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Manual for noncommissioned officers and privates of cavalry of the Army of the United States. 1917. To be also used by engineer companies (mounted) for cavalry instruction and training online

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Online LibraryUnited States. War DeptManual for noncommissioned officers and privates of cavalry of the Army of the United States. 1917. To be also used by engineer companies (mounted) for cavalry instruction and training → online text (page 23 of 30)
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the countersign, patrol, etc.)," the sentinel will say, "Advance
one with the countersign"; then "Advance, relief (friends,
patrol, etc.)."

192. If a person having the countersign approach alone, he
is advanced to give the countersign. Thus if the answer be
"Friend with the couYitersign (or officer of the day, or etc.),"
the sentinel will say, "Advance, friend (or officer of the day,
or etc.) with the countersign"; then "Advance, friend (or
officer of the day, or etc.)."

193. If two or more persons approach a sentinel's post from
different directions at the same time, all such persons are
challenged in turn and required to halt and to remain halted
until advanced.

The senior is first advanced, in accordance with the fore-
going rules.



280 MANUAL FOE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

194. If a party is already advanced and in communication
witli a sentinel, the latter will challenge any other party that
may approach ; if the party challenged be senior to the one
already on his post, the sentinel will advance the new party
at once. The senior may allow him to advance any or all of
the other parties ; otherwise the sentinel will not advance any
of them until the senior leaves him. He will then advance
the senior only'of the remaining parties, and so on.

185. The foih)wing order of rank will govern a sentinel in
advancing different persons or parties approaching his post:
Commanding officers, officer of the day, officer of the guard,
officers, patrols, reliefs, noncommissioned officers of the guard
in order of rank, friends.

196. A sentinel will never allow himself to be surprised, nor
permit two parties to advance upon him at the same time.

197. If no countersign be used, the rules for challenging are
the same. The rules for advancing parties are modified only
as follows : Instead of saying "Advance (so-and-so) with the
countersign," the sentinel will say "Advance (so-and-so) to
be recognized." Upon recognition he will say, "Advance (so-
and-so.)"

198. Answers to a sentinel's challenge intended to confuse or
mislead him are prohibited, but the use of such an answer as
" Friends with the countersign," is not to be understood as
misleading, but as the usual answer made by officers, patrols,
etc., when the purpose of their visit makes it desirable that
their official capacity should not be announced.

SPECIAL ORDERS FOR SENTINELS AT THE POST OF THE GUARD.

199. Sentinels posted at the guard will be required to mem-
orize the following:

Between reveille and retreat to turn out the guard for all
persons designated by the commanding officer, for all colors or
standards net cased, and in time of war for all armed parties
approaching my post, except troops at drill and reliefs and
detachments of the guard.

At night, after challenging any person or party, to advance
no one but call the corporal of the guard, repeating the answer
to the challenge.



MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS, 281

200. After receiving an answer to his challenge, the sentinel
calls, "Corporal of the guard (so-and-so)," repeating the an-
swer to the challenge.

He does not in such cases repeat the number of his post.

201. He r(-niains in the position assumed in challenging until
the corporal has recognized or advanced the person or party
challenged, when he resumes walking his post, or, if the per-
son or party be entitled thereto, he salutes and, as soon as the
salute has been acknowledged, resumes walking his post.

202. The sentinel at the post of the guard will be notified by
direction of the commanding officer of the presence in camp or
garrison of per.sons entitled to the compliment. (Par. 224.)

203. The following examples illustrate the manner in which
the sentinel at the post of the guard will turn out the guard
upon the approach of persons or parties entitled to the compli-
ment (Pars. 224, 227, and 228), "Turn out the guard, com-
manding officer"; "Turn out the guard, governor of a Terri-
tory"; "Turn out the guard, national colors"; "Turn out
the guard, armed party"; etc.

At the approach of the new guard at guard mounting the
sentinel will call, " Turn out the guard, armed party."

204. Should the person named by the sentinel not desire the
guard formed, he will salute, whereupon the sentinel will call
" Never mind the guard."

205. After having called " Turn out the guard," the sentinel
will never call " Never mind the guard," on the approach of an
armed party.

206. Though the guard be already formed he will not fail to
call, " Turn out the guard," as required in his special orders,
except that the guard will not be turned out for any person
while his senior is at or coming to the post of the guard.

207. The sentinels at the post of the guard will warn the
commander of the approach of any armed body and of the
presence in the vicinity of all suspicious or disorderly per-
sons.

208. In case of fire or disorder in sight or ?>5aring, the sen-
tinel at the guardhouse will call the corporal of the guard and
report the facts to him.



282 MANUAL FOF. HONCOMMISSIONEB OFFICERS.
Section 11. Conntersig'ns and Paroles.

209. ficventy-seventU article of a-ar. — Any por,<^on subject to
railit;iry law who makes known the parole or countersign to
any person not entitled to receive it according to the rules
and discipline of war, or gives a parole or countersign differ-
ent from that which he received, shall, if the offense be com-
mitted in time of war, suffer death or such other imnishment
as a court-martial may direct. (See Par. 171.)

210. The countersign is a word given daily from the prin-
cipal headquarters of a command to aid guards and sentinels
in identifying persons who may ])e authorized to pass at
night.

It is given to such persons as may be .authorized to pass
and repass sentinels' posts during the night, and to officers,
noncommissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard.

211. The parole is a word used as a check on the counter-
sign in order to obtain more accurate identification of persons.
It is imparted only to those who are entitled to inspect guards
and to commanders of guards.

The parole or countersign, or both, are sent sealed in the
form of an order to those entitled to them.

212. When the commander of the guard demands the parole,
he will advance and receive it as the corporal receives the
countersign. (See Par. 133.)

213. As the communications containing the parole and coun-
tersign must at times be distributed by many orderlies, the
parole intrusted to many officers, and the countersign and
parole to many officers and sentinels, and as both the counter-
sign and parole must, for large commands, be prepared several
days in advance, there is always danger of their being lost or
becoming known to persons "who would make improper use of
them ; moreover, a sentinel is too apt to take it for granted
that any person who gives the right countersign is what he
represents himself to be; hence for outpost duty there is
greater security in omitting the use of the countersign and
parole, or in using them with great caution. The chief reli-
ance should be upon personal recognition or identification of
all persons claiming authority to pass.

Persons whose sole means of identification is the counter-
sign, or concerning whose authority to pass there is a reason-



MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 235

able doubt, should not be allowed to pass without the author-
ity of the corporal of the guard after proper investigation ; the
corporal will take to his next superior any person about whom
he is not competent to decide.

214. The countersign is usually the name of a battle ; the
parole, that of a general or other distinguished person.

215. When they can not be communicated daily, a series of
words for some days in advance may be sent to posts or de-
tachments that are to use the same parole or countersign as
the main body.

216. If the countersign be lost, or if a member of the guard
deserts with it, the commander on the spot will substitute an-
other for it and report the case at once to headquarters.

217. In addition to the countersign, use may be made of pre-
concerted signals, such as striking the rifle with the hand or
striking the hands together a certain number of times as
agreed upon. Such signals may be used only by guards that
occupy exposed points.

They are used before the countersign is given and must not
be communicated to anyone not entitled to know the counter-
sign. Their use is intended to prevent the surprise of a
sentinel.

In the daytime signals such as raising a cap or a handker-
chief in a prearranged manner may be used by sentinels to
communicate with the guard or with each other.
Section 12. Guard Patrols,

218. A guard patrol consists of one or more men detailed for
the performance of some special service connected with guard
duty.

219. If the patrol be required to go beyond the chain of
sentinels, the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge will
be furnished with the countersign and the outposts and senti-
nels warned.

220. If challenged by a sentinel, the patrol is halted by its
commander, and the noncommissioned officer accompanying it
advances alone and gives the countersign.

Section 13, Watchmen.

221. Enlisted men may be detailed as watchmen or as over-
seers over prisoners, and as such will receive their orders and
perform their duties as the commanding officer may direct.



2*i4 MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

Section 14. Compliments from Guards.

222. The compliment from a guard consists in the guard
turning out and presenting arms. (See Par. 50.) No compli-
ments will be paid between retreat and reveille except as pro-
vided in paragraphs 361 and 362, nor will any person other
than those named in paragraph 224 receive the compliment.

223. Though a guard does not turn out between retreat and
reveille as a matter of compliment, it may be turned out for
inspection at any time by a person entitled to inspect it.

224. Between reveille and retreat, the following persons are
entitled to the compliment : The President ; sovereign or chief
magistrate of a foreign country and memliers of a royal fam-
ily ; Vice President ; President and President pro tempore of
the Senate; American and foreign ambassadors; members of
the Cabinet; Chief .Justice; Speaker of the House of Repre-
sentatives ; committees of Congress officially visiting a mili-
tary post ; governors within their respective States and Terri-
tories ; governors general ; Assistant Secretary of War offi-
cially visiting a military post ; all general officers of the
Army; general officers of foreign services visiting a post;
naval, marine, volunteer, and militia officers in the service
of the United States and holding the rank of general officer ;
American or foreign envoys or ministers ; ministers accredited
to the United States ; charges d'affaires accredited to the
United States ; consuls general accredited to the United
States ; commanding officer of the post or camp ; officer of
the day.

225. The relative rank between officers of the Army and
Navy is; as follows : General with admiral, lieutenant general
with vice admiral, major general with rear admiral, brigadier
general with commodore,^ colonel with captain, lieutenant
colonel with commander, major with lieutenant commander,
captain with lieutenant, first lieutenant with lieutenant
(junior grade), second lieutenant with ensign. (A. R. 12.)

1 The grade of commodore ceased to exist as a erade on the active
list of the Navy of the United States on Mar. 3, 1899. By section 7
of the act of Mar. 3, 1899, the nine .iunior rear admirals arc author-
ized to receive the pay and allowances of a hrigadier general of the
Army.



MANUAL FOE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 285

226. Sentinels will not be required to memorize paragraph
224, and, except in the cases of general officers of the Army,
the commanding officer and the officer of the day will be ad-
vised in each case of the presence in camp or garrison of per-
sons entitled to the compliment.

227. Guards will turn out and present arms when the na-
tional or regimental colors or standards, not cased, are car-
ried past by a guard or an armed party. This rule also ap-
plies when the party carrying the colors is at drill. If the
drill is conducted in the vicinity of the guardhouse, the guard
will be turned out when the colors first pass, and not there-
after.

228. In case the remains of a deceased officer or soldier are
carried past, the guard will turn out and present arms.

229. In time of war all guards will turn out under arms
when armed parties, except troops at drill and reliefs or de-
tachments of the guard, approach their post. ( See Par. 53. )

230. The commander of the guard will be notified of the
presence in camp or garrison of all persons entitled to the
compliment except general officers of the Army, the command-
ing officer, and the officer of the day. Members of the guard
will salute all persons entitled to the compliment and ail offi-
cers in the military or naval service of foreign powers, officers
of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, officers of volunteers,
and officers of militia when in uniform.

GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GUARD DUTY,

232. Eighty-fifth article of war. — * * * Any person sub-
ject to military law, except an officer, who is found drunk on
duty shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

233. All material instructions given to a member of the
guard by an officer having authority will be promptly com-
municated to the commander of the guard by the officer giv-
ing them.

234. Should the guard be formed, soldiers wili fall in ranks
under arms. At roll call each man, a^ his name or number
and relief are called, will answer " Here," and come to an
order arms.

235. Whenever the guard or a relief is dismissed, each mem-
ber not at once required for duty will place his rifle in the



286 MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

arm racks, if tliey be provided, .and will not remove it there-
from unless lie requires it in the performance of some duty.

236. Without permission from the commander of the j^uard,
members of the main guard, except orderlies, will not leave
the immediate vicinity of the guardhouse. Permission to
leave will not be granted except in cases of necessity.

237. Members of the main guard, except orderlies, will not
remove their accouterments or clothing without permission
from the commander of the guard. (Par. 66.)

Section 15. Prisoners.

238. Articles of war 69, 70, 71, 72, and 73 have special ref-
erence to the confinement of prisoners and should be care-
fully borne in mind.

239. The commander of the guard will place a civilian in
confinement on an order from higher authority only, unless
such civilian is arrested while in the act of committing some
crime within the limits of the military jurisdiction, in Avhich
case the commanding officer will be immediately notified.

240. Except as provided in the sixty-eighth article of war,
or when restraint is necessary, no soldier will be confined
without the order of an officer, who shall previously inquire
into his offense. (A. R. 930.)

241 . An officer ordering a soldier into confinement will send,
-;s soon as practicable, a written statement, signed by himself,
I-.; the commander of the guard, setting forth the name, com-
piiny, and regiment of such soldier, and a brief statement of
the alleged offense. It is a sufficient statement of the offense
to give the number and article of war under which the soldier
is charged.

242. A y)risoner, after his first day of confinement, and until
his .sentence has been duly promulgated, is considered as held
in coDfinoment by the commanding officer. After due promul-
gation oi his sentence, the prisoner is held in confinement by
authority of the officer who reviews the proceedings of the
court awarding sentence. The commander of the guard will
state in his report, in the proper place, the name of the officer
by whom the prisoner was originally confined.

243. Enlisted mxn against whom charges have been pre-
ferred will be designated as " awaiting trial " ; enlisted men



MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 287

who have been tried will, prior to tlie promulgation of the
result, be designated as " awaiting result of trial " ; enlisted
men serving sentences of confinement not involving dishonor-
able discharge will be designated as " garrison prisoners."
Persons sentenced to dismissal or dishonorable discharge and
to terms of confinement at military posts or elsewhere will be
designated as "general prisoners." (A. R. 928.)

244. The sentences of prisoners will be read to them ^ en
the order promulgating the same is received. The officer of
the guard, or the officer of the day if there be no officer of the
guard, will read them unless the commanding officer shall
direct otherwise.

245. When the date for the commencement of a term of con-
finement imposed by sentence of a court-martial is not ex-
pressly fixed by sentence, the term of confinement begins on
the date of the order promulgating it. The sentence is con-
tinuous until the term expires, except when the person sen-
tenced is absent without authority. (A. R. 969.)

246. When soldiers awaiting trial or the result of trial, or
undergoing sentence commit offenses for which they are tried,
the second sentence will be executed upon the expiration of
the first.

247. Prisoners awaiting trial by, or undergoing sentence of,
a general court-martial and those confined for serious offenses
will be kept apart, when practicable, from those confined by
sentence of an inferior court or for minor offenses. Enlisted
men in confinement for minor offenses, or awaiting trial or the
result of trial for the same, will ordinarily be sent to work
under charge of unarmed overseers instead of armed sentinels
and will be required to attend drills unless the commanding
officer shall direct otherwise.

248. Prisoners, other than general prisoners, will be fur-
nished with food from their respective companies or from the
organizations to which they may be temporarily attached.

The food of prisoners will, when practicable, be sent to their
places of confinement, but post commanders may arrange to
send the prisoners, under proper guard, to their messes for
meals.

When there is no special mess for general prisoners, they
will be attached for rations to companies.



288 MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

EKilisted men bringing meals for the prisoners will not be
allo'/ved to enter the prison room. (See Par. 289.)

2'i9. With the exception of those specially designated by the
commanding officer, no prisoners will be allowed to leave the
guardhouse unless under charge of a sentinel and passed by an
oflicer or noncommissioned officer of the guard. The com-
manding officer may authorize certain garrison prisoners and
paroled general prisoners to leave the guardhouse, not under
the charge of a sentinel, for the purpose of working outside
under such surveillance and restrictions as he may impose.

250. Prisoners reporting themselves sick at sick call, or at
the time designated by the commanding otRcer, will be sent to
the hospital under charge of proper guard, with a sick report
kept for the purpose. The recommendation of the surgeon
will be entered in the guard report.

251. The security of sick prisoners in the hospital devolves
upon the post surgeon, who will, if necessary, apply to the post
commander for a guard.

252. Prisoners will be paraded with the guard only when
directed by the commanding officer or the officer of the day.

253. A prisoner under charge of a sentinel will not salute an
officer.

254. All serviceable clothing which belongs to a prisoner,
and his blankets, will accompany him to the post designated
for his confinement, and will be fully itemized on the clothing
list sent to that post. The guard in charge of the prisoner
during transfer vv'ill be furnished with a duplicate of this list,
and will be held responsible for the delivery of all articles
itemized therein with the prisoner. At least one serviceable
^^oolen blanket will be sent with every such prisoner so trans-
ferred. (A. R. 939.)

255. AVhen mattresses are not supplied, each prisoner in the
guardhouse will be allowed a bed sack and ?>0 pounds of straw
per month for bedding. So far as practicable iron bunks will
be furnished to all prisoners in post guardhouses and prison
rooms. (A. R. 1084.)

If the number of prisoners, including general prisoners,
confined at a post justifies it, the commanding olRcer will
detail a commissioned officer as " officer in charge of prison-



MANUAL rOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 289

ers." At posts where the average number of prisoners con-
tinually in confinement is less than 12, the detail of an officer
in charge of prisoners will not be made.

Section 16. Guarding Prisoners.

299. The sentinel at the post of the guard has charge of the
prisoners except when they have been turned over to the pris-
oner guard or overseers. (P^^rs. 247 and 300 to 304.)

(a) He will allow none to escape.

(b) He will allow none to cross his post leaving the guard-
house except when passed hy an officer or noncommissioned
officer of the guard.

(c) He will allow no one to communicate with prisoners
without permission from proper authority.

(d) He will promptly report to the corporal of the guard any
suspicious noise made by the prisoners.

(e) He will be prepared to tell, whenever asked, how many
prisoners are in the guardhouse and how many are out at
work or elsewhere.

Whenever prisoners are brought to his post returning from
work or elsewhere, he will halt them and call the corporal of
the guard, notifying him of the number of prisoners returning.
Thus : " Corporal of the guard, (so many) prisoners."

He will not allow prisoners to pass into the guardhouse
until the corporal of the guard has responded to the call and
ordered him to do so.

300. Whenever, practicable, special guards will be detailed
for the particular duty of guarding working parties composed
of such prisoners as can not be placed under overseers. (Par.
247.)

301. The prisoner guard and overseers will be commanded
by the police officer ; if there be no police officer, then by the
officer of the day.

302. The provost sergeant is sergeant of the prisoner guard
and overseers, and as such receives orders frorh the com-
manding offxcer and the commander of the prisoner guard
only.

303. Details for prisoner guard are marched to the guard-
house and mounted by being inspected by the commander of

3G6°— 17 11



290 MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

the main guard, who determines whether all of the men are in
proper condition to perform tlieir duties and whether their
arms and equipments are in proper condition, and rejects any
men found unfit.

304. When prisoners have been turned over to the prisoner
guard or overseers, such guards or overseers are responsible
for them under their commander, and all responsibility and
control of the main guard ceases until they are returned to
the main guard. (Par. 306.)

305. If a prisoner attempts to escape, the sentinel will call
" Halt." If he fails to halt when the sentinel has once re-
peated his call, and if there be no other possible means of pre-
venting his escape, the sentinel will fire upon him.

The following will more fully explain the important duties
of a sentinel in this connection:

(Circular.) War Department,

Adjutant General's Office,
Washington, Novemher 1, 1S87.
By direction of the Secretary of War, the following is pub-
lished for the information of the Army:

United States Circuit Court, Eastern District of Michigan,
August 1, 1887.

the united states v. james claek.

The circuit court has jurisdiction of a homicide committed by one
soldier upon another within a military reservation of the United
States.

If a homicide be committed by a military guard without malice
and in the performance of his supposed duty as a soldier, such homi-
cide is excusable, unless it was manifestly beyond the scope of his
authority or was such that a man of ordinary sense and understand-
ing would know that it was illegal.

It seems that the sergeant of the guard has a right to shoot a
military convict if there be no other possible means of preventing his
escape.

The common-law distinction between felonies and misdemeanors
has no application to military offenses.

While the finding of a court of inquiry acquitting the prisoner of
all blame is not a legal bar to a prosecution, it is entitled to weight



Online LibraryUnited States. War DeptManual for noncommissioned officers and privates of cavalry of the Army of the United States. 1917. To be also used by engineer companies (mounted) for cavalry instruction and training → online text (page 23 of 30)