':DUCA.TION FOR CITIZENSHIP
I;O\I;UN\IK.M I'RivriM; OFFICE
WASHINGTON, January 21, 1921.
The following study of Education for Citixenship has been prepared
for the War Department by Profs. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton and
E. W. Knight, of the University of North Carolina. Herein are
presented their conclusions based on close observation for several
months, concerning the principles and practices of Army education,
as now conducted under authority of section 27 of the National
Defense Act of June 3, 1916. as amended June 4. HV20. It is issued
to the service for the information of all concerned.
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
PEYTON C. MARCH,
Major General, CJi iff of Staff.
P. C. HARRIS,
The Adjutant GcmraL
I. Analysis of the general problem .,. 7
If. An experiment in training for fit izenship 11
III. Conclusion 17
IV. Selected bibliography 21
V. Appendix 24
During the war the Army was compelled to give general education
and technical training to more than a million and a quarter of the
drafted men before a fighting force of four million could be properly
organized. Because of the pressure of the emergency, results had
to be secured quickly. Therefore, direct, practical, and intensive
methods of instruction were employed and a simple and successful
technique of teaching was evolved as experience accumulated.
Many thousands of the leading civilian educators contributed to
this work both in the United States and in France. By their coopera-
tion with the military authorities there was built up in the Army a
combined military and civilian system of training which proved so
effective in developing soldiers that the Army has retained it and is
adapting it to peace-time conditions.
There is nothing now in the educational principles on which this
training system is based. They arc the principles which have been
enunciated by all the prophets of education from Socrates to the
present time. The technique of teaching is also merely that which
has always been used in effective instruction, though it differs in
several important ways from the current practices of schools.
Since education is to-day facing a serious emergency, it is of great
importance that civilian educators help in conserving the educational
methods which were developed in the military establishment during
the war. These methods then proved effective in releasing national
strength. They arc equally effective now, because they arc true to
the fundamental instincts of America when liberated from the bonds
of tradition and habit. This monograph suggests a practical program
to achieve this end in the field of education for citizenship.
EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP.
I. ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM.
For years \vc have confidently relied upon our traditions, our wealth,
our strength, as bulwarks of defense against national perils, and have
cherished so healthy an optimism concerning the stability and
growth of our civic ideals and practices that we have paid scant
attention to specific means of education for effective patriotism of
either native Americans or the foreign born. Of late, however,
there has been a growing conviction that, however superior we may
be, no country is rich enough or strong enough to rely upon un-
trained citizenship. Patriotism is good citizenship. The funda-
mental idea upon which it is based is that of service. Service to
be effective necessarily requires training; and the child or the man
can be trained in sound conceptions of citizenship, in capacities for
effective service, as well as in other things. It is equally true,
though not so well recognized, that an education which does not
also develop a disposition or desire to serve the community is funda-
mentally defective. Hence, if democracy is to fulfill the destiny
that has been claimed for it, it is imperative that every citizen
have proper education for citizenship.
Among American citizens there is a too common ignorance of
fundamental facts and principles upon wliich to base wholesome
conduct and sound economic, social, political, and intellectual atti-
ludes. Nor is ignorance alone found. Indifference, indolence in
civic matters, and a disposition to evade civic duties are responsible
for much of the prevalent ignorance and civic delinquency. More-
over, such weaknesses as these make it difficult for many who arc
not ignorant to function effectively.
A third obvious defect of American citizenship is lack of critical
capacity. The average citizen, lacking information, and too often
indifferent, bases his judgments in respect to public problems on
the judgments of others who are often no better qualified than
himself. There is need to develop the habit of individual analysis
and individual judgment based on sound knowledge and correct
Finally, a very general American charactistic is the lack of social
or civic consciousness. The average American citizen is highly
individualistic. Social consciousness, however, is aroused in time
of stress or public danger, when there is a temporary awakening
which usually lasts only so long as the duration of the crisis. In
8 EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP.
war he is ready without question to die for his country; in peace
he is inclined not to recognize the obligation, or even the need, to
live for it.
Few will deny the existence of these failures of citizenship. In
face of them, training for citizenship must be in part remedial. It
should furnish information, awaken interest, develop a critical
spirit, create social consciousness, and give to every citizen the
necessary equipment of qualities, of abilities, and of informational
knowledge to enable him to function creatively in his economic,
social, political, and intellectual environment.
But this is not all. It is not enough to cure the. existent ills.
Training must also be increasingly constructive if, in the future,
it is to serve as a preventive of the common evils of American citizen-
ship. It must do this by cultivating:
First. Civic capacities necessary to enable the individual to work
creatively in society and to contribute productively to the economic,
social, political, and intellectual life of his community.
Second. Civic intelligence, which includes the information and
knowledge which must be acquired in the process of developing his
civic capacities in order to make them effective in conduct.
Third. Civic attitudes and habits of mind and heart, which ex-
press themselves in a disposition to serve the community and the
nation for the best interests of all.
In short, training for citizenship should aim to make independent,
creative, interested, informed, and responsible citizens who have
developed the disposition to act justly and the ability to see clearly
and think straight. Such citizens, as individuals, will have definite
conceptions of themselves as a part of sovereignty, not only as voters
and in the formation of effective public opinion, but also as units of
that creative power which is the nation's strength. But the appeal
of such training must be full of promise -to the citizen. It must
show vision, aspiration, and humanity in its spirit. And above all,
it must be practical and efficient in its method and purpose.
The problem of achieving such training is positive, not negative.
It is one of attaining fundamental health, rather than of curing
superficial disease; of developing the state as a producer, rather than
as a policeman. It is not so much one of discovering how to do a
certain set of things, as it is one of finding out how to infuse the way
of doing all things with a certain ideal. In the past the traditional
conception of, training for citizenship connected it almost exclusively
with training for political duties. So-called "civic education" has
seemed to be either an indefinite thing with little that was practical
about it, even when its aims were comprehended, or else a definite
thing of narrow application which was so remote from the affairs
and interests of ordinary life as to be of little general appeal. The
.EDUCATION FOR CITIXKXSH1P. 9
chief emphasis has been laid upon rights rather than upon duties
and responsibilities. Little emphasis has been laid upon the rest of
the wide domain of economic, social, and intellectual relationships,
nil of them of fundamental importance in determining the disposition,
character, career, and value of the citizen.
In general we have held to the doctrine enunciate J by Washington:
"The education of our youth is the science of government; in a Re-
public what species of knowledge can be equally important?" This
may have been true in his day and even later, but to-day training for
citizenship really means training for the human relationships of life.
The citizenship of the polling booth is only one, though a very im-
portant part, of citizenship. In the last analysis a free government
lives with the daily life of its people. There is thus a citizenship of
the home, a citizenship of the school, a citizenship of business, a citi-
zenship of the community.
Nowhere, apparently, until the recent past was there to be seen
any evidence of any widespread conception of training for citizen-
ship in this sense. To-day there is a growing recognition that the
good citizens must be trained not only for his purely political rela-
tionships duties, responsibilities, and rights but must also be
trained for his other relationships as well, and in no less definite
fashion. The old type of civics, or citizenship course, no more accom-
plished the purpose of training than did numerous other branches of
the curriculum, very often not as much. Training for citizenship,
where it was actually accomplished in our schools and colleges, was
a by-product of education.
A study of such training reveals the absence of any specifications
of the requirements of citizenship. In the professions, in the crafts,
in practically every vocation of civilized mankind, there have been set
up specifications of the achievements required before members are
recognized as masters of their several vocations in many cases before
they can perform any of the tasks connected with them. A large part
of the organized educational system of the world has been definitely
designed to train for the achievement of the ends thus specified. Xo
such specifications have been established for citizenship which in a
democratic community is the vocation of all.
The time has come to do for citizenship what has been done already
for the professions and the crafts. This does not mean the setting
up of formal requirements to which conformity is legally required,
but it does mean a critical analysis and defining of the things involved
in good citizenship which may serve as a basis upon which to build
up an effective system of training for the performance of its duties
and the fulfilling of its various obligations as well as the enjoyment
of its rights.
30001 21 2
10 .EDUCATION YO'll CITIZENSHIP.
Although there arc no formulated specifications of the requirements
of good citizenship, nevertheless in the minds of men there is a cer-
tain consensus of opinion as to what in attitude and conduct consti-
tutes good citizenship. Certain individuals in every community are
accepted as good -citizens; certain actions are well-nigh universally
held to be evidences of good citizenship in those who do them; a good
citizen is almost alwa\'s certain of gaining recognition by his asso-
ciates for what he is. Standards of good citizenship, then, are scarcely
needed to assist in the recognition and classification of citizens: we
already possess a set of instinctive standards, not, however, explicitly
defined, by which we measure our associates in the community. It
is not classification, however, that is needed. The major problem is
how to train, not how to recognize good citizenship.
It is, of course, obvious that the problem involves certain very
different considerations from those involved in the case of the crafts,
in the training for which capacity to do is the factor of chief impor-
tance. In the citizen, capacities, or abilities, are only a part of the
whole. The test of the good mechanic is found in what he can do; a
good citizen, however, is measured as much by what he is as by what
he can do. Both the good citizen and the good mechanic must have
acquired certain knowledge and information as a guide to under-
standing and conduct; but it must not be forgotten that the training
of the effective citizen depends not only upon the acquisition of
knowledge but also upon the development of character and habits of
productive thought and action. Adequate and proper training,
therefore, must both develop in the learner the required disposition
and attitudes and lead him to acquire the necessaiy knowledge as
part of the process of that growth in productive capacity which is
essential to good American citizenship.
In a system of universal education which will achieve this result lies
the hope of American democracy. On the effectiveness of such a
system depends the solution of our economic, social, and political
problems, which will mean ultimately a vast enhancement of national
strength and a larger achievement of liberty. In no other way can
the productive energy of America, upon which the whole structure of
our civilization rests, be so fully released and guided into channels of
From the foregoing it appears that the solution of the problem of
training citizens requires, first, an analysis and definitions of the pro-
ductive capacities, the knowledge, and the personal attitudes essential
to citizenship; and second, the development of a technique of teach-
ing that guarantees the acquisition of the necessary knowledge and
fosters the growth of the desired attitudes ns part of the process of
developing creative men.
EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP. 11
The remainder of this report presents definite suggestions as to
how the requirements of the prohlein may be met practically. These
suggestions are not drawn from thin air by a process of theoretical
analysis of the nature of man. They are the result of a careful study
of all that has been done in recent years by the schools, the industries,
and the United States Army and Navy in their practical efforts to
train and classify young men as productive citizeAs and intrepid
soldiers. No finality is claimed either for the suggested specifications
of the essential elements of citizenship or for the technique of training
described. They are submitted as working hypotheses, which define
the problem concretely and which may serve as a basis for further
experiment and gradual growth.
II. AN EXPERIMENT IN EDUCATION FOB CITIZENSHIP.
In the direction of education for citizenship along the lines above
indicated, many experiments full of educational promise are being
made in schools, in industries, and in the Army and Navy. One of
the experiments which has thus far achieved the greatest success is
that in progress in the Army under the direction of the Education and
Recreation Branch' of the War Plans Division of the General Staff.
The story of the development of the system now in operation, and a
description of the methods employed, are important in this inquiry.
The conception that general and vocational education as well as
military training are essential elements in the training of an Army was
formed long before the war. It was formally expressed in section 27 <
of the National Defense Act of June 3, 1916, which states: ''In addi-
tion to military training, soldiers while in the active service shall
hereafter be given the opportunity to study and receive instruction
upon educational lines of such character as to increase their military
efficiency and enable them to return to civil life better equipped for
industrial, commercial, and general business occupations."
The wisdom of this provision was amply demonstrated by the war
experience. While little difficulty was encountered in finding enough
well-educated and technically trained men to officer and equip an
Army of 500,000 men, troubles multiplied in geometric ratio as the
size of the Army increased. In its efforts to cope with this unpre-
cedented situation, the War Department was compelled, before it
could organize the authorized military forces, to give an enormous
amount of intensive general education and vocational training, in
addition to its regular military training. Schools were established at
Army camps. Development battalions were organized. And when
these agencies proved inadequate, the colleges and technical schools
were drafted in the service.
In addition, the national welfare societies were called in and, sup-
ported by liberal gifts from a united people, did priceless work in
12 EDUCATION FOll CITIZENSHIP.
supplying clean and healthy recreation, and in ministering to the
moral and spiritual life of the soldiers. When the armistice was
signed, it was education and recreation which supplied the means of
maintaining the morale of the Army in the painful period of waiting
for the boat home;'
Because education, recreation, and moral training were thus found
to be indispensable elements in mobilizing an efficient fighting Army,
they have now been incorporated with military training into the regu-
lar training program of the Army. A definite organization has been
set up for conducting the work, and Congress is supporting it with
annually increasing appropriations. During the past year it has
proved to be the most effective means of maintaining the enlisted
strength of the Army both in quantity and in quality. More than CO
per cent of the new recruits enter the service because of the opportu-
nities now offered for personal development and growth.
During the war the Army had a very definite single objective for all
its varied training activities, namely, to develop the best possible
soldiers in the least possible time. Under the impelling pressure of
the situation there was quickly evolved a training system which is
a combination of military training and education, and which differs
in many important respects from that now generally practiced in
civilian schools. The essential difference between the two, so far as
educational methods are concerned, can best be made clear by a
concrete case, taken for simplicity and vividness, from the field of
The old setting-up exercises wore designed to develop fine physique.
To this end the men were required to execute repeatedly the same
motions all together. By this physical drill they acquired strong
muscles and physical endurance, which enabled them to stand ordinary
wear and tear well. But when confronted suddenly by unusual
conditions, they were unable to cope with them. Physical strength
alone did not make them masters of the situation. Hence the time
devoted to setting-up exercises was materially reduced and quickening
games were introduced to supplement the exercises. The effort in
the quickening game is to confront the men suddenly with an unex-
pected situation requiring prompt and vigorous action in a definite
direction. Success in meeting the situation quickly brings high scores
and failure brings mild punishment.
Everyone recognizes that the superiority of the quickening games
over the setting-up exercises lies in the fact that games appeal to the
sporting instinct and keep the man's attention on what he is doing,
while the. exercises can be done mechanically while the mind goes
woolgathering. ThG games, therefore, not only develop physical
strength, but also attention, quickness, reason, good coordination,
and many other valuable attitudes and abilities. They thus exercise
EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP. 13
both mind and body simultaneously and build up, not U^scle alo'ao,
but the entire man. Hence, they are valuable adjuncts to , v lrc military
training. of soldiers.
The same principle was applied by the Army to technical training
and to general education during the war. The old ; manual training
was designed to develop manipulative skill. To thistend, the mechanic
arts were analyzed into types of skill, like filing, clipping, drilling,
turning; and each student was put through a series of exercises
designed to develop these generalized skills one by one. Such train-
ing undoubtedly does, increase skill; but it contributes little to the
development of. that prime requisite of a soldier, ability to make a
quick estimate of a new situation and to determine promptly what
action is needed to insure a favorable result.
In order to overcome this defect, the several technical occupations
required in the Army were analyzed into the specific operations a
soldier would be required to perform. Training, then, consists in
giving the man a series of real jobs, each of which involves several
fundamental operations of the trade. He is.required to analyze the
job, to make a bill of materials needed, and to plan how he will pro-
ceed to complete it. Army manuals and other reference books supply
the standard information concerning the manipulative processes
involved. Progress is individual in that each soldier advances as
rapidly as he demonstrates proficiency by doing his job well and by
answering numerous questions concerning the methods and means
The jobs given involve, as far as practicable, productive work that
must be done to improve living conditions at the camp. Exploitation
of the men by assigning them to repair work that has for them no
educational value is, however, strictly prohibited. Necessary repeti-
tion and drill are secured by so selecting the jobs assigned that each
operation requiring practice is met a number of times in various
combinations during the course. No fixed list of jobs is prescribed,
but each teacher must make up his own list to fit his local conditions
This type of vocational training undoubtedly has high value as
citizenship training. Not only does it train the soldier for a gainful
occupation by which he can earn his living, but it offers him an
opportunity for creative work, it impresses upon him an attitude
toward productive work and a pride in achievement, and if tends
to develop appreciation of an orderly and well done job. Attention
is also paid to the artistic side of the job with the idea of fostering
the desire for clean and attractive surroundings and for good living
conditions. Combined with military training, which inculcates self-
discipline and sense of service, its results are very striking.
The physical and vocational training methods just described are
based on the same educational principles. Each begins by confront-
14 EDUCATION POR. CITIZKNSHIP.
ing tlif student with a situation which appeals to some one of his
fundamental instincts his creative instinct, his sporting instinct, his
instinct for self-preservation, his instinct for cooperation. When
some instinct has been thus aroused, the student himself applies his
energy to achieve the immediate desired end. It is then the function
of the teacher to direct this discharge of energy into channels which
will result in successful achievement. As this process is repeated,
the channels in which the energy discharges gradually become more
marked, and habits are formed which ultimately develop the man
into a competent workman. The measurement of progress by
achievement is an added incentive to good work, since the man
knows that his advancement depends upon the success of his own
individual efforts, and is not limited by weakness or failure of his
less gifted classmates.
These principles and this technique have been applied in the Army
not only to the vocational training, but also to general education.
It is this fact which is of peculiar interest to the colleges in considering
courses designed to train for better citizenship and which justifies
the present discussion. The courses now used in the Army have been
developed on the basis of the experience with the War Issues Course
during the war.
The present Army course in general education consists of a series
of discussions of vital problems. These problems are selected to
appeal to one or more of the soldier's fundamental instincts, and
each one depicts a specific situation which calls for action directed
toward improvement. The discussion consists of an analysis of the
situation both from the point of view of the facts and experiences
involved, and also from the point of view of its moral import. Infor-