stoves, and railway sup-
plies, are situated here. The
works employ about 2.000 people,
men and women. There is also
a cast-iron foundry. Both con-
cerns produce pig iron, steel, dif-
ferent kinds of machinery and



126 CHELYABINSK TO YEKATERINBURG.

uiiiuiunitioii. al)out 9.000 to
10,000 tons of pig iron annually,
and about 18,000 tons of steel.
All the Kyshtyni district con-
tiguous to the works where the
Ilnien ^lountains stri-tch north
ward is richly provided with
mineral deposits and contains de-
posits of copper, iron, nickel, and
many other minerals. From hen;
the railroad on its climb to Mauk
station, crosses numerous valleys
and streams, and ascends along
a steep and broken slope toward
the watershed of the Rivers
Mauk and Ufaleika at a height
of 1.680 feet above sea level.

4.112 TOM 100 V Mauk. (Altitude. 1.G80 feet.i

About 12 miles east of the sta-
tion and between Lake Bolshoi-
Kasli to the north and Lake
Irisyat to the south, connected
by the small Kiver Vyazovskoi.
are the Kasliuski steel and iron
works. These works employ
1,500 persons and produce about
7,200 tons of pig iron annually.
From here the railroad crosses
the great swamps called " Cou-
stantine dale." then enters a
rough, broken country.

4,130 88 M 133 y Ufalei. (Altitude. 1.750 feet.) This

station annually exports about
20.000 tons of steel products.
Among the hills, about one-
fourth mile from the station,
near the smal IRivers Ufaleika



TJFALEI. 127

and Kainenka, the Verkhni-
Ufaleiski steel and iron works
are situated. Tliey employ about
6,000 workmen. This concern
produces annually about 8,000
tons of steel and 5,000 tons of
pig iron. Several small com-
panies in the neighborhood of
these works engage in gold min-
ing. About 10 miles from the
works, just where the Ufaleika
enters the Ufa, are the Nizhni-
Ufalei iron and steel works, be-
longing to the same company.
They employ about 4,500 work-
men, and their annual output is
about 7,200 tons of steel. About
35 miles west of the station, on
the River Ufa, the Nyaze-Petrov-
ski iron and metal works are
situated. Their chief production
is sheet steel. This product is
shipped into interior Russia by
the Rivers Ufa, Volga, Byelaya,
and others. The iron ore used
is taken from the neighboring
mines. About 12,000 men and
women are employed in the
works. Belonging to the same
company, about 15 miles north-
west on the River Ufa, are situ-
ated the Petrovski machine
works. They manufacture en-
gines and river boats, and dur
ing the war they were engaged
"in making ammunition, employ-
ing about 2,000 men and women.
87569— 18— PT 4 »



128 CHELYABINSK TO YEKATERINBURG.

From here the railroad runs
north and twice crosses the Uiver
Kordadin ; then it ascends to the
watershed of the Rivers Ufa and
Chusovaya. Leaving the latter,
it proceeds along the Poldnevaya
River.

4,150 108 M 1G2 V Poldnevaya. (Altitude. 1,70S feet;

population, 300.) Stands in a
deserted and wooded country.
The famous chrysolite mines,
unique in the Tran.s-Ural, are
situated on the right bank of the
Chusovaya River, on land be-
longing to the Polevsk works.
Proceeding farther through a
level country, the railroad twice
crosses the upper reaches of the
Chusovaya on bridges, 70 and 10.5
feet each, and enters the district
containing the Sysert mining
works.

4,169 127 M 191V Mramorskaya.' (Altitude. 1,734

feet.) Close by is the ilramor
marble works, employing 1,000
workers. The marble quarries
are situated about 3 miles from
the village. Although living in a
healthful climate, a large per-
centage of the population is af-
fected by tuberculosis, owing to
the bad air in the workshops.
The Sysert works are situated
about 14 miles to the southeast,
and farther on the Verkhni-
Sysert and Ilyinsk works, which,
together with the Sysert and



MRAMORSKAYA. 129

Polevsk works, employ 10,000.
The neighborhood contains about
50 different iron and copper fac-
tories. During the war they
were equipped to make artillery
supplies and munitions. There
are blast furnaces, puddling, and
welding works. Over 12.000 tons
of pig iron and 2,800 tons of
iron products are produced.
The works are provided with a
central electrical station. The
A'erklmi-Sysert works, containing
puddling and welding furnaces,
stand 6 miles southwest of those
of Sysert. They employ about
2.000 men. The annual output
of iron is about 7,200 tons. The
Ilyinsk works, manufacturing
only sheet iron, are situated on
the River Sysert, about 4 miles
from the Sysert works. The'
Seversk works (population, 4,000.
v.ith .500 workmen and over 1,000
supplementary hands) lie south-
west of the railway within
about 8 miles of the Mramor
works. They contain three blast .
furnaces, one ])uddling furnace,
two Martens furnaces, and a ma-
chine shop. The annual produc-
tion of pig iron exceeds 10,200
tons. Tlie Polevsk works lie
about 4 miles from the :Mram6r
works, and are surrounded by a
population of 7.000. Puddled,



180 CHELYABINSK TO YEKATERINBURG.

fagoted, and rolled iron are
manufactured at the works.
The Seversk works supply the
pig iron required.

After leaving the Mramor sta-
tion, the railroad runs along the
watershed of the Chusovaya and
Iset Rivers through a level coun-
try, which farther north becomes
more mountainous.

4.189 147 M 221 Y Uktus. (Altitude, 1,274 feet.) In

a treeless plain. The village of
Uktus is 1 mile away. Its in-
habitants are engaged in farm-
ing and domestic industries,
mainly pottery making, which is
carried on in about 30 shops.
The wares are of good quality
and find a ready sale. The
Nizhni-Iset Government works
(popula-tion. 3,500) are situated
within about 3 miles of the sta-
tion. The annual production
amounts to 3,600 tons of pig iron.
216 tons cast-iron, and about 270
tons of sheet iron.

From here the railroad runs
across a plain co^■ered with
dwarf bushes, and after having
crossed the River Iset by a
bridge 105 feet long, joins the
main line to Petrograd (Route
N) at Yekaterinburg.

4.195 153 .M 213 Y Yekaterinburg. See station 31.

Route N.



WAGON ROAD— OMSK TO PERM.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

From Omsk tlie post road leaves the steppe region and rist;;s
t'l the summit of the Ural Mountains, from which it descends
on the European side to Perm. The road closely follows the
railway, which is never more than 35 miles distant (see
Route N).

The Ural section of the road is the most difficult, not only in
winter, but also in summer. Owing to the relatively large pre-
cipitation in this region the roads are apt to be muddy in summer
and the snow fairly deep in winter (3 to 4 feet).

Even though the Ural ^Mountains are not rugged, steep grades
are common. The habit of the engineers has been to build roads
in a bee line without respect to topography. The steep grades
are easily avoided, however, by leaving the road and traveling
across the grassj' downs.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

M. V.

Omsk. Crossing the River Om on a bridge, the

road runs northwest.
28 43 Krasnoyarskaya. A small town on the Irty.sh

River, which may be crossed by a ferry. The
road still continues northwest.
85 128 Tukalinsk.
1.58 240 Abatskoye. A small village. The River Ishim
is crossed. Birch and farther on pine trees are
in evidence. An important highway runs north
from here to Tobolsk, 130 versts.
205 .310 Ishlm (see Route N). An important post road
runs south to Petropavlovsk, 140 versts. Be-
yond Ishim the railroad lies close to the high-
way.
348 525 Yalutorovsk (see Route N). Ten versts west
of this city an important highway runs south-
west with branches to Kui'gan. Shadrinsk, and
Chelyabinsk.

131



132 WAGON ROAD— OMSK TO PERM.

897 GOO Tyumen (see Route N). The steppe comes to an
end at Tyumen. Alter leaving the town the
road iipproaches the forest. At 50 versts from
Tyumen the trees meet over the road and form
a cool. sliJidy way. Thirty versts fartlier we.st
the road comes out of tlie woods into clearings
and fields. Many undulations, depressions, and
the crossing of unsteady little wonden Ijridges
make the road very poor.

516 780 Kamyschlov. The way is very straight beyond
tills town. After passing over some low liills
on a fairly good road, a thick pine forest, typi-
cal of the Ural Mountains, is entered. Througji-
• out are a few clearings.

fi03 Opt Yekaterinburg (see Route N). From here a
post road runs north into the Ural Mountains
and another south to Chelyabinsk. Leaving
Yekaterinburg the route crosses the Ural
Mountains into Europe. The road is very
broad, good, and quite straight. It runs for a
few miles through the forest and then out upon
the open grassy plain.

649 980 The road here passes south of the railroad, which
is not rejoined until Kungur is reached. At its
most distant point it is 32 miles to the north.
The road often becomes muddy and difficult.
A few steep hills may be avoided by going over
the grass on the downs.

649 980 The road here passes into European Russia, the
frontier line being marked by a white stone at
the summit on which is inscribed " Asia " on
one side and " Europe " on the other.

703 1.065 Achit. A branch road runs south. 4 miles to
Krasno-Ufimsk.

754 1, 145 Kungur. See Route N.

803 1, 215 Perm. See Route N.



Route W.

ROUTES IN THE KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

The routes described below lie in the region bounded on the
north by the Siberian Railway, on the east by the Irtysh River,
and on the south by Lake Balkash. They are important from
three points of view :

First. In proportion to the population the number of horses
is larger here than anywhere else in Siberia. The annual sum-
mer gatherings of horse traders at At Bazar and especially at
Bay an Aul are probably the most important gatherings of the
kind in Russia or even in the world. If horses are to be pur-
chased, agents should be sent to these places.

Second. This region contains a number of coal mines. Coal
ixom the Yoskreseuski mines can be sent by rail to Pavlodar
on the Irtysh River. The Karagandy mine is too far from rail-
road transportation to be important.

Tliird. Some of the largest copper mines of Siberia are located
in this region, and their development might be an important help
in the rehabilitation of Siberia.

Route W. 1., Petkopavlovsk to Uspenski Mine.

Terrain. — Near the Siberian Railway the land is flat and fairly
fertile. For about 200 miles toward the south it is a well-
watered prairie, with little forest but much wheat. The most
important forest area is that surrounding At Bazar, about 260
miles south. The next 100 or 200 miles is steppe country,
rolling and fairly well watered. Much of it is devoted to
horses and cattle, although good crops of wheat are raised in
favorable years. Still farther south, to the west and northwest
of Lake Balkash, is a desert area with practically no water
and few settled inhabitants. Only the running water is good,
iill the still water being brackish. In the villages practically
every house has its own well, the settlements being built along
small water courses or subterranean flows or basins. The coun-

133



134 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

fry is composed of seflinientary rocks, broken with islands of
granite, some of which are large. The sedimentary rocks are
chiefly sandstones and conglomerates, with some beds of slate
and limestone. The general elevation is higher than in the
north, and the surface is broken by rocky hills.

Climate. — The summer climate is dry and ftfirly hot. the win-
ter very cold and severe, the mercury sometimes going as low as
00° below zero. Typical Siberian blizzards of great intensity
are encountered and must be reckoned upon. At such times the
wind attains a velocity of from 80 to 100 miles an hour, and the
liglit snow is sometimes whirled 100 feet in the air and drifted
badly. The barometer is said to invariably give warning, and
from continuous records one observer states that the intervals
between blows are from 10 days to 2 weeks. Any cuts on
north and south railroads would be unworkable. The first frosts
ai'e in September, with gradually increasing cold to November.
From then until spring there is continued intense cold, a day
warm enough to thaw" being almost unknown. At 48° north
the spring thaw^ is usually in March, and the change, which
generally follows an extremely eold spell, is precipitate. From
48° to 52° north it occurs about two weeks later. The change
from extreme cold to full spring weather without any frost
occurs in a week's time. The snow melts quickly, and for weeks
and sometimes a month traveling is impossible. The postal
service has been held up for six weeks. The watercourses are
flooded, and small streams become great rivers. As boats are
nowhere available, large bodies of men could easily be cut off
and marooned.

Health. — The chief disease is typhoid, due largely to the
w'ater. Smallpox also occurs, but apparently has not recently
been epidemic. In 1916-17 yellow jaundice was very prevalent,
due to food conditions. A trouble like scurvy also takes hold
of everyone, perhaps because of the unfavorable winter condi-
tions, including frozen meats, lack of fresh vegetables, and
unventilated. overheated houses. The symptoms are abnormal,
swelling of the limbs and fleshy parts of the body. The disease
is not fatal. The eating of fish from shallow lakes is said to



KIRGHIZ STEPPE. 186

bring on " walking typhoid," epidemics of which in some cases
liave developed seriously.

roiriihition. — Four distinct types of people inhabit the I'eglon —
Russians, Tartars, Kirghiz, and German colonists. Tartars and
Kirghiz form the bulk of the population, but the Russians are
the leading element. The latter are hardier, more alert and
dependable than the Russian in European Russia. Tlie Tartars
are usually located near the railroad. They are Mohammedans
and a clean, progressive, patriotic people, usually connected with
the larger local farming and commercial enterprises. The
Kirghiz are Mohammedan nomads, engaged for the most part
in raising horses, sheep, cattle, and camels. They are the guides,
coachmen, and freight handlers of the district, but are untrust-
worthy, unpatriotic, and dishonest. The German colonists are
scattered over a wide area. They were brought from Germany
and given lands. Although natui'alized Russians, they should
be watched, especially on account of their influence over the
Kirghiz. Their farms, products, and cattle are the best in the
section.

Post stations.— A Government post road and telegraph line
extends along the route. Post stations north of Akmolinsk are
located at intervals of approximately 20 versts (13 miles), about
half of them being located in villages of from 200 to 1,000
people. South of that point the country is more sparsely settled,
but stations ai*e still found from 13 to 17 miles apart.

Supplies — Crops. — Wheat and oats are grown nearly the whole
way from the railroad to Uspenski, and ordinarily are shipped
to the railroad by teams after harvest. Immense quantities
were stored at Petropavlovsk and Omsk, usually in the open,
covered with tarpaulins. The people all live in towns for pro-
tection and go out to their fields in the surrounding area. The
stocks of hay and straw are invariably kept close to the houses
in the villages to prevent theft by the Kirghiz.

Domestic animals. — The comparatively few sheep, cows, and
oxen belonging to the villages are driven to pasture each day
in charge of a community herdsman. The large herds are all
owned by the Kirghiz, who keep them in tlie south during the



136 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

winter, driving them nortli in tlie spring after the thaw and
returninj;; soutli with tliein in the fall. Tlie beef and mutton are
eatable but tough and stringy and seem to lack nutiiment.
Hogs are scarce, being liept, if at all, only by tlie Germans and
Russians, as the Mfihannnedan will not have them about.

Timher. — For the most part, the country is bare of timber. A
little birch is found near the railway, and one area of pine be-
tween Bayan Aul and Karkarali and another about 150 miles
north of Akmolinsk. When possible, wood is the only fuel used.
When not available, ox droppings are utilized.

Horses and camels. — These are plentiful. Like the domestic
animals, they are owned in herds by the Kirghiz and are driven
north and south, according to season. All these herds are. for
the most part, located south of Akmolinsk. The number of
horses is said to have greatly decreased since the war. but camels
are as numerous as ever.

Mines. — The country contains important deposits of coal and
copper. The most prominent mines are those of the Spasski Cop-
per Mine (Ltd.) (coal and copper) and those of the Voskre.senski
Co. at Ekibastus, near Pavlodar. The latter belong to an English
company and ai'e connected with the Irtysh River by a railroad.
They are near enough to the river to be a practical source of coal
supply, but the works were taken over by the Bolsheviki March
3. 1918, and operation stopped. The mines of the Spasski Co.
were actively oi>erated up to May, 1017. but their present condi-
tion is unknown. The coal and copper deposits offer great pros-
pects of development. Clay, limestone, quartz (for fire brick),
and .salt are also plentiful.

Transportation. — (See also general introduction.) Although
the roads are only trails, they are usually good, owing to the
presence of silicious rocks. In fact, one can generally travel
from place to place even where there are no roads. Travel is
usually in small carts or sleighs drawn by one horse, one camel,
or a pair of oxen. The latter are used in the northern area as
far as At Bazar, while camels are more commonly employed
farther south. IMotor cars can be employed locally from May to



KIRGHIZ STEPPE. 187

September, but uot in winter, and even in summer tlie sandy
river crossings offer serious difficulties. The Spasski Co. tried
steam traction engines for hauling coal, but abandoned them.
Tlie company owns 250 good German-made wagons, 2-inch tread
iron tiros, with poles complete. The local type of freight wagon
is the high two-wheeled cart for camels and the four-wheeled
M'agon for camels or oxen. Camp sites t(»r large bodies of men
are available along the routes.

The distance between Petropavlovsk and Spasski is 477 miles.
In 1913 the ordinary time of transit for the mining company's
freight was 30 to 33 days. The average time consumed by the
company's officers in making the trip was 60 hours, the quickest
trip on record being 42 hours, of which 3G were actually con-
sumed in traveling. (See spction on Roads, under Akmolinsk,
p. 142.)

The River Irtysh is an important highway. Large steamers
run from Semipalatinsk to Tobolsk during the open months and
smaller steamers ascend further into the Altai region.

Flacc names. — These are very confusing, as there are fre-
quently four in use for any one place, viz, the postal designation,
rhe Russian peasant name, the Kirghiz name, and in some cases
a German name.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

Petropavlovsk. Population, about 43.000. (See Route M, p. 15.)
Leaving the town from its southern section, the road bears
south, crossing the railroad in about one-fourth of a mile.
' There is a slight down-grade to a wooden pile bridge about one-
half mile from Petropavlovsk. The bridge is about 100 feet
long and is said to be in poor repaii*. Loads of 3 tons can ordi-
narily pass. The stream is shallow, except during the spring
thaw. The banks are about 10 feet high. A pumping plant is
located by the stream bed about one- fourth of a mile west of the
road. From the bridge, the .road passes for about 3 miles over
flat country, which is an old river bottom. No work is ever



138 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

«l(»np on the road, and an ordinary rain causes deep mud. Ai
about 3 miles from Petropavlovsk, a slight upgrade briugs one
lo a small Kirgliiz camp, on the west side of the road. Along
the lirst 34 nules there are a few ranch houses hi»re and thei'e off
the road, and sr)mo si-atterod small timber.
Miles.
14 A (Jovernnient post station and small Kirghiz settlement
of a dozen houses situated in a slight hollow. Water
is derived from wells and small .springs, and there are
many large trees. A good, covered corral stands on
the east side of the road.
28 Karatamar. A Government post station.
47 Kamyshlovka. Government post station, with corral 30<t
yards south on the road. Also large covered corral on
west side. The country is level and flat, and the road
is firm and can be traveled at all seasons. The water
from wells in inclosures is good, and there is good grass.
This stretch lias no trees or farms.
C).*! Emantus. Government post station. A few dwellings on
the west side of the road and ruined turf houses on
each side of the post house. Behind it is a well with
a long weighted sweep. There is a new low growth of
trees. Numerous Kirghiz farms and corrals along the
route, short distances from the road. A mile south is a
village of about 20 log houses with thatched roofs and
corrals. There are cattle and horses. Water is from
wells. The road is firm, with pasture on each side.
70 Mizgily. Government post station. Near this station
the telegraph line from Petropavlovsk, which follows
the road thus far, turns off. The station is in a small
forest of low. new growth, and consists of two houses
and a corral. Close by are some fenced fields. Water
is plentiful from shallow wells. The road in the im-
mediate vicinity is soft and boggy. From this .station
for nearly 20 miles it passes through a Government
forest reservation of good timber. The forest is laid



SHUSHI. 189

out in sections about a mile wide. These are separated
by cleared strips about 50 feet wide and running east
and west where seen along the post road.

84 A Government sawmill is located here, with covered in-
closed lumber sheds and new wooden dwellings with
iron roofs. About 2 miles farther is a large log house
on the west side o£ the road. Roads through the forest
reserve have been drained to some extent, but are soft
with deep mud in wei weather and are slow in drying.

94 A Russi;in village. This is at the southern edge of the
reserve. It has one long street about 100 yards wide,
wltli houses on each side about 200 feet apart ; about 30
in all. They are of logs and adobe bricks, with thatched
roofs. Each has water from its own well, and there
are numerous covered corrals. Some cattle and many
geese are kept. The surrounding country is fertile and
cultivated.

About 5 miles beyond the village tlie road passes
through a stretch of lowland some 10 miles long, which
is under water in the spring thaw and sometimes im-
passable for six weeks. The road is good in summer or
fall. For a stretch of. some 50 miles the road is wide
and good, bordered by farming communities at dis-
tances of 5 or 10 miles. Each village has numerous


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