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Annual reports of the secretary of war, Volume 1, Part 3 online

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recommendation of the governor elect, established six civil executive
departments, to facilitate the transfer of the civil duties of the mili-
tary government of the island.

Hon. Charles H. Allen, having been inaugurated as governor of
Porto Rico on Maj r 1, 1900, General Davis, on the same day, formally
announced the transfer, to the duly appointed civil officers of the Gov-
ernment of Porto Rico, of the military control over civil affairs which
had heretofore been exercised by the department commander.

CHINA.

The perilous situation of the members of the American legation at
Pekin and their complete isolation in the midst of an unruly and mur-
derous populace last spring demanded prompt action for their relief.
The Commanding General, Division or the Philippines, was there-
fore .instructed by cable, June 16, to send at once a regiment of
infantry to Taku, and, six days later, Mai. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee,
U. S. Volunteers, was selected to command the United States troops
to compose the China relief expedition.

The following is a summary of events in China subsequent to the
firing by the Taku forts on foreign war vessels which resulted in the
surrender of the forts June 17, and to the capture of the east arsenal
at Tientsin by the allied forces on the 27th of the same month:

July 3. — Headquarters and eight troops of the Sixth Cavalry sailed
from San Francisco on the Grant for China.

July 6. — Ninth Infantry landed at Taku.

July 11. — Two battalions Ninth Infantry reached Tientsin.

July 13. — Severe engagement at Tientsin between the allied forces
and the Chinese. The Ninth Infantry suffered heavily, losing Colonel
Liscum and 17 men killed and 5 officers and 72 men woundecL

July H. — Tientsin captured by the allies; Third Battalion, Ninth
Infantry, reached that place.

July 15. — Light Battery F, Fifth Artillery, and two battalions
Fourteenth Infantry sailed from Manila for China.

July 17. — Headquarters and four companies Fifteenth Infantry
sailed from San Francisco on the Sumner for China.

July 26. — Two battalions Fourteenth Infantry, on the Indiana,
arrived at Tkku.

July 27. — Light battery F, Fifth Artillery, on the Flintshire^ arrived
at Taku.

July 28. — General Chaffee, with headquarters and eight troops Sixth
Cavalry, arrived at Taku.

July 29. — Four batteries Third Artillery sailed from San Francisco
on the Hancock for China.

August 5. — Pietsang captured by the allied forces. No casualties to
the United States troops.

August 6.— Light Battery F, Fifth Artillery, Ninth and Fourteenth
Infantry, participated in battle of Yangtsung, sustaining a loss of 7
men killed and 1 officer and 62 men wounded.

August 9. — Japanese, British, Russian, and American troops advanced
to Ho-si-wu, the Chinese flying after firing first shots.



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REPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY. 21

August 14~ — Pekin entered at 5 p. m. by the allied forces.

Aivgust 1%-15. — Capture of Pekin by the allied forces, in which
Light Battery F, Fifth Artillery, and the Ninth and Fourteenth
Infantry sustained a loss of Capt. Henry J. Reilly and 5 men killed
and 30 men wounded.

August 16. — Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Barry, U. S. Volunteers, and
four companies Fifteenth Infantry arrived at Taku.

August 19. — Action near Tientsin, in which Sixth Cavalry had 6
men wounded.

August 21. — Four batteries Third Artillery, on the Hancock^ arrived
at Taku.

Auaust 28. — The allied forces formally entered the palace grounds
at Pekin.

The relief of the American legation, following the capture of the
Chinese capital, transferred to the domain of diplomacy the settlement
of the proper redress for the outrages to the representatives of the
American Kepublic and to its citizens residing in that country. It
was therefore determined to withdraw the United States troops, leav-
ing only a legation guard, to consist of four troops of cavalry, one
light battery, and one regiment of infantry, under command of Major
General Chanee, U. S. V7, he being instructed to send the remainder of
his force to Manila.

The casualties in the several actions in China between July 1 and
October 1, 1900, were as follows:





Killed.


Wounded.


Total.


Aggre-
gate.


Organization.


Officera.


Enlisted
men.


Officers.


Enlisted
men.


Officers.


Enlisted
men.


Hospital Corps








1
6
3
81

79




1

6

3

100

90


1


Sixth United States Cavalry ....










6


Fifth United States Artillery


1
1






1
8


4


Ninth United States Infantry ...
Fourteenth United States In-
fantry


19
11


7


108
90












Total


2


30


7


170


9


200


209







THE MILITARY ACADEMY.



The Military Academy at West Point is in a most satisfactory con-
dition. The provision which Congress made at its last session for an
increase of 100 cadets filled a need long felt by the service, and will
result in great benefit both to the Army and to the country at large.

The wear and tear of time has told on many of the buildings, and
much money has been spent from time to time in repair of buildings
that would have been better spent in the erection of new ones. This

auestion has been fully considered by a board of officers convened for
lis special purpose, the report of which is so thorough and satisfac-
tory that it is submitted in its entirety and your favorable consideration
requested. The Superintendent of the Academy will be instructed
to submit special estimates based on the report of this board. In this
connection the report of the Board of Visitors to the Academy for
this year, in which the needs and requirements of the institution
have received thorough investigation, is of unusual interest and is
commended to your careful attention.



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22 REPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARM*.

United States Military Academy,
West Point, N. F., September 25, 1900.

The board of officers appointed to consider and report upon the capacity of the
present plant of the United States Military Academy, has the honor to report as
follows:

An adequate presentation of this subject requires that it should be considered
under two general heads: (1) The character and condition of the existing plant;
(2) the nature of the present and future conditions it is called upon to sustain.

A summary of the structures constituting the Military Academy and post of West
Point is given in the table below.

Barracks (1 cadet, 1 band, 1 engineer, 1 army service, 1 cavalry, 1 artillery) 6

Academic building 1

Headquarters building 1

Mess hall 1

Gymnasium 1

Chapel 1

Library 1

Hospitals (1 cadet, 1 enlisted men) 2

Store (cadet quartermaster) 1

Riding hall 1

Memorial hall 1

Ordnance laboratory 4

Observatory 1

Hotel 1

Quartermaster's carpenter and blacksmith shops 1

Quartermaster's storehouse 1

Equipment shed and commissary storehouse 1

Post exchange 1

Gas houses 2

Gas tanks 3

Government stables" 2

Livery stable 1

Bakery 1

Filter houses 2

Water house 1

Officers' quarters (sets for married officers, 41; sets for bachelor officers, 16) 57

Detached enlisted men (single sets, 6; double sets, 25; quadruple sets, 5) 36

Employees and master of sword (single sets, 3; double sets, 2; triple sets, 1, in-
cluding master of sword, Kinsley House, 1) 7

Band leader 1

Guardhouses (south gate, general, cadet) 3

Bath houses (cadet, soldier) 2

Boiler house (for heating buildings near cadet area) 1

Cold-storage (one at present used for storehouse and temporary stable) 3

Waiters' quarters (at Mess Hall) 1

Laundries (cadet and hotel) 2

Magazine 1

Children's schoolhouses 2

Store 1

Boathouses and pontoon house 4

Firing house, magazine, two shot houses (at water battery ) 4

Wooden structures for miscellaneous purposes 26

Exclusive of outbuildings, reservoirs, and batteries, the Military Academy and post
of West Point consists of 163 structures.

The aggregate of the appropriations for the buildings which have housed the Acad-
emy during the first century of its existence is about $2,700,000. These structures
have been erected by the authority of Congress at irregular intervals from the found-
ing of the Academy in 1802 to the present day, to meet the immediate requirements
of the institution as it gradually grew with the development of the country. At the
beginning of the second century of its existence w r e find that only two of the buildings
erected for the use of the cadets are of sufficient size to accommodate the corps as
enlarged by the recent aot of Congress. A brief analysis of the principal buildings
will show the limitations of each and the enlargements which are absolutely essential.



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REPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY. 23

THE CADET BARRACKS.

The cadet barracks, which replaced the old brick barracks of 1815 and 1817, was
erected in 1851, to meet the growth of the Corps of Cadets; an addition was made to
it in 1882. It is a four-storied granite building of imposing appearance, costing about
$186,000. As it now stands the barracks has 180 rooms, each designed for two
cadets. In addition to the above it has quarters for 4 bachelor officers. As the
Corps of Cadets now numbers 429, it necessitates the placing of three cadets in each
of 69 rooms. Even were quarters constructed elsewhere for the above 4 officers, the
barracks would have but 192 available rooms, of accommodation for 384 cadets.
The number of cadets present being 429, and the maximum number authorized by
law being 481, it will be seen that an increase in barrack accommodations is absolutely
essential.

The system of heating is direct radiation from a central plant by steam coils of
various patterns of obsolete type. This style of heating without artificial ventilation
is most pernicious and requires thorough renovation.

The basement is now a damp, unwholesome space, divided into waste rooms used
for rubbish and storage. The bathrooms and sinks are combined in a separate build-
ing erected of late years in the area. This plan is inconvenient and objectionable.
Those who may be sick or partially invalided are compelled, in inclement weather,
to go through snow and rain to reach them. Modern sanitary plumbing renders it
perfectly safe to place the sinks and baths in the basement of barracks, a change
which would render available for other purposes the space in the area of barracks
now occupied by these buildings.

THE ACADEMY BUILDING.

This is a granite building constructed in 1892 at a cost of $480,000, which houses all
the departments of academic instruction. It will accommodate 500 students, and
therefore requires no enlargement under existing circumstances.

THE CADET HOSPITAL.

The hospital is a granite building, constructed in 1874-1880, but never completed;
only two of its four wards have been constructed. As at present constituted the
regular wards will accommodate 18 patients, and an inadequately equipped conva-
lescent ward can be made to hold 12 more, making a total of 30. The hospital accom-
modations are manifestly inadequate, and the building should be completed so as to
provide for 50 patients. In addition to the hospital, there should be a separate and
entirely new building for infectious diseases; there is at present no provision for such
cases.

THE RIDING HALL.

The present riding hall, erected in 1855, is a granite structure with wooden trussed
roof, 218 by 78 feet

For instruction in riding the classes are necessarily divided into sections. The
third class is divided into four and the first and second classes each into two sections.
To enable the instruction given in the hall to be thorough and to progress with effect-
ive rapidity, it is found mat the size of a section should not exceed 24 cadets; 32,
however, can be accommodated by making the exercises slower, and with a corre-
sponding loss in the extent of instruction. With the increased strength of the Corps
of Cadets, as recently authorized, it is probable that after the present year the maxi-
mum strength of a section of the first and second classes will vary between 50 and 60
cadets. The capacity of the riding hall should therefore be doubled.

The hall is now badly heated and lighted. The lack of proper heating causes the
tan bark to freeze ana cake in winter, and the defective lighting interferes with
the instruction.

THE MESS HALL.

The mess hall, a granite building erected in 1850, will seat 340 cadets, but has a
cooking capacity for 300 only; its plan, however, admits of indefinite extension.
There are accommodations for a force of cooks and attendants for 340 cadets. Seat-
ing accommodations for 89, and cooking arrangements for 129 cadets are lacking
under existing conditions, and also provision for the necessary increase in cooks and
attendants. The mess hall and kitchens should be so enlarged to accommodate at
least the maximum number of cadets now authorized by law (481).



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24 BEPOBT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY.

.THE CHAPEL.

The chapel is a granite building erected in 1836 with a seating capacity of 428,
just sufficient to accommode the present number of cadets. As there are also present
for duty 73 officers and instructors of the institution, together with membersof fam-
ilies and friends, besides a considerable number of civilian employees, the chapel
accommodations are much too small. If there be added to this the fluctuating and
sometimes very large body of general visitors, it will be seen that provision should
be made for a congregation of not less than 800.

THE LIBRARY.

The library, a granite structure, is now being remodeled; when completed it will
be adequate for the present and future needs of the institution.

THE GYMNASIUM.

This building, a granite structure, was erected in 1891, and has a floor area in the
gymnasium proper of 6,300 feet. It will not properly accommodate for purposes of
instruction sections of over $0 men at one time. The fourth class is necessarily
divided into three sections, each of which at present contains 60 men. The floor
area should therefore be increased one-half. In addition to this provision is needed
for increased machinery, storage, dressing rooms, enlargement of swimming tank,
and the various other accessories of the gymnasium.

THE OBSERVATORY.

The observatory is a granite structure erected in 1882. Its accommodations are
ample for the present needs of the institution.

THE CADET LAUNDRY.

The present plant can properly do the work for 250 cadets during the summer,
running ten hours per day, and for 400 cadete in the winter, running eight hours per
day. Provision should be made for at least 375 cadets during the summer and 481
during the winter. It is desirable also that during the heated spell the hours of
work should not be excessive and that the plant should do all the work easily under
normal ccnditions.

THE CADET STORE.

The present building has a capacity for properly supplying 300 cadets. It should
be able to supply the authorized maximum of 481.

THE CADET GUARDHOUSE.

This is an antiquated brick building containing 11 small rooms, which are used for
the following purposes: Offices for the commandant of cadets and his 8 assistants,
3 clerks, and cadet officer of the day; a guardroom, engine room, and tool room.
Provision should be made for 9 officers. 3 clerks, room for the guard, room for
orderly musicians, and for 6 armories, ana 1 storeroom.

THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING.

This is a granite building erected in 1G71. It contains the offices of the Superin-
tendent, the adjutant, and the quartermaster, and is the depository of most of the
records of the post. Many of the rooms in this building are overcrowded and an
increase in floor space is very desirable.

THE SUMMER ENCAMPMENT.

The present summer encampment has a capacity of 140 tents, accommodating 280
cadets. To accommodate properly the maximum number of cadets likely to be in
camp, under the present authorized maximum strength (481) of the corps of cadete,
46 additional tents will be required. This will provide a tent for every 2 cadets,
the maximum number which can be put in a tent without crowding and aiscoriSfort.

The additional ground required for the encampment can be obtained by razing the
parapet and filling in the ditch of Fort Clinton, and by removing and transplanting
a number of trees north of the present camp.



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REPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY. 25

THE OFFICERS' QUARTERS.

The buildings occupied by the officers of the Military Academy as quarters are of
every variety of type, construction, and material, and of all ages — from the earliest
days of the Academy to the present date. The most substantial are those occupied
by the Superintendent and neads of departments; some of these are of stone and
the rest of brick. They are all old structures, some of them dating from 1816. The
remaining houses are of brick or wood and have been variously altered and added
to. Upon the older buildings very much money has been expended in repairs, and
as the appropriations for repairs cover the entire plant of the institution it is impos-
sible to make thorough renovations. As a consequence repairing by driblets goes on
from year to year at a very large aggregate cost and with only temporary results.

None of the older sets of quarters are up to the standard of modern domestic archi-
tecture either in plan or conveniences, and as a rule are very far below the standard
adopted in the quarters recently erected by the Government at army posts.

For bachelor officers convenience and economy are best subserved by arrange-
ment in suites in a single building. There are now 23 bachelor officers assigned to
the Academy; for their accommodation there is but one such set of bachelor quarters,
designed for 8 officers. The other bachelor officers occupy rooms in the cadet bar-
racks and in the quarters of married officers. With less active military operations
than at present the proportion of bachelor officers will tend to increase and a build-
ing providing for about 20 suites should be erected on a convenient site adjacent to
the mess building.

There are at present available 41 sets of married officers' quarters, many of which
are small, inadequate, and without modern conveniences, and others of the grade of
cheap tenements and entirely unfit for occupancy. As there are 50 married officers
on duty here, there is a balance of 9 unprovided for. Temporary arrangements
entailing great inconvenience and risk to health have been effected to meet the
present embarrassments. Nine sets of new quarters are required to properly provide
for immediate needs, aside from all questions of removal and replacement of old sets.
The quartermaster reports that at least 7 of the old sets should be immediately
removed and replaced by new ones, and in this the board concurs.

THE BARRACKS FOR CAVALRY DETACHMENT.

The present brick building will accommodate 95 men, which is sufficient for all
present needs, but its location is such that it will interfere with any enlargement of
the riding hall, and should be moved to another site.

THE STABLES FOR CAVALRY HORSES.

The present brick stables provide stalls for 116 horses. The number of horses
required is determined by the size of the first and second classes. All of the first
class and half of the second class are required to attend squadron drill together.
This will demand at least 160 horses in the near future. Stabling, therefore, for at
least 44 additional horses must be erected. These stables also interfere with the
enlargement of the riding hall, and should be moved to another site.

THE ENGINEER BARRACKS.

This brick building was completed in 1858; it has a capacity of 50 men — the strength
of the company when it was erected. The authorized strength* of an engineer com-
pany is now 150. The necessity for an enlargement is apparent

THE BARRACKS FOR ARTILLERY DETACHMENT.

In 1900 Congress authorized the organization of an artillery detachment of 40 men.
A brick building formerly used as a barracks for the quartermaster's detachment, and
subsequently for other purposes, is available for temporary use; it requires renovation*.

Stables suitable for the horses of this detachment can be provided temporarily by
utilizing a stone building now used as a mule stable, together with the present livery
stable; both require renovation. As these are temporary and inconvenient expe-
dients, both as regards location and character of building, new barracks and stables
on a suitable site should be provided.



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26 REPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY.



THE BAND BARRACKS.



The band banucks is a brick structure which has accommodations for 25 men.
The legal strength of this organization being now 40 men, increased barrack accom-
modation is necessary. Suitable barrack accommodation is also needed for the squad
of drummers and orderlies, whose authorized strength is 24 men.



THE ARMY-SERVICE BARRACKS.



The army-service detachment occupies a brick building which has barrack accom-
modation for 80 men. The authorized strength of this detachment is now 125 men.

THE COMMISSARY BUILDING.

The old equipment shed, now in part used as a commissary building, is remote,
inconvenient, and unsuitea to the purpose. For administration purposes it would
be desirable to house the commissary, meat contractor, and post exchange in a single
building constructed for the purpose.

THE QUARTERMASTER'S SHOPS.

The care and repair of the existing plant and the erection of many minor construc-
tions fall upon the quartermaster of the Academy. This is already a large and respon-
sible work, demanding experience and ability in the officer having it in charge. It is
not only economical but necessary to the Government that this class of work be done
in its own shops, and the necessity for a competent plant is imperative. The present
enlargement ot the Academy increases this work, and a corresponding increase in the
plant is demanded. This would include an extension to the carpenter, saddler, black-
smith, plumber, and tinsmith shops, as well as an extension to the lime sheds and
storehouse, whose capacity is already inadequate. It should be borne in mind that
this post is a small town, the policing and current repairs of which are done by the
members of an army-service detachment, which is comprised of laborers and mechanics
of all trades.

THE WEST POINT HOTEL.

The hotel was erected in 1829 and has been added to from time to time It is com-
posed of a main building of stone, stuccoed, a brick wing, also stuccoed, and various
wooden additions. The present structure is deficient in accommodations, obsolete in
appointments, and defective in plan. In order that the hotel may fulfill the object
for which it was designed, it requires a material increase in size and complete remod-
eling.

THE STABLE.

The old stable is in very bad repair and unfit for its uses, besides occupying a posi-
tion which is unsightly and inconvenient The group of buildings of which it is a
part, together with the old gas works, should be removed to a more suitable site.

THE WATER SUPPLY.

The recently constructed Lusk reservoir, designed to relieve the needs of condi-
tions then existent, is inadequate to meet any additional demand, and the rapid
increase of consumption recently brought about gives the question a very serious
aspect. Any considerable diminution in rainfall, such as characterizes a moderate
drought, would produce a water famine.

It is a matter of vital importance that the only available source of supply in this
vicinity — i. e., Long Pond — should be immediately purchased before further increase
in the price of land and before vested rights in it as a source of supply shall have
been acquired by others. In the latter case its acquirement might be impossible, and
the future needs of the institution as regards water supply would present insuper-
able difficulties.

STEAM HEATING AND LIGHT.

The existing arrangements for heating public buildings are inadequate and unsys-
tematic. This results naturally from the spasmodic nature of their growth and
extension, one building after another having been attached to a plant originally
small and located with reference to a special building.



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BEPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY. 27



Steam heating was first applied to cadet barracks and thence extended to include
adjacent buildings. As a consequence the original plant, grown unwieldy, is objec-



Online LibraryUnited States War DeptAnnual reports of the secretary of war, Volume 1, Part 3 → online text (page 3 of 45)