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houses, all using wells, and most having covered corrals.
Hay is plentiful.
151 Shushi. This is a large and prosperous Russian village,
situated on the shore of a lake. The lake is about 1
by 2 miles in size, with a wooded, rocky hill rising from
the opposite side. The granite hills of the surrounding
region contain primitive health resorts. The water of
the lake is good and fish are plentiful. The village is
laid out in parallel streets, with abcnit 80 or 40 houses.
The ground is good farming land and much hay is
I'aised. To the westward is a large extent of forest,
where all the lumber for the southern district of



140 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

Akmolinsk is cut. The Spasski ('o. have confessions
tlien; and own a sawmill. Some trold mininj,' is carried
on in tlie hills.

The road from here swings around the we.stei"u end of
the lake and follows the banks of its outlet over a fine
stretch of country for about 5 miles. No timber.
loG A Russian settlement and the halfway station to Akmo-
linsk, locatiMl at the foot ot a low, treeless liill. It is
well laid out. has about GO houses, and can accommo-
date many men. Water is obtained froui wells and
from underground drainage from the lake described
above.

About 3 miles beyond the road crosses a small stream
on a wooden bridge about 50 feet long. The bridge is
set on piles and is in bad shape. In summer the stream
has only a foot of water and there is a ford beside the
bridge. About 2 miles beyond the bridge and a little
off the road is a Government hospital building not in
use. The road is good here and on somewhat higher
level ground. It passes through numerous villages scat-
tered at distances from 10 to 15 miles. All are pi-os-
perous farming communities, usually with plenty of
hay. Water is obtained from wells. The country be-
comes somewhat more rolling, with some small timber.
The extremely wide road is well marked and can not
be missed. It would easily be distinguishable from
aeroplanes.
196 Matinski. A Russian village. The road continues through
a timbered district and is muddy and rough in bad
weather ,al though always passable.
228 A Russian village of about 20 houses, with good covered
corrals. Water from wells. Good feed and a good
road through slightly wooded, rough country. The
Omsk Road joins the road from Petropavlosk near here.



AKMOLINSK. 141

248 Alekseyevski. About 10 houses, located on high ground.
Good haystacks and pasture. The road from here is
along humpy ground, with few trees. Occa.sional houses
are passed.

257 Village on the edge of a small lake about a mile long and
a half mile wide. Open level country without trees.
The main telegraph line passes through here and there
is a station. The village contains a good-sized church.
The road, which continues good, passes over rolling
ground.

267 Kushaki. The village has one long street and is on the
edge of a forest of small trees, which begins just be-
hind the houses on higher ground. This is the limit in
this direction for trees of any kind, except such as
have been planted around houses and cared for. The
street is about a mile long, with houses at intervals on
both sides. A Russian church is located about half-
way up. To the north of the village, about 2 miles
away, in a small clump of trees on a knoll, is a wooden
tower, which has been there many years, and seems to
have been a well-drilling frame.

The road from here is practically level and runs over
a broad steppe, dotted occasionally with houses or small
settlements. The grass is good, but water is scarce.

314 Akmolinsk. Population probably 12,000 to 13,000; Cos-
sacks and Kirghiz. The town is located in a slight
depression of the rolling ground of the steppe. The
country is grass grown and there is good feeding for
ox: transport, but it is barren of trees. Aeroplanes
could land anywhere. The town is prosperous, and is
tlie seat of government for the Akmolinsk Province. It
contains a telegraph station, post office, branch of the
Imperial Bank, police headquarters, large stores, a tal-
low factory, a soap factory, a power flour mill, and
about 100 small wind gristmills. These are of the
Dutch type and are the most striking feature of the
village, being grouped on high ground at the eastern



142 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

end. There is a small machine shop with small swing
lathe, shaper, drill presses, and blacksmith outfit. The
power is a gasoline engine. A fair with a turnover of
1,500,000 rubles is held each year. The chief trade is
in cattle. The dwellinf,'s are about 200 feet apart on
laid-out street, with inclosed yards. The roofs are gen-
erally of iron with a 30 per cent pitch. The village also
has a number of churches, the domes of which are
visible for a long distance. Camp sites are available
anywhere outside the city, but water is not very abun-
dant. There are a number of town wells with power and
hand pumps, and the water is delivered in wagons.
Fuel is not readily available, the nearest timber being
about 46 miles north. Cattle are numerous in all the
surrounding country, and in all directions are farms
and ranches worked by Russians and Kirghiz. Good
stocks of food supplies are kept here. There is direct
telegraph connection north to Petropavlosk and Omsk
and south to Karagandy.

In 1915 and 1916 the town was a mobilization center
for the district drafts sent north. In August, 1916,
there were 2,000 troops in the immediate vicinity, to
prevent Kirghiz uprising in protest to the mobilization
of the Kirghiz who were exempt by treaty. About 100
German officer prisoners were confined here.

Roads radiate from here in all directions ; eastward
covering the Irtysh River section ; southward to the
rich farming country, the copper and coal mines, and
farther to the wool and hide section; westward to-
ward At Bazar. They are merely the natural surface
of the steppe, no work ever having been done on them.
They are fair in dry weather, but generally muddy and
boggy in wet, and after the spring thaw. Hundreds o1'
wagons pass over the main roads in a day, but owing to
the fact that they do not track and because of the
wobbly wooden wheels there are no ruts. The road



NURINSK. 143

limit is the horizou. Heavy touring automobiles aver-
age about 20 miles an hour.

Leaving Akmolinsl^ the road leads to the south up a
10 per cent grade for a short distance, then over hills
for a few miles. A few miles from the city it crosses
the River Ishira at a ford, which would be trouble-
some for a motor car. The first village is about 10
miles out. About 15 miles south it traverses a piece
of low, flat country, which is inundated in the spring
sometimes for weeks. From the first village all the
way to the Nura River there is farm after farm, mainly
held by German colonists, who have the best breeding
stock in the country. Large quantities of natural hay
are cut and much wheat and oats are raised. The road
continues over the open country of the broad, rolling
steppe.

5 Kubelisk. Post station. A village with one long sti'eet.
Tlie posthouse is on the west side of the road. At the
north end of the village is a 20-foot wooden bridge
over a deep gully. The road passes through many vil-
lages.

;) Nvirinsk. Population about 500. A compact village of
prosperous German colonists, with well-built houses,
mostly thatched. There is plenty of hay and 300 or
400 head of cows. The water is from wells.

The road continues level and good through a well-
grassed country to the Nura River. Just before reach-
ing the river a low range of hills is encountered, which
parallels the stream. The grades are about 12 per
cent. The river crossing, a ford, is dominated by the
heights. In addition to the ford there is a short wooden
bridge over a washed-out dam at an old flour mill. At
this point the crossing is from 50 to 100 feet wide.
(There is another crossing and ford 10 miles farther
up.) On the opposite bank is a low, flat hill.

) A German village. This is on the south bank of the
above river. It consists of about 20 houses, well built.

87569 — 18 — PT 4 10



144 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

The road from here goes up a slight gradual grade
through a good grass country to Karagandy. About
halfway is a partly demolished house and stable.
440 Karagandy. Population about 300 normally, mijstly
Kirghiz miners, Russians, and an Engli.sh-speaking
staff. The buildings include dwellings for staff, work-
men's barracks, store warehou.ses, and stables. The
latter have accommodations for 30 animals in winter.
About 500 men could be housed. This is the coal-
mining camp of the Spasski Co., furnishing all coal
used for power, heating, smelting, etc., at Spasski.
Sara Su, and Uspenski. The equipment includes two
hoisting engines, good for 500 feet ; 4 Babcock & Wil-
cox tubular boilers, of approximately 100 horsepower
each ; a compressor of about 1,000 feet of free air per
minute ; complete blacksmith shop, with 1 small lathe,
20-inch swing drill press, grinders, etc. The mine is
operated by two shafts, 300 feet deep, both fully
equipped, but only one in use. It is capable of furnish-
ing a minimum of 100,000 tons a year by continuous
work. The coal is a gaseous lignite, 25 to 30 per cent
ash, and practically fi'ee from sulphur.

TJie water supply is good and sufficient for 2,000
men. It is capable of quick development.

A narrow-gauge railway, 275 miles long, runs to
Spasski. It has 3 locomotives, about 4 flat cars (about
10-ton capacity), and 20 bottom dump. They are all in
fair condition only. The track is good, rails about 75
pounds. Karagandy is the terminus of the post road
from Petropavlovsk and of the telegi-aph line from
Akmolinsk and the north. A telephone line runs south
to Spasski. Sara Su, and Uspenski. Roads follow
the ground formation westward to numerous settle-
ments of Russians. Germans, and Kirghiz, and south to
Spasski and beyond.

The Spasski road proceeds over the nearly level
steppe, following the railroad closely and passing many



SPASSKI. 146

farms. There are two water stations on the railroad,
about 8 miles apart. The water is pumped by connect-
ing the steam of the locomotives to small pumps. About
13 miles south the road and railroad cross the River
Sokar, the former bj- a ford and the latter on a trestle.
The ford is good, but the river has caused the railroad
much trouble in flood time. At about 20 miles the
Spasski Co.'s farm is located to the west of the road.
This is fully etiuipped. Just before reaching Spasski
there is a long hill with about a 10 per cent grade to
the top.
4G5 Spasski. Population about 1,500. This is the headquar-
ters of the Spasski Copper Mines Co. (Ltd.). The vil-
lage is located at the foot of a considerable hill (200 to
300 feet high), which commands the entire settlement.
The main road traverses the hill and enters the town
on a 12 per cent grade from its top. The railroad enters
by a curve on the level ground from the northwest. The
ground is rocky and there are no trees, but to the south
and south\yest it is level and well grassed. Aircraft
could land anywhere in those directions. To the north
and northwest are large fields of natural hay and numer-
ous farms on which fodder corn, wheat, and oats are
raised.

The village contains the various mining buildings, a
Russian bath, company's store, laboratory, and electric
light power station, flour mill, brick plant, church, work-
men's barracks, staff houses, doctor's house, powder
magazine (on the hill), a hospital, and other buildings.
The roofs are of ii-on with a 30 per cent pitch. The
hospital is well equipped for 100 patients. It is a large
brick building with sun porches on the south and west,
and has a complete kitchen. In INIarch, 1917, the stock
of medicines was very complete except for iodine and
aspirin. The company's plant includes a complete
blacksmith and machine shop, small (300-pound) iron



146 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

cupola, cari)eiiter shop with electric-driven saws, planes,
and edger, counnon red, silica, and fire brick plants and
kilns, with ueconipanying crushing and grinding plant,
electric light and power, complete copper smelting, con-
verting and refining plant, a concrete stack 75 feet high
and 4 iron stacks 50 feet high, a small flour mill, lime
kilns, hay harvesting and baling machines, wagons,
sleds, traveling carriages, sleighs, all necessary har-
ness, about 150 head of camels, 200 oxen, and 100 horses.
Nearby are excellent deposits of fire clay, red-brick
clay, silica, and lime.

Water is obtained from wells and carted, but there is
lack of surface drainage, and the shallow wells are
easily polluted. Typhoid is very prevalent at times,
and all water should be boiled. Otherwise general
health conditions are good. The road proceeds through
a grass country, About 11 miles out is a well-built
covered camel corral with a well and good water. At
about 20 miles the route passes over some hills (grades
8 per cent) and down into the vallej' of the Nura River.

487 Nura crossing. The stream is crossed on a low-piled
bridge about 40 feet long. It is al.so fordable except in
freshets. There is a good covered camel shed here.
From the crossing to Barrier the road Is good and
parallels a fairly high range of mountains. The grass
continues good.

500 Darrier. This is a camel-shed station, with water at
shallow depth. There are wells and splendid grass.
The road passes over a slight rise to the next village.

512 Russian village. This straggles from the road back for
a mile or so over an underground water channel. It
has a good covered camel shed. The road continues
up a slight grade and then over a mile or so of soft
ground to a point where it divides, a branch going to
Sara Su, and the main road proceeding to Uspeuski.

520 Sara Su. (Population about 100.) About one-third Rus-
sians and two-thirds Kirghiz, all employed at the com-



SARA STJ. 147

pany's works. The liouses and works are stone build-
ings witli iron roofs. The barrack.s consist of 3 to
12 room houses, rooms 10 by 12 feet, with storm en-
trances. The Russian staff quarters consist of six
2-room apartments, each with storm entrance. The
director's fiouse has 6 rooms and a bath. There is
also a well-equipped Russian bathhouse. The winter
camel shed is 100 by 100 feet, covered with thatch,
and with harness and teamsters' rooms. The stable
accommodates 12 horses.

The company's works are built on the western slope
of an isolated granite bntte which rises about 80 feet
above the surrounding country. The extent of the
higher ground is about 4.000 feet north and south, and
about 300 feet wide. A Go-foot, 54-inch round iron
smoke stack rises from the apex of the hill and is con-
nected by a stone flue to the power plant of the works
below to the west. This stack can be seen at distances
of from 16 to 25 miles and is an exceptional landmark.
There is a complete blacksmith shop with 26-inch lathe,
drill press, grinder, pipe, and bolt threading tools up
to 2 inches; two 150-horsepower Wolff compound con-
densing locomobile engines, developing a total of 200
horsepower, a 530-volt 60 A. M. P. generator, belt-driven
transformer 530 to 110 volts, a 25-horsepower motor
for pumping plant, and a 20-horsepower motor for in-
cline hoist. The crushing machinery consists of one
12 by 20 and two 6 by 20 Blake type crushers, two 12
by 30 crushing rolls, two Harding pebble mills, and
flotation concentrating' plant with drier. There is
also a small double-drum hoist, electrically driven,
capable of raising 3,600 pounds on a 25 per cent grade.
There are two wagon scales.

Water for the works is from a 25-foot well located a
quarter of a mile from the river. It furnishes 250 gal-
lons per minute of splendid water which is filtered into
the well through a natural gravel bed capped by nu-



148 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

merous layers of compact clay. It is pumped and de-
livered to a height of 125 feet to the works through
3,200 feet of 6-inch iron pipe by a 12 by 14 geared triplex
electric pump. The pipe is buried 4 feet and freezes.

No fuel is available except ox droppings and coal from
Karagandy.

Herds of cattle, horses, sheep, and camels are pastured
in all directions except in winter when they are driven
south. The pasture is good in spring and summer and
well into the fall.

The telephone line from Spasski passes thrf»ugh here
and, by switchboard, to Uspenski.

The country is open rolling steppe, without trees, and
aeroplanes could land anywhere.

The Sara Su River flows east to \\est al)0ut 300 feet
south of the works and is ordinarily a small stream
only a few feet in width, but during the spring freshets
is from 50 feet to a half mile wide varying with the
rapidity of the thaw and the amount of snow.

About 40 miles to the east on the river is a large Ger-
man colonist settlement and another about 36 miles to
the northwest. In 1916 a motor car traveled west to
Jez Kaagan, following the river for the first 70 miles
through a series of Russo-German villages. After leav-
ing the river there were no villages or farming, and the
route crossed the open steppe, broken only by a few
camel caravan routes,
520 Uspenski. Population about 700 (about 600 Kirghiz,
with Russian and English staff). This village is the
farthest outpost of modern civilization. Roads lead to
the south and west, but only Kirghiz camps are found.
The most important copper mine of the Uspenski Co.
is located here. The mine and village are situated on
a long, low hill slope with lower ground to the north
and east and higher to the west. The highest point is
about 200 yards from the main road. There are no
trees, but natural hay grows everywhere outside the
town. Aircraft could land anywhere.



TJSPENSKI. 149

The barracks are well built of brick and stone, witli
iron roofs. The company has a store and a well-
equipped hospital. A dynamite magazine is located
about one-fourth of a mile northeast and is protected
with 20-foot poles carrying lightning rods. The build-
ing is short-circuited to the ground by an envelope of
f-inch iron rods, bound together at 4-inch intervals.

The water supply is very limited and poor. Fuel is
hauled from Karagandy. Forage for animals is not to
be counted on, but pasture is good and unlimited from
April to September.

The mine produces only low 6 per cent copper, the
high-grade ore being exhausted. The life of the mine
is now said to be limited unless new deposits are dis-
covered. There are two hoisting steam engines, good
for 700 feet with 2-ton lift; four Babcock & Wilcox
tubular boilers, 100 horsepower each ; a 2,400-cubic feet
free-air Ingersoll Rapd compound steam and air com-
pressor ; and two 1,000-cubic feet free-air Ingersoll Rand
single-steam and compound air compressor in fair
shape; air-drill sharpeners (new); about twenty 2|
air drills and six small jack hammer drills; and com-
plete blacksmith shop for all work.

About a half mile south of the town is a quarry of
good sandstone for building. There are also lime de-
posits within a couple of miles and clay for bricks as
well as kilns for burning both.

To the south runs a road which eventually strikes the
Kara Su River, which leads to the Turkestan Rail-
road from Samara to Tashkent. This road is seldom
used and is not suitable for the movement of troops.
To the southeast the country toward Lake Balkash is
sandy and extremely alkaline. Water is very scarce,
and partly for this reason and partly owing to the
scarcity of pasture and the unreliability of guides, the
country is dangerous for traveling. There is some
travel in it in the springtime between Tashkent and



150 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

the large horse fair held at Kuyandi. In Lake Balkash
the water is said to be sweet on the north side and some-
what brackish on the south.

Route W-2 — Pavlodae to Karkabalinsk.

Pavlodar. (See Pt. Ill, p. 119.) Leaving the town the
road crosses the River Irtysh by means of a ferry. The
road passes over dry, barren country interspersed with
many salt lakes. At 14 miles it crosses the railroad
which connects the coal mines of the Voskresenski
Co. with the River Irtysh at Voskresenski Landing,
24 miles by river above Pavlodar. Road good.

26 Kalkoman. A Government post station. Road continues
through a dry, barren land.

52 Jermantus. A Government post station on the sliore of
an intensely salt lake, the beach of which is incrusted
with heavy deposits of salt. These are removed annu-
ally, but grow again by natural processes.

72 Kaida-ul. A Government post station. Road continues
through same type of country.

99 Chak Chan. A Government post station in barren, roll-
ing steppe. At this point a road branches off to the
west to the mines at Bayandi Kuduk and thence to
Akmolinsk. (See Route W. 3.) The mountains around
Bayan Aul are faintly visible from here.
120 Kandi Kara Su. A Government post station near the
foot of the Granite range of mountains which domi-
nates Bayan Aul. Road passes around mountains, and
in bad weather is heavy and rough.
140 Bayan Aul. A Cossack town in a valley in the Granite
Mountains which are thickly wooded. Very beautiful
country with numerous fresh-water lakes.
250 Karkaralinsk. A Cossack town. The headquarters of a
large forestry industry under Government control. The
road passes through the site of the Kuyandi fair, the
largest fair for the sale of live stock in Siberia, prob-
ably in the world.



CHAK CHAN TO AKMOLINSK. 161

Route W-3 — Chak Chan to Akmolinsk via Bayandi Kuduk.

Chak Chan. A Government post station on the Pavlodar-
Karkaralinsk post road, 99 miles from Pavlodar. (See
Route W-2.) There is no Government post road sj'S-
tem on the Chak Chan-Akmonlinsk Road. The road
turns abruptly west from Chak Chan and proceeds
through a barren rolling country without any obstruc-
tions.
33 Bayandi Kuduk. This is situated in a barren rolling
country interspersed with numerous shallow lakes.. A
good seam of coal is found here, but the mine is poorly
developed. Numerous copper prospects witliin a radius
of 40 miles, none of which are developed. A roughly
equipped copper smelter with houses and rough plant.
From Bayandi Kuduk a branch road branches off to
the southeast to Bayan Aul ; distance, 42 miles. This
road joins the Pavlodar-Karkaralinsk road at Kandi
Kara Su. (See Route W-2.) Here there is an old
abandoned mine of the Popoffs. Like other steppe roads,
this runs thi-ough an open, unobstructed country until
it approaches the mountains at Kandi Kara Su.

From Bayandi Kuduk the main road proceeds west-
ward through an unsettled, rolling country, with nu-
merous traces of copper ore. At 64 miles it crosses the
road from Bayan Aul to Petropavlovsk. At 72 miles
passes IMount Tas Cheku. At 96 miles passes a large
lake, Saumal Kul. At 100 miles passes Mount Aman
Tau. Shortly after, crosses the Chiderty River.
112 Tasty Adir copper mine. This is an important mine
which has been worked since prehistoric times. The
road continues through open country.
200 Akmolinsk. (See Route W-1.)

Route 'W-4, Bayan Aul to Karagandy Coax Mine.

Bayan Aul. This is a point on the Government post
road beteewn Pavlodar and Karkaralinsk. (See Route



152 KIRGHIZ STEPPE.

W-2.) Di.stance.s are only estimated. After leaving
the timber area the road proceeds west over an open
country without any settlement except the huts of a
few Kirghiz.
170 Karagandy coal mine. A point on the Petropavlovsk-
Uspeuski road. (See Route W-1.) The reporter made
the journey in severe winter weather in March, 1913 ;

the storms were bad.

Hours.

Total lapsed time on trip 120

Total actual travel time 50

Made the same trip on 21st May (after spring thaw)
in 70 hours lapsed time without effort.

There are no obstructions on this route, except that
the River Nura (North Fork) must be crossed at
Sannikoff, near Karagandy. Crossing impossible in
flood times ; not bad at other times.

Routes W-5 and W-6, Kaekaeai,insk to Karagaxdy and
Karkaeaxinsk to Uspenski.

Karkaralinsk is the terminal station of the post road from
Pavlodar to Karkaralinsk. (See Route W-2.)

Karagandy is a station on the Akmolinsk-Uspenski road.
(See Route W-1.)

Uspenski is the terminal station on the post road from Akmo-
linsk to Uspenski. (See Route W-1.)

These routes need no special description. They run through
the usual open country of the Steppes and are constantly used
by the timber carriers, who bring timber from the forested area
around Karkaralinsk to the mines of the Spasski Co. They
are also used by the general public for transport of produce


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