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Instruction for heavy artillery online

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two other pieces laid perpendicularly to it, and under

the holes made to receive the points.

58G. The gin is lying on the ground, its outside
downwards, the feet towards the ditch, and the head
raised on a block placed under the right leg.

The implements are placed two yards from the head
of the gin, the handspikes laid parallel to the braces.

587. The instructor commands:

Equip the gin.

The chief of detachment moves five paces from the

head of t he gin, and places himself in the prolongation
of its axis, when he marks a point for a stake at four
paces to the right, and another at four paces to the
left of his position. Xo. ;"» places a stake at the first,
ami Xo. (5 one at the second point. Nos. 7 ami 8 take
each a maul, and assist Xos. 5 ami (> to drive these
stakes, giving them considerable inclination from the
gin ; they then drive two others, inclined as the first,
two paces beyond them, in the direction the guys will
take when the gin is raised. (In practice, these dis-
tances cannot he observed ; hut the guys should be
given as nearly this inclination as possible, and advan-
tage taken of any permanent objects to attach them to.)

Xo. !i, directed by the chief of detachment, places
himself in prolongation of the axis of the gin, facing
towards it , and about fifteen paces from the fool of the
wall, and there places a stake; assisted by Xo. 10, lie
drives this stake, inclining it from the gin, and then
drives a second stake, inclined as the first, two paces
beyond it.

The chief of detachment and Xos. 1 ami 2 reeve the

fall, &c, a- prescribed in No. 551 ; attach the Bingle

prolonges to the collar, and pass their ends to Xos. 5

and 6, Who streteh them in the direction 01 their

20



218 MECHANICAL MAMKIVHKs. [PART I!.

stakes ; attach the doable prolonge to the opposite Bide
of flif collar; pass the end | into the ditch I to Nos. 9
Mud 10, and tnen place the collar on the head of the
gin bo as to allow each guy t<> take its proper direction.

Raise the gin.

588. The chief of detachment and Nbs. 1. 2, 3, 4. 7
ami 8, raise the gin — Nob. 5 ami 6 Blacking op their

gnjS, and Nos. !> and ]<» assisting by hauling <»n tin'

counter guy — ami place it aboul two paces from tin'
Crest. NOS. 5 and li lake each a turn of his guy
around the firsl stakes, and slack or tighten it as

directed by the chief of <let aeliment .

The gin being raised until its head is slightly inclined
towards the ditch, the guys are fastened to the second
stakes by a double hitch, and tin 1 counter guy is

attached to its stakes in a similar manner.

Si, I Mi THE PIECE.

580. Nos. '.» and H> pass the trunnion-sling over the
trunnions. No - . 1 and '1 overhaul tin fall, and lower

t he pulley into t he ditch. Nos. !l ami 111 pass the hook

<>f t lie pulley through the bighl of the sling, and attach
a single prolonge to the sling to serve as a guy to
guide or steady the gun while being raised.

Raise the piece.

This is done as prescribed in No. 503.

590. To tighten the knots "/"/ stretch the ropes, the
instructor will cause the weight t<> he partly raised

and then lowered ; and, without altering the ropes, he
will have the feet of the van moved forward to within

twenty-five inches of the crest of the parapet or edge

of the wall.

501. 'Idle inclination of the gin, measured from the

middle of the line joining the feet to a perpendicular



ART. IV.] WITH THE GIN AS SHEARS. 210

let fall from its head, should not exceed twenty-five
inches; the heavier the weight the greater the neces-
sity for not allowing this inclination to be exceeded.

592. When the gin is placed in its new position,
work the windlass and raise the piece; Nos. 5 and <>
observing their stakes and giving notice if any thing
becomes deranged. After the weight hears fairly upon

the stakes, Nos. 5 and 6 may be employed in other
duties if required.

593. When the trunnions are abont one foot above

the crest, the instructor commands :

Halt — Bring in the piece.

The men cease heaving at the windlass, and secure
it by letting the upper handspikes hear on the legs.

The chief of detachment mounts on the second
brace; receives from No. 4 a single pulley, which he
hooks to the third brace near the left leg, the point of
the hook turned from the ditch; doubles (with tho
casemate or garrison gin) the end of a rope, which he
attaches by a timber hitch to the left leg (when the
muzzle is turned towards the left, and vice versa) as
high up as he can conveniently reach while standing
on the second hrace. and passes the hook of the single
pulley through the bight ; and receives from No. 2 the
end Of a tall, which he passes through the pulley.
No. 4 overhauls the end ot the fall towards the ditch,
and attaches it to the neck of the piece by a timber

hitch on the top of the gun.

The muzzle is supposed to be towards the left leg ; if
it is reversed, the duties here prescribed tor the even
numbers will then he performed by the odd numbers.

The chief of detachment descends and takes a hand-
spike. No. :! attaches a lashing-rope to the knob of
tic cascable by a double hitch, and passes the end
under the windlass, hctween the legs. N«»s. o and -4
haul on this rope.



220 MECHANICAL \l \.\n:i VHK.s. [PART II.

Nos. 1 and .! and the chief of detachment, with their
handspikes, and Nos. '■'• and 1 at the rope, pass the
piece between the legs in a direction perpendicular to
the windlass, assisted in this, it necessary, bj N

f>, 7 an 1 1 8 j in which case the Black of the fall, held by
7 ami v . musl be made fast. Nos. 5 and 6 lay
planka mi each Bide of tin- piece, al a suitable distance
i" receive rollers. :'h>' chief of detachment places a
roller near the base-ring, and chocks it on both sides.
i and - haul on the tall attached to the neck, and
raise the muzzle a little higher than the breech, keep-
ing it tight, and then take three turns with it around
the windlass, and hold on to the slack.

Lower the piece — Base away.

594. Nos. 7 and 8 ease the ■-lack of their fall until
the chase is lower than the breech, and the weight is
transferred to the fall attached to the neck.

II ALT.

595. Nob. 3 and I unhook the pulley at the trun-
nions, and hang it on the second brace. Nos. 5 and 6
steady the piece with the rope al the cascable. Nos.

7 and 8 remove the fall from the windlass, and then
hold on by the slack of the fall, now held by Nos. 1
and 2.

Raise the ?i e< i ,

596. The chief of detachment unchoeks the roller

wii h a handspike.

'The windlass is worked, ami the chief of detach-
ment, as soon as he can. places a second roller in front,
of the trunnions, and the piece is rolled back on the
level on which the ffin stands.



ART. IV.] WITH THE (UN AS SHEARS. 221

To lower a piece over the crest of a parapet #r edge of a
wall into the ditch.

597. The piece is passed under the windlass of the
gin on the rollers, the muzzle towards the ditch, and
is pushed forward until the trunnions are nearly over
the crest, when the gin is equipped, and the piece
slung, as prescribed in No. 589.

598. The windlass is worked, and when the trun-
nions are about a foot above the crest, the instructor
commands :

Halt — Pass the piece.

The men cease heaving, and leave the handspikes in
the upper mortices bearing against the legs. The
chief of detachment takes a handspike. No. 3 attaches
a rope to the knob of the cascable, passes it under the
windlass between the legs, and carries it to the right
of the gin. Nos. 3 and 4 haul on tins rope. The chief
of detachment and Nos. 1 and 2 with their handspikes,
and Nos. :! and 4 at the rope, assisted, if necessary, by
the spare men, pass the piece between the legs and
place it parallel to the windlass, the breech to the
right. No. •'! unties the rope from the cascable; fastens
a prolonge to the trunnion-sling; and throws the end
to the men in tin- ditch.

Lower the tiece — Ease away.

599. Nos. 7 and 8 slack off the fall slowly, and the
piece is allowed to descend into the ditch.

To raise a pica ami pass it through a casematr embra-
sure or a hi/ similar opening.

'Idie additional implements necessary are:

4 Handspikes. I i ,, .

, ., I n the casemate.

2 Rollers. |

1 Gl N SLINO. (Or a piece of fall, about three times
the length of the sun.) In the ditch.



222 MECHANICAL M\N<ll\l:i>. [PART 11.

B< sides the usual detachment for working the gin,
four additional men are required, who, with the chief
of detachment, are stationed :n the embrasure i<> re-
ceive the gun.

601. The piece is in the ditch, the breech t" the

Willi.

The gin is equipped as before, on the edge of the
parapet, over the embrasure through which the piece
i- i" pass.

602. The nun in Hi' 1 ditch attach each end <>t' the
Bling i" the neck by a timber hitch, the bight of
which, laid <>n top of the -iin. should reach nearly
to the vent; the nook of the pulley, attached to the

tall of the -in. 18 passed into this bighl ; the middle of

a prolonge is made fast t<> the cascable by a double
hitch, ana the ends passed over the sling beyond the
hoot of the pulley ; these ends aiv then passed under
the reinforce, brought up on top, drawn tight, ami
tied in a right knot.

Several turns are taken around the piece and over
the si i i in- with a lashing-line a little in rear of the I run-
nions, and ih' 1 ends fastened on top with a right knot,
i These knots may be made with a how, or a tool ha mile

may he inserted in them, SO thai they can Ik' easily
a nl led. i A prolonge is fastened around the trunnions

to perve as a guy to steady the piece while raising it.
i he gin is worked as previously prescribed, and the
piece raised breech foremost .

603. When tin' trunnions are as high as the sole ol
the embrazure, the instructor commands:

Halt — BRING in THE PIECE.
The chief of detachment places a roller on the sole

to receive the hreech of the piece, chocks il towards

the ditch, and then unties the knot of the prolonge

which is around the hreech. The assist ant s haul <ui
the end of (his rope.



ART. IV.] WITH THE GIN AS SHEARS. 223

R USE THE PIECE.

604. The gin is worked and the piece raised; the
assistants allowing the prolonge to slip out gradually.
When the prolonge no longer bears on the sling, the
chief <»!' detachmenl uncrosses its ends and returns
them to the assistants, who, pulling on them, draw the
piece in on the roller.

The chief of detachment then unties t*he lashing-
rope. The assistants receive and hold on the ends,
allowing them to slip out gradually, while the gin is
worked and the piece raised and drawn in. The chief
of detachment places a second roller under the piece.
The assistants haul on the lashing-rope, and the piece
is brought into the emhra/.ure.

To pass a piece through >i casemate embrazure or any
similar opening, ami lower it into the ditch.

For the additional implements and men required see
No. 600.

605. The chief of detachment fastens to the knob of
the cascable the middle of a prolonge, intended to hind
the sling to the piece as prescribed in No. (i<>2 ; attaches
the sling 1<> the neck of the piece as prescribed in No.
602, the bight reaching a little in rear of the trunnions,
so as to allow the muzzle to preponderate; and attaches
to the cascable another rope which is used to steady
the piece when running it out of the emhra/.ure.

Tlu' carriage is run from battery and chocked firmly
in its position. The assistants take a turn with each
end ot the prolonge attached to the cascable, around
the rollers, or the naves of the wheels, or around a

post, or an\ other suitable fixture.

'I'he piece is moved forward on rollers by handspikes,
until the trunnions are near the edge of the embra-
zure; the hook of the pulley from the gin is then
passed into the bight of the Bling, which is lashed to
the piece as prescribed in No. 602.



224 KEOHANIOAL MANOEUVRES. [PART 11.

Tin- piece being Bteadiod with the rope at the oasca-
ble, is pushed forward until the trunnions are over the
edge ox the embrasure and the muzzle inclines down-
wards.

R \ I- I I'll I. PIEOB.

606. The gin is worked until the weighl boars on
the fall, when t)i«' instructor commands :



II \I.T.

The assistants remove their rope from the cascable,
fasten it around the trunnions, and throw the end to

the men in the ditch.

LnwK.it tiik piece— Ease a way.
<»i>7. The piece is allowed to descend gradually into

the ditch, where the men place two blocks to receive

it. one under t ho muzzle, the other under the breech.



ART. IV.] THE SLING CART. 225



THE SLING CAET.



Plates XXXVII and XXXVIII.



608. The sling cart is used for moving pieces of
artillery short distances. It is a lever on wheels, and
may be used simply as such.

There are two kinds: one for the heaviest calibres,
which, being limbered with a siege limber, may be
drawn by horses; and the other, called the hand sling
cart, designed for moving siege pieces in the trenches.

609. The siege limber may also, in case of necessity,
be used as a sling cart.

610. The detachment, including the chief of detach-
ment, is composed of five men, except for slinging
the LO-inch columbiad, which requires five men addi-
tional.



21



226 MKi'II ANH'AI. MANfEUVRKS. [PART II.



MAN0E1 VBE8 WITH Tin: BLING CART.



I.: 380N X L.

To sling a Siege Gun, Howitzer, or M<>it ir.
To lower a Siege Gun, Howitzer or Mortar to t/t>- ground.
To sling a Sea-coast Howitzer or Columbiad.
To sling <i IQ-inch Columbiad.
To sling a Siege Mortar, mounted on its bed.
To sling a Sea-coast Mortar.

To transport a siege piece short distances by a limber.
To raise a piece upon one or more blocks !>;/ <i limber.
To sling n piece on two limbers, so that if may be trans-
ported with horses.



Gil. The implements necessary are:

2 Blocks.

•1 Wheel chucks.

1 Sling-chain. Of 3G links, with a short hook at

each end.
1 Two AND ONE-HALF IM'H ROPE. 45 feet long.

1 Sling-chain. Additional, for a siege mortar

mounted on its bed.

To sling a Siege Gun, Howitzer, or Mortar.

G12. The insl rnctotr commands :

Back the cab p cr\ eb the piece.

Nos 1 and 2 go to the end of the pole. Nos. '■"> and
4, and the chief of detachment apply themselves at
the wheels. The cart is then backed over the piece,

the pole being in the direction of the breech, and the



ART. IV.] WITH TIIK SLING CART. 227

axle directly over the trunnions. Nos. 3 and 4 chock

the wheels.

Si, i no the PIECE.

613. No. I fastens the middle of the prolonge to the

end of the ]>ole. Nos. 3 and 4 carry one end of the
prolonge to the rear of the cart Nos. 1 and 2 raise
the pole by hand. Nos. •> and 4 at the name time apply-
ing themselves at the prolonge.

When the pole thus raised is nearly vertical, Nos. 1
and 2 seize the other end of the prolonge, to steady
the pole. The chief of detachment lays the middle of
the slino'-ehain over the piece in rear of the trunnions,
carries each end around the trunnions from the rear to
the front, and hooks 1 hem around the axle hooks, being
careful to take up all the slack. Nos. 1 and li, assisted,
if necessary, by Nos. :; and 4, haul upon the prolonge
until the end ot the pole can he reached by hand, when
they seize ami hear it to the "round. The chief of
detachment hooks the caseable chain around the knob
of the caseable in such a manner that the piece will
swing level when the pole is horizontal. Nos. 1 and
'2 raise the pole until it rests on the pole-prop.

The piece is thus raised about eight inches from the
ground.

dl 1. For transportation, it should ordinarily be
raised higher; which can readily he done by blocking
up thi' piece, and raising it again in the manner above
prescribed.

To lower a Siege Gun, Howitzer, or Mortar, to the
ground.

615. The piece is lowered to the ground by the same

means. I mi in an inverse manner to that just prescribed.
Nos. 1 and 2 bear the end of the pole to the -round.
The chief of detachment unhooks the cascahle chain.
Nos. 1 and 2 allow the pole to rise gently until it is
nearly vertical. If the piece does not then rest upon



228 MECHANICAL MANdi vkks. [PART II.

the ground, it is blocked up and unslung; when, by
repeating the manoeuvre, it maybe lowered to the
ground.

Aiii'i' the piece lias been anslung, Nos. :; and 4 ease
the pole down carefully by mean'- of i lif prolonge until
Nos. 1 and 2 can reach il with their hands; the Latter
then assist them in easing it down.

To iling a Sea-coast Howitzer or Columbiad.
To sling a 10-inch Columbiad.

Executed as prescribed for a siege piece in No. <il_'
aud following.

To sling a Siege Mortar, mounted on its bed.

The instructor gives the Bame commands, and the
duties are performed by the same cumbers, as pre-
scribed for a siege piece in No. 01.! and following.

616. The sling cart is hacked over the mortar; the
pole being in the direction of the breech, and the axle
directly over the trunnions.

If the bed is resting on the -.-round, it may be slung
by tii'si raising the pole nearly vertical, passing the
sling-chain around the front manoeuvring holts, hook-
ing it oyer the axle hooks, and hauling upon the pro-
longe.

It is then blocked up, and the sling taken off the
holts and passed under the bed just in front of the
cap-square holts; this brings the sling a little in front
of the centre of gravity oi the mortal' and bed.

The pole being now horizontal, Nos. 1 and 'I bear
down upon it until the end rests upon the ground.
Nos. 3 and 4 remove the blocks. The chief of detach-
ment passes the other sling-chain around the rear
manoeuvring holts and over the pole, and t hen hook - it
iii such a manner thai the bed will be level when Nos.
1 and -J raise the pole until it rests on the pole-prop.

The bed is thus raised about eight inches from the
ground.



ART. IV.] WITH THE SLING CART. 229

If necessary it may be blocked up, and raised higher
by a similar manoeuvre.

017. The breech should always slightly preponderate
in order to prevent the pole from flying up.

To sling a Sea-coast Mortar.

618. Sea-coast mortars and their beds must be slung
separately.

619. The mortar is raised by passing the sling-chain
through the clevis, over the axle, and hooking it around
the pole at its junction with the axle, the pole having
been previously raised for this purpose.

The bed is raised and slung in a similar manner 1o
that already prescribed for the siege mortar on its bed.

To transport a siege piece short distances by a limber.

620. The piece is raised upon two blocks, one under
the breech, the other under the muzzle, when a chain
is passed around the piece just in front of the reinforce,
or about six inches in front of the trunnions.

The limber, its pole being- in the direction of the
breech, is run over the piece until the pintle is over
the chain, when the pole is slightly raised, and the
chain passed over the pintle and fastened. The pole
is borne to the ground, the front block removed, and
a rope fastened over the pole and around the knob of
the cascable. The pole i< then raised, and the rear
block removed.

621. If the (bain is passed around the piece any
nearer to the trunnions than prescribed, the pole will
have too great a tendency to fly up.

To raise a pirn- upon one or more blocks by a limber.

<>.!-!. The trunnion-loops, or an ordinary chain, is
passed over the knob of the cascable and over the pin-



230 MECHANICAL MANiKl VliK.s. [PART II.

tie, and made fast while the pole ia raised. The piece
i> then raised by bearing down the pole.

I'll':;. The \\ heela should doI !"• chocked, as they will
soon find their proper bearing.

To sling <> piece <m two limbers so thai it may be trans-
ported with horses.

y\l\. Tin 1 pole of one of the limbers is removed : a
block is placed under the trunnions; and the Limber
run forward with its fork over tin- piece, the pintle
over the knob of the cascable.

The muzzle is raised and the front block removed.
The muzzle is home down ami the pintle fastened to
the knob of the cascable with the chain or Lashing-
rope. The fork is home down to the piece and lashed
to it around i he reinforce.

The other limber is hacked over the neck of the
piece; when the pole is raised and the neck attached
to the limber by taking two turns with a prolong
around the pintle, and two turns over the fork in

fronl of the azletree, so thai the weighl will balance

the pole; the end of the prolonge being fastened with
a jamming hitch. The piece is then raised by bearing
down the pole.



ART. IV.] THE CASEMATE TRUCK. 231



THE CASEMATE TRUCK



Plate XXXV Til.



625. This machine is intended for moving sea-coast

pieces and their carriages in the galleries of casemate
batteries.

G26. The detachment is composed of the same num-
ber of men, and told off in the same manner, as pre-
scribed in No. 23S.



•Jul' MECHANICAL MAMKiVKKs. [PAET EI.



MAXCEUVRK S WITH T II K < \-l MATS Till I K



Le880N X DI.

To place a casemate chassis on the truck.

To lower the chassis to the ground.

To remove the chassis from the casemate.

To plur,' ,i gun carriage on tin truck.

To lower the gun carriage to the ground.

To shift tin gun carriage from the truck to its chassis.

To shift the gun carriage from its chassis to the truck.



627. The implements necessary are:

1 Long roller.

2 Blocks.

2 Half blocks.
\ Bricoles.

To place a cast mate chassis on the truck.

G28. The chassis is on the ground; the truck near
it with its front wheel and tongue removed.

629. Two handspikes are passed across and under
the front pari of the tongue of the chassis. Eighl
men, two at each end of each handspike, raise the end
of the dia>sis. Xos. it and LO and the chief of detach-
ment run the truck under the chassis near the men,

and turn it so thai its axis may be in t he same vert ical

plane with thai of the chassis, the end of the truck



ART. IV.] WITH THE CASEMATE TRUCK. 233

from which the wheel has boon removed being on the
ground towards the rear of the chassis.

630. The men at the handspikes lift, and the track
is run to the rear, until the centre of the wheels are
four and one-half to five feet from the centre of the
roar transom, and the chassis is balanced on the truck.
Nos. 1 and 2 support and direct the front of the chas-
sis, and the gunner and Nos. '.* and 10 its rear. Nos.
3, 4, 7 and S take bricoles and hook into the rings.
Nos. 5 and 6 carry a handspike on each side opposite
to the wheels, to work at the bolts when it is neces-
sary to overcome any obstacle.

All move the chassis to its embrazure, the tongue
near the tongue hole.

To lower the chassis to the ground.

631. Two blocks are placed lengthwise under each
rail, and a halt' block crosswise on the top of them,
near the middle of the chassis, and near the truck-.
The rear of the chassis is raised. Nos. 1 and 2 bear
down on the front of the tongue. The gunner and
Nos. S and 9 take out the truck, and lower the chassis
on the blocks.

632. The men move to the front of the chassis and
raise it. Nos. !> and 10 remove the blocks. The gun-
ner places a long roller under the front transom. If
the pavement is uneven, the long roller should be
placed on two boards.

(i:!:'>. The men move to the rear of the chassis. Nos.
1 and 2 embar with their handspikes under the rear
transom, to raise the rear traverse wheels from the
pavement. All push the chassis forward. The gun-
ner sees thai the tongue goes fairly into its opening.

684. If the roller runs out before the chassis is
placed, the gunner calls the handspike men to the



234 MECHANICAL MAN<EUVRK8. [part II.

1'roni transom, raises it. and replaces the roller. When
the traverse wheels are on their circle, he puts in the
pintle.

To r emove the chassis from the casern ite.

<'>:;.">. The pintle is taken ont. With two handspikes
passed under the front transom, the fronl of the chas-
sis is raised, and the long roller placed under the rails.
Tlir rear of the chassis is raised; the tongue run onf
of the tongne hole; and the chassis placed upon the
truck as prescribed in No. <"»l ,( .> and following.

Remark.

636. To prevent injury to the pavement, planks
should be Laid under the wheels of the truck-.

To place a gun carriage on the truck.

637. The gun carriage is on the ground, standing on
the bead of its cheeks; the truck near it with its iron t


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