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pavement 9.8 cents, and bitumen paint 1.2 cents.

The electric-light plant cost $1,967.91. It comprises a Mayo dynamo
for 80 lamps, an Armington and Sims engine 12-horse power, boiler
15-horse power, with instruments and tools, supplying 68 incandescent
lamps. This plant was put in operation, so far as relates to lamp
setting, and connections, by Lieut. Flagler without technical assist-
ance. There is a masonry water tank in the boiler room with ^connec-
tion of water-supply pipes.

ENG 94 30 465



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466 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY.

The excavation of the year was 32,324 cubic yards, and cost 39J
cents ; a considerable part was in rock. In addition there was borrowed
for filling 0,714 yards of loam, and 4,136 cubic yards of sand was bor-
roAved. The loam was used for the outside for sux)port of grass, and
the saud was placed over the bitumen paint, clay being objectionable
in this place.

The total filling was 44,124 cubic yards. Tiie cost, leaving out sand,
was 18.4 cents per yard, and of sand 27 cents.

When the loam was in place it was -sown with oats or barley and
artificially watered, needed to sustain growth in the dry months.

The slopes bounding two of the mortar pits were sodded at much
greater cost, as grass could hardly be relied upon to hold a slope of
3/4 as this particular slope needs to be held.

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS.

A roadway connecting the old road with mortar pit Ko. 4 was partly
made, uniting with the battery communication to mortar pit No. 2, and
partially macadamized.,

A spriug of good drinking water having been developed in the
excavation of mortar pit No. 2, it was bricked up for convenience of
the cannoneers.

The water supply for the work was derived from a conduit of Spring
Valley Water Company, a private corporation, which supplies the city.
It was pumped by steam to tanks upon the hill, from which pipes were
led to the concrete mixer and to the masonry tank in the boiler room,
and over the earthwork, the last necessary to make the grass grow on
the slopes in the dry season.



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APPENDIX No. 5.



POST OF WILLETS POINT, NEW YORK— UNITED STATES ENGINEER
SCHOOL— BATTALION OF ENGINEERS— ENGINEER DEPOT



REPORT OF LIEUT. COL, W. R. KING, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE SO, 1894, •



United States Engineer School,
Fo8t of Willets Pointy New Yorh Harbor ^ July 10, 1894.
General: I have the honor to forward herewith duplicate annual
report on the post of Willets Point, New York Harbor; the United
States Engineer School; the Battalion of Engineers, and the Engineer
Depot, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. E. King,
Lieutenant- Colonel of Engineers,
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey,

Chief of Engineers^ U. 8, A.



I.— POST OF WILLETS POINT.

At the close of the fiscal year the garrison consisted of 23 commis-
ioned officers and 380 enlisted men, including the following 'general
staff, artillery, and infantry officers:

Maj. Egon A. Koerper, surgeon, U. S. Army.
Capt. Nathan 8. Jar vis, assistant surseon, U. S. Army.
Second Lieut. James Hamilton, Thira Artillery.
Second Lieut. Joseph C. Fox, Thirteenth Infantry.
Second Lieut. Isaac C. Jenks, Twenty-fourth Infantry.
Second Lieut. John E. Woodward, Sixteenth Infantry.
Second Lieut. James Kouayne, Ninteenth Infantry.

The following table shows the changes among the general staff and
line officers at the post during the year:



Bank aod organization.


Name.


Date

. May 20, 1894
. Oct. 1,1893
. Oct. 1,1893
. Apr. 30,1893

. Oct. 1,1893
.Oct. 1,1893
. May 2,1894
. May 19,1894
. Dec. 4,1893
. Dec. ],i893
. Deo. 23, 1893
. Dec. 4.1893
. Dec. 1,1893
.Nov. 25.1893


Ilelioved or
joined.


Captain, Medical Departoicnt

Second Lieutenant, Fifth Artillery

Do

Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry


Kendall, William P

Jonlan, Sidney S

McGlachlin,.jr., Edward.
Keech,FrankB

Uline, Willis

Whitman, Walter M

Shattuck, AnioH B

Jarvis, Nathan S

Shattuck, Anion 11

Uamiltou , James

Fox, JoRe]th ('

Jenkfl, iMaac C


Kelioved.
Do.
Do.


Second Lieutenant, Twelfth Infantry

Second Lieutenant, First Cavalry


sinied.

Relieved.

Do.


First Lieutenant, Twentyflfth Infantry . ..
Cantain. Medical Denartment


Do.
Joined.


Firat Lieutenant, Twenty fifth Infantry . - .

Second Lieutenant, Third Artillery

Second Lieutenant. Thirteenth Infantry .. .
Second Lieutenant. Twenty-fourth Infantry

Second Lieutenant, Sixteenth Infantry

Second Lieutenant, Nineteenth Infantry . . .


Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.


Woodward, John K

lionayne, James


Do.
Do.



467



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468 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,. U. S. ARMY.
BUILDINGS AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS.

Including the buildings belonging to the fortifications, engineer
school, cind depot, which are reported on elsewhere, there are about
one hundred public buildings on the post. Some of these buildings
are of a substantial character, while others are cheap, temporary struc-
tures which are gradually being replaced by more permanent buildings.

During the past year the usual minor rei)airs, such as painting, glaz-
ing, rooling, and plastering have been made to the barracks, quarters,
and storehouses of the post proper by enlisted men under direction of
the post quartermaster, Lieut. Jadwiu, Avho has also supervised the
contract work of building new barracks and preparing foundations for
quarters ^o. 10.

The now barracks for Companies B and C, built last year, have been
occupied and a new barrack for Company A was well under way at the
end of the fiscal year, and will doubtless be ready for occupancy before
cold weather. The removal of quarters !No. 10 to the opposite side of
the parjide ground was done by enlisted men under the immediate super-
vision of Sergt. McMauus, and Avas successfully accomplished while
three ofldcers were living in the building. Foundation and basement
walls have been built by contract, and the work of replastering, paint-
ing, etc., hjis been nearly comiileted.

Considerable work has been done by tiie garrison in extending and
repairing roads, sidewalks, gutters, and drains and in grading and
macadamizing tne company i)arade grounds. Quite a number of shade
trees have been transplanted and the space between barracks and
company parade grounds has been sodded.

A quantity of concrete from the foundations of old buildings has
been broken up into masses convenient for handling and hauled to the
margin of the ice pond for use in building a retaining wall. This wall
is very nmcli needed to enable the grading around the pond to be so
arranged as to prevent surface water from running into the pond, and
also to get rid of the muddy and A^ery unsanitary margin that has long
been a menace to the health of the post. A small allotment of funds
has been repeatedly asked for to complete this much-needed improve-
ment, but as none has been allowed the work has been undertaken by
fatigue parties, and a considerable part of the trench for the wall has
been dug; but owing to the extreme heat there is liability to cause
malarial fever in the vicinity of the pond at this time, and it may be
necessary to suspend operations until frost comes. Although it will
only be possible to do a little of this work at a time, it is hoped that it
may eventually be completed. The post quartermaster has also done
considerable miscellaneous work in tearing down old buildings and
clearing up the space occupied by them, in repairing the ice house,
preparing the target butts for the annual rifle practice, and in fixing
up the old guard house for quarters for the band sergeant.

II.— UNITED STATES ENGINEER SCHOOL.

The scope and object of the school have been fully set forth in previous
reports and in the order establishing it on its present basis. The orders
issued in pursuance of the latter, arranging the details of the seasons'
Avork, are appended, marked A, B, and C.

During the present year a class of three engineer ofiicers completed
the full course of two and one-half years, and four line officers com-
pleted their course of torpedo instruction.



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APPENDIX 5 REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. KING. 469

Secoiid Lieut. Jay J. Morrow, Corps of Engineers, was relieved from
instruction at the U. S. Engineer School January 4, 1894, on being
appointed post adjutant, signal and recruiting officer, battalion adju-
tant and treasurer, commanding Company D, Battalion of Engineers,
after having completed over two years of the prescribed course. Second
Lieut. John S. Sewell, Corps of Engineers, was also relieved from
instruction and assigned to duty under the immediate orders of the
chairman ot Special Subcommittee on Appropriations, House of Eep-
resentatives, and of Col. Wilson, Corps of Engineers.

THIUI) winter's class — (COURSE COMPLETED.)

Second Lioiit. Spencer Cosby, Corps of Enffineers.
Second Lient. Charles P. Echols, Corps of Engineers.
Second Lient. James ;F. Mclndoe, Corps of Engineers.

SECOND winter's CLASS.

Second Lient. James B. Cavanangh, Corps of Engineers.
Second Lieut. James P. Jervey, Corps of Engineers.

I'lftsT winter's class.

Second Lieut. James Hamilton, Third Artillery.

Second Lieut. Joseph C. Fox, Thirteenth Infantry.

Second Lieut. Isaac C. Jenks, Twenty fourth Infantry.

Second Lieut. John E. Woodward, Sixteenth Infantry.

Second Lieut. James Ronayne, Nineteenth Infantry.

Second Lieut. George P. Howell, Corps of Engineers. •

Second Lieut. Charles W. Kutz, Corps of Engineers.

Second Lieut. Meriwether L. Walker, Corps of Engineers.

Second Lieut. Robert P. Johnston, Corps of Engineers.

Second Lieut. Robert R. Raymond, Corps of Engineers.

III.— BATTALION OF ENGINEERS.

The law provides for five companies of Engineer troops, having an
aggregate strength of 752 enlisted men, olBcered by details from the
Corps of Engineers.

At present only four companies, vrith a total strength of 500 enlisted
men, are allowed to be recruited.

The aggregate strength of the Battalion of Engineers on June 30,
1894, including Company E, stationed at West Point, F. Y., was 17
commissioned officers and 406 enlisted men.

During the year Companies A, B, and C have been stationed at Willets
Point; Company D exists in name only ; Company E has been stationed
at West Point to assist in the practical instruction of cadets of the
Military Academy in building military bridges, sapping, mining, and
signaling.

A detachment of 16 noncommissioned officers and privates was sent
to Chicago to assist in setting up and exhibiting the engineer models
and other exhibits in the Government building at the World's
Columbian Exi)osition, and remained there during the summer. Their
conduct and soldierly bearing were such as to win praise from the officers
under whose orders they were serving and from numerous civilians who
visited the Exposition.

The following is a roster of officers serving with the Battalion of
Engineers on June 30, 1894 viz :

Lieut. Col. W. R. King Corps of Engineers, commanding.
Second Lieut. Jay J. Morrow, Corps of Engineers, adjutant.
Second Lient. Edgar Jadwin, Corps of Engineers, quartermaster.
Company A:

Capt. Walter L. Kisk, Corps of Engineers, commanding company.



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470



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY.



Company A — Continued.

Second Lieut. Meriwether L, Walker, Corps of Engineers, with company.

Second Lieut. Robert R. Raymond, Corps of Engineers, with company.
Company B:

Capt. William T. Rossell. Corps of Engineers, commanding company.

Second Lieut. James B. Cavanaugh, Corps of Engineers, with company.

Second Lieut. Qeorge P. Howell, Corps of Engineers, with company.
Company C :

Capt. William M. Black, Corps of Engineers, commanding company.

Second Lieut. John S. Sewell, Corps of Engineers, on detached service.

Second Lieut. James P. Jervey, Corps of Engineers, with company.

Second Lieut. Charles W. Kutz, Corjw of Engineers, with company.

Second Lieut. Robert P. Johnston, Corps of Engiueei*s, with company.
Company D :

Exists in name only.
Company E :

Capt. James L. Lusk, Corps of Engineers, commanding company.

First Lieut. Mason M. Patrick, Corps of Engineers," with comi)any.

Second Lieut. Charles S. Bromwell, Corps of Engineers, with company.

Second Lieut. Jay J. Morrow, Corps of Eugiueers, was relieved from
duty with Company C, Battalion of Engineers, and appointed adjutant
and treasurer. Battalion of Engineers, January 4, 1894, in orders Ko.
3, Battalion of Engineers, Willets Point, N. Y., January 4, 1894.

Second Lieut. James P. Jervey, Corps of Engineers, Avas transferred
from Company C, to Company A, Battalion of Engineers, July 4, 1893,
in orders No. 85, Battalion of Engineers, Willets Point, N. Y., July,
4, 1893, and transferred from Company A, to Company C, Battalion of
Engineers, January 23, 1894, in orders No. 16, Battalion of Engineers,
Willets Point, N. Y., January 23, 1894.

The following table shows the changes that have taken place in the
personnel of the officers during the year:



Kaiik.



Names.



Date.



Secoud lieutenaot .

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Captain

Do

Second lion tenant .

Do

Do

Do

Do



Joined
or relieved.



Deakynts Herbert

Howell, ( J eorge P



July 3,1893
Sept. 30, 1893



Kelieved.
Joined ..



Kntz, Charles W

Walker, MeriwetlierL
Johnston, Robert P. . ,
Raymond. Robert R. . .
Roasell, William T...



Hoxie, Richard L.
Keller, Charles...



Mcfirt?gor, Robert —
Cosby, Spencer



Echols. Chiyles P..
Mcludoo, James F.



....do '

-...do I

....do •

....do

Nov. 11, 1893



Nov. 13, 1893 ;
Nov. 7,1893



Dec. 26,1893
Juno 0,1894



..do.
..do.
..do.
..do.
..do.



Relieved

do



...do.
...do.



.do.
.do.



.do.
.do.



Remarks.



Siwcinl Orders, 140,
taut-General's
June 21, 1893.
Special Orders, 145,
taDt.Genoral's
July 8, 1803.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Special Orders. 260,
t4int General's
Nov. 10, 1893.
Do.
Special Orders 254,
tHnt-Gencrnl's
Nov. 5, 1893.
Special Orders, 288,
tant-Gcii eral s
Dec. 14. 1893.
Special Orders. 132,
tant-General's
June 6, 1894.
Do.
Do.



Office,

Adjn-
Office,



Adjn.

omce,



Adja.
Office,

Adjtt-
Office,

Adja-
Office.



RECRUITING, DISCIPLINE, ETC.

During the year recruits for the battalion have been obtained by
enlistments at Willets Point and West Point, and by assignment on
their own application from recruiting depots or other branches of the
service.

An engineer sergeant detailed to recruit for the Battalion of
Engineers on February 17, 1893, and attached by the superintendent



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g.x



APPENDIX 5 ^REPORT OP LIEUT. COL. KING.



471



recruiting service to reudezvous No. 146 Park Row, NeAv York City,
was continaecl on that duty during the year.

The following is a statement of changes among the enlisted men of
the battalion during the past year:

Gain:

Recruits from depots 26

Enlisted in the battalion ( Willets Point, 91 j West Point, 20) Ill

Reenli8ted(Willetts Point, 32; West Point, 7) 39

By transfer 12

From desertion 12

Total gain 200

Loss:

Discharged by expiration of service 43

for disability 2

by sentence of general court-martial 15

by special order 6

by General Orders 80, Adjutant-Generars OflSce, series of 1890.. 22

by General Orders 81, Adjutant-Cienerars Office, series of 1890.. 15

Transferred 18

Retired 3

Died 3

Deserted , 25

Total loss 1 152

This result shows a net gain of 48 men, which increases the battalion
to Avitbin 34 men of its authorized strength.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, 60 men of the Battalion of
Engineers were entitled to be discharged under the provisions of para-
agraph 2, General Orders 80, Adjutant-General's Office, 1890, 22 of
whom availed themselves of this privilege.

Sixty-two enlisted men were on furlough during the yejir under the
provisioiis General Orders !N^o. 80, Adjutant-GeneraPs Office, 1890.

The following table gives a comparative statement of recruiting,
desertions, etc., during the past ten years :



Fiscal year.



Recruiting.



En- Keen-
listed, listed



jAvcragodaily,
.' number. .



Juno 80,
Jane :>0,
Judo HO,
Jnne 30,
June 30,
June 30,
Jnne 30,
Jnne 30,
June 30,
June 30,



1884,
1885,
1886,
1887,
1888,
1889.
1890,
1891,
1892.
1893,



to Jnno 30,
to June 30,
to June 30,
to Jnne 30,
to Juno 30,
to June 30,
to June 30,
to June 30,
to Junjo 30,
to June 30,



1885.
1886.
J 887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
J894.



56 I

57 i
20 1

9
. 90 I
147 I
50 I
83 I
03
111 1



nne-



I De-
serted.



Tmls.

General, ^^^' Sum-
court- 1 ««"



No. of

nieuon



boneral '__ I Sura- nieuon
court- „°„" I mary Juno 30.






38


106


8


22 1


76


9


17 1


40


12


22 1


49


6


20 1


23


9


14


52


6


12 !


15


5


10 I


24


6


11


17


6


13 i


25



11


59




383


20


107




396


19


160




388


21


218




387


* 1


214




402


13


304




468


12


00


138


417


1^


4


208


437


18


8


156


418


27 '


4


125


468



Average . . : ' 68. 6 1 38. 4



7. 3 15. 9 43. 6



113. 8 157.



416.2



It will be seen from this table that the number of men enlisted is
greater than at any report during the i)ast ten years, except in 1890;
that there has been a falling off of 25 i>er cent in the number of trials
for minor offenses, while the number of desertions and trials by gen-
eral court martial are about one-half larger than last year. These two
items usually depend more upon the number of recruits than upon the
strength of the command, and this number was unusually large during
the past year.



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472 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U, S. ARMY.

The numbers of sick and of men in confinement are below the average
for the ten years.

Tlie following statement shows the number of different men tried by
court-martial and other facts relative to the trials:

Trials.

By general court 27

By summary court 125

Oojected tu trial by summary court and tried by garrison court 4

Total : 150



Trio<lonc©

Tried twice

Tried three times .

Tried four times . .

Tried five times...

Total



No. of


No. of


men.


trials.


55


55


22


44


9


27


5


20


2


10



93 I



Number of men who ploadetl guilty 127

Number of men who pleaded not guiltj- 29

Total ^ 156

Number of acquittals 6

Num ber found guilty 150

Total '. 156

This statement shows that only one-fifth of the men were guilty of
any delinquency during the ye.ar of sufficient imi^ortance to require
trial, and that the number of men who were tried more than once dur-
ing the year was less than in former years.

The question of nativity of the enlisted men in the Army being often
misunderstood, the following table relating to the Battalion of Engi-
neers has been prepared, from which it will be seen that 52 per cent
were born in this country, and that only 5 per cent have been in this
country less than five years :

JUitUilioii of Knginecrs.



Nationalities.


Noncor

mission

stafl' ai

band.


n-
ed
id

5


1
Company C

A. 1


Jompany
B.

:a

3

1

1


Company
4G


Company

70

1


Total.


United States

Austria




38!
2


242


Brazil






\


Canada '

Ceylon

Cu ua '


J






1


3
1









1


1


Denmark -


1


1

9


2

1
10

2
36

1


8


England

j'ranco




...


5 1




2


23
1


Germany

Holland




«


».


17

1
25

1




8


02
3


Ireland

Norway

Poland




1
1


30
3

}!:

1




4


G






1


Russia





2






3


Scotland




1
1


1


South Africa












1


SworlPTi






W


2


i'


3


Switzerland




2


1






Total




18


115


117


117




98


465



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APPENDIX 5 — REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. KING.
In United States.



473



Noncommissioned staff ami band

Company A

Company B

Company C

Company E

Total



Doru in
United
States.



I



10 years or j
over.



5 to 10
years.



242



Less than 5
years.



8


4


1


27


24





37


18


8


89


25


7


11


«


2



21



Grand total, 4(»5 men.



DRILL AND INSTRUCTION.



During the year the Battalion of Engineers has been drilled and
instructed as follo^fs:

1. Infantry tactics: School of the soldier, company, and battalion.

2. Target practice: The practice for the post of Willets Point, New
York Harbor, for the past year was from July 3, 1893, to August 30,
1893, and at West Point, K. Y., during the months of May, June and
July 1893.

Owing to the objections by the citizens living in the vicinity to the
use of the rifle range at this post, no regular target practice could be
had. A suitable butt, with targets for firing at short ranges and with
reduced charges, built at this post in 1891, was thoroughly repaired
during June, 1893.

Target practice was held daily by companies in turn, superintended
by the company commanders.

3. Pontoniering during the months of August and September, 1893.

4. Military engineering: Foot reconnoissance, tracing, profiling, find
constructing field fortifications, sapping, construction of spar bri«lges,
double lock, including knots and lashings, during the months of Octo-
ber and November, 1893.

5. Torpedo drills were had throughout the year, the winter months
being devoted to indoor drills and practice in the loading room, and
the summer mouths in outdoor drills and exercises.

The following number of men received instruction during the winter
months, viz, 22 sergeants, 32 corporals, and 287 privates.

One sergeant, 7 corporals of Company E, Battalion of Engineers,
were, in detachments of two each, assigned for instruction in torpedo
servi(;e under authority granted in letter dated Adjutant-General's
Office, August 3, 1893.

Qualifioatiou of privates:

First class 266

Second class 21

Total 287

Four men received no instruction during indoor season, viz, 2 men
in confinement, and 2 men sick in hospital during entire season.

During the summer months 6 grand groups were planted, which
required 6 different details by roster, each detail consisting of 2 com-
missioned oflicers, 3 noncommissioned officers, and 12 privates.

C. Photography: Selected details of noncommissioned officers have
been instructed in military photography.

?• In order to facilitate the learning of the various industrial trades
by enlisted men, and furnish men qualified for special duty as carpen-



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474 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U- S. ARMY.

ters, blacksmiths, engine-drivers, etc., a detail of 4 men from each com-
pany was employed under the supervision of Lieut. James B. Cava-
naugh, Cori)s of Engineers, to act as assistants to the mechanics at
work in the different shops on the post, wh«m not on other duty. This
duty was voluntary, and the men were allowed to select the trades
they were to learn. If they made satisfactory progress, they were con-
sidered eligible for special details when A^acancies occur, but if not they
were replaced by others, and a record was kept of the progress made
by each man for future reference.

8. The post schools for the enlisted men and for the children living
on the post were under the supervision of Lieut. James B. Cavanaugh,
Corps of Engineers, and have been well conducted. Fifty-three enlisted
men and 56 children between the ages of 5 and 15 have received appro-
priate instruction.

The following recommendations made in former reports are respect-
fully renewed, as experience continues to indicate that the changes
recommended are desirable for the best interests of the service, viz:

(1.) A three-years' term of enlistment, with reenlistments for the
same period during good behavior and physical fitness.

(2.) A repeal of all complicate laws and regulations authorizing dis-
charges by purchase or otherwise, before expiration of service. The
occasional discharge of an enlisted man for the good of the service, or,
in special cases, for the benefit of the soldier, as heretofore practiced
for many years, appeared to answer all purposes.

(3.) Simplify the rates of i)ay and allowances, and increase the pay
of noncommissioned officers.

(4.) Have check roll-call at 9:30 instead of 11 p. m.

Engineer Depot.



I. The building for engineer models built by engineer soldiers in



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