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kept pace with this eminent laborer in medical fields.

The author's prescribed treatment for chlorosis is interesting from the
widespread disposition in this country to elevate the eflScacy of organic at
the expense of inorganic preparations of iron ; the preference being given
by the author as well as by Stockman and Brunton to the inorganic, by the
author preferably in the form of Bland's pills. In pernicious anemia he
finds arsenic much more efficacious than iron, if indeed any thing could be
called useful in so hopeless a disease.

The author points out the impossibility of distinguishing certainly and
absolutely between Hodgkin's disease and certain scrofulous or tubercular
aflFections of the glands, and also indicates certain forms of the disease that
may recover, views somewhat consoling to those who, like the reviewer,
have had the experience of being thrown down in the diagnosis and prog-
nosis of such cases. One especially is remembered in which the classical
symptoms were present : abdominal gland enlargement, pyrexia, and all
the others, with duration for years, and which yet suppurated and discharged,
and is apparently recovered.

It is in myxedema that the author's studies give the largest hope in the
way of treatment, which is by means of thyroid extract. This he regards
as an almost certain specific in cases in earlier life, and where no degenera-


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482 The American Practitioner and News.

tion of the vessels has taken place, and as helpful even in those in which
it has occurred. Perhaps the reviewer is ultra skeptical in regard to the
success the author has had in the use of thyroid extract in other fields, but
so many eminent men have had to revise their conclusions, or have them
positively set aside by others, that the most thorough demonstration is
reasonably required in all cases. Dr. Bramwell may possibly be over-
sanguine, severely painstaking, and severely critical, as he undoubtedly is.
This work will add another stone to the monument the author is build-
ing to his own renown and to that of medical science in classic old Edin-
burgh. D. T. s.

A System of Medicine. By Many Writers. Edited by Thomas Ci^ifford Axlbutt,
M. A., M. D., LL. D., F. R. C. P., F. R. S., F. L. S-, F. S. A., Regius Professor of
Physic in the University of Cambridge; Fellow of Gonville and Caius College;
Honorable Fellow, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. Volume vi. 944 pp.
Price, $5.00. New York : The Macmillan Company. 1899.

The list of contributors to this volume embraces the names of Drs.
Thomas CliflFord Allbutt, Thomas Barlow. Fred E. Batten, Charles E.
Beevor, R. Brudenell Carter, H. H. Clutton, R. A. Fleming, Sir W. T.
Gairdner, G. A. Gibson, Henry Head, John Hopkins, Victor A. H. Horsley,
W. Bevan Lewis, Frederick Walker Mott, George Newton Pitt, Sir R.
Douglas Powell, Frederick T. Roberts, Humphrey Davy Rolleston, J. S.
Risien Russel, Seymour John Sharkey, C. S. Sherington, W. Aldren Turner,
Horace Turney, William H. Welch, and W. Hale White, names that in any
book would lend and not borrow distinction. This volume embraces a
continuation of diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of muscles, and
diseases of the nervous system.

In the article by Dr. Powell on angina pectoris and in that by Dr.
Welch on thrombosis a more complete account is given than we have seen
elsewhere of the pain and weakness due to the arrested blood supply of a
part, in this way connecting these diseases and probably others in the pro-
duction of pain. Embolism may produce pain in the same way as does also
the contraction of arterioles in Raynaud*s disease and in the kindred form
of erythromelalgia.

There is no subject touched upon in the volume that does not receive
the most discriminating attention. It well maintains the standard of the
system as beyond doubt the most thoroughly elevated in style and up to
date in character now to be had in the English language, if indeed it has
anywhere an equal. d. t. s.

The Philosophy of Memory and Other Essays. Consisting of articles on the Phi-
losophy of Emphasis, The Functions of the Fluid Wedge, The Birth of a Planet,
and The Laws of Riverflow. By D. T. Smith, M. D., Lecturer on Medical Juris-
prudence in the University of Louisville. 203 pp. Price, $1.25, net. Press of
John P. Morton & Co. 1S99.

This work deals with problems that have held a leading place in the
attention of a large number of the foremost philosophers and scientists of

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the last three centuries, and problems that for the most part have up to the
present remained confessedly unsolved.

The leading essay, " The Philosophy of Memory,*' is an eflFort to develop
the wave or vibration theory of mind. It treats of the nature of the
common force and its relation to the vital force ; the nature of the soul, its
possible origin, and its relation to vital manifestations; the nature of mind,
and conscious as well as subconscious mental activities ; of memory as the
result of persistent vibrations in the brain cells ; of the resemblance between
memory and external undulations, and of the process by which thoughts,
ideas, and emotions are evolved, guided, and preserved ; of mind-reading or
telepathy ; of grouping of vibrations as the source of the law of beauty and
truth in art and conduct ; and finally of the religious feeling as related to
ether undulations.

The second essay, *' The Philosophy of Emphasis," is a supplementary
essay closely related to "The Philosophy of Memory," and applies the
vibratory theory to the laws of vocal expression.

"The Functions of the Fluid Wedge; or, the Philosophy of Sphere-
forming," treats of a principle in physics discovered by the author, and
relates to the method by which fluids seek equilibrium. It assumes liquids
and fluids to consist of unlimited numbers of prisms or wedges moving upon
each other, substantially without friction, and acting as the exact counter-
part of a like number of solid wedges moving upon each other without
friction. Under this principle is explained how a flexible tube, as a sec-
tion of garden hose, straightens under the pressure of a contained liquid ;
why the soap bubble or the toy balloon becomes a sphere ; why the tea in
the spout has the same level as that in the teapot, and how bodies of water
can rock as in so-called seches.

The theory also explains the movements resulting in earthquakes and
volcanoes, and does away with the doctrine of the hydrostatic paradox.

** The Birth of a Planet " is a criticism of the nebular hypothesis of La
Place, which seeks to show that planets could not have originated as hitherto
taught by astronomers, but that they must have been cast off at a tangent
by the parent bodies, and must revolve in a larger circle than they moved
in while yet a part of the parent body. The possible collision of cometary
bodies with the nebulous rims of revolving globes is suggested as the
source of origin of their satellites.

The fifth and last essay has a peculiar interest as offering a most satis-
factory solution of the behavior of streams flowing in channels, a problem
whose solution has been sought by a large number of the most eminent
minds in modem times; such renowned names as Galileo, Newton, Pascal,
Thompson, and Tyndall having led in its investigation. This essay treats
first of the formation of the seas as inaugurating drainage to be developed
under the principles it presents.

Next follows a demonstration of the formation of a stream of water,
wherein it is shown that by the laws governing friction and motion every

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stream throughout its length is necessarily divided into two parallel halves,
revolving spirally toward each other at the surfaces.

Without this law* of the *' double-spiral/' as the author names it, it is
conclusively shown that there could be no channel formation, but that the
water would simply creep over the earth to the sea, presenting but a vast
expanse of marsh, or streamless wastes in which the maintenance of human
life would be impossible. Under this principle the author explains the
shape of channels and their limit as to depth and width, the fact that the
greatest speed of streams is at some distance beneath the free surface, the
fact that streams are highest at the middle, that delta rivers have many
mouths, and that the banks are highest at the margins of such streams.
The principle of the double-spiral is shown to apply to glaciers and
atmospheric movements as well as to liquids. The essay closes with a
suggestion of the utility of the principle in dealing with control of the Mis-
sissippi and other large rivers.

The book is full of interesting suggestions, and, though not large,
probably contains the report of a greater number of discoveries of impor-
tant scientific principles than any one volume in existence. r. b. g.

Ctbstracts anb Selections*

Cerebellar Abscess in Children. — At a meeting of the Philadelphia
Pediatric Society, June 14, 1899, Dr. L. J. Hammond read a paper entitled,
** Remarks on the Diagnosis of Cerebellar Abscess in Children," with a
record of five cases.

He said that pyemia of the encephalon occurs in children usually as
the result of suppurative inflammation of the cavities accessory to the
brain. The period, therefore, when it is most to be expected is from the
beginning of dentition through the time of special liability to the exanthe-
matous diseases. Traumatism is also a most frequent cause ; many times
when apparently trifling it may lead to deep-seated disease. The same
pathologic conditions cause usually cerebellar abscess in children, while in
adults the disease is generally in the cerebrum or extradural. This condi-
tion is probably explained by the fact that the outer table of the bone in
children is less dense, and this permits of an early rupture and spontaneous
evacuation of the pus from whatever infective source it may arise. There
seems at least to be no other explanation for the occurrence of abscess in
this portion of the encephalon ; in the five cases that had come under Dr.
Hammond's observation there had been during the same period three
cases of cerebral abscess in adults from the same infective source. It is
obvious, therefore, from the frequency of its occurrence and its great fatality
that a definite symptomatology should be recognized in order that early
operative intervention may be instituted. The symptoms that have been

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The American Practitioner and News. 485

so universally present are: discrepancy between the temperature and
pulse, the former being often subnormal, while the latter ranges 120 to
160; flexion of the extremities; dilatation of the pupils; uncontrollable
restlessness, with a half unconscious condition ; peculiar indisposition on
the part of the patient to obey requests made ; sugar in the urine ; slow
respirations ; swinging of arms and inclining head toward one side, and
absence of paralysis. The observation of these symptoms made it possible
to locate abscess in the cerebellum in four of the five cases that have come
under Dr. Hammond's observation. — Annals of Gynecology and Pediatry,

Hospital Facilities Nkar Manila. — A report on the hot springs at
I^os Banos, five hours' ride north of Manila, calls attention to the excellence
of the buildings, at that place, abandoned by the Spaniards. The baths
are in good repair, lacking only the few pipes and faucets removed by the
insurgents. The surrounding country rises rapidly from the shores of
I^ake Laguna de Bay to a height of 400 to 700 feet. The drainage is good,
and the place has the reputation of being always cool. A hot- water spring
is conducted by a natural conduit to near the former Spanish hospital,
whence it is conducted to the hospital itself. The temperature of the water
is so high that it furnishes steam vapor for the bath-house, and where it
empties into the lake the natives use it to scald their chickens. The
volume is about 10,000 gallons per diem. There are here four classes of
water from diflFerent springs, all medicated— one being sulphurous. An
excellent water-supply of clear, cold water is available for use in the hospital,
which is solidly constructed, having a galvanized iron roof and affording
ample accommodations for four hundred beds.

A communication from the commanding oflScer of the Convalescent
Hospital, Corrigedor Island, at the mouth of Manila Bay, recommends
that the large tent hospital, now on that island, be converted into a frame
hospital before the beginning of the rainy season. Corrigedor is much
cooler and more salubrious than Manila, and the Spaniards had lately
recommended that a *' camp of acclimatization," for troops arriving from
Spain, be established there. For the four months since the opening of the
hospital the average temperature has been 80° F., a. m. and p. m. observa-
tions being taken. The maximum temperature was 82° F. and the min-
imum 78° F., the constant breeze so tempering the heat as to render it
always comfortable. Excellent building sites of almost unlimited extent
are available, having an altitude of several hundred feet, a broad prospect,
and plenty of large trees to furnish shade and protection from the winds.
An excellent macadamized road leads to this hospital site. The surface
drainage is excellent. All refuse and excreta are collected twice daily and
thrown into the sea. A large stream furnishes an adequate supply of
excellent water, which suffices also for the laundry, baths, and irrigation of
the street and grounds. Corrigedor Island possesses the great advantage
of being entirely Government property. — Boston Medical and Surgical

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Vol. 27. JUNE IB, 1899. No. 12.

H. A. COTTBLL, M. D., Editor.

A Journal of Medicine and Sur8:ery, publialied on the first and fifteentli of each
month. Price, $a per year, postage paid.

This journal it devoted solely to the advancement of medical science and the promotion of the
interests of the whole profession. Essays, reports of cases, and correspondence upon subjects of pro*
fessional interest are solicited. The editor is not responsible for the \*iews of contributors.

Books for review, and all communications relating to the columns of the journal, should be
addressed to the Editor of The Ambrxcan pRAcnrioif br and Nbws, I^ouisville, Ky.

Subscriptions and advertisements received, specimen copies and bound volumes for sale by the
undersigned, to whom remittances may be sent by postal money order, bank check, or registered
letter. Address jqhN P. MORTON & COMPANY, Loalsvllle, Ky,


At the regular annual meeting of the Medical Association of
Georgia, in April, 1899, a resolution looking to the raising of the rank
of the Surgeon General of the Army from that of Brigadier to that of
Major General was framed, presented, and unanimously adopted.

The argument favoring the advancement turns upon the fact that
such rank is " more commensurate with the profound learning, varied
experience, and high order of administrative talent required in one
assuming the grave responsibilities of the position, to ensure the suc-
cessful discharge of the duties thereunto appertaining."

And further, that " members of our profession who are likely to be
called to the Surgeon General's ofl5ce must make a sacrifice in income
in excess of that to be derived from the position, though it be raised
to the rank of Major General with its pay and allowances ; and for the
dignity of our profession, as well as the sacrifice that must be made by
each incumbent, the Association was unanimous in the opinion that
the position should be made one of the most important in the army, as
it is second to none in the vast and varied responsibilities it imposes."

We here present the resolution with the hope that every influence
that can in any way be made to serve so worthy a purpose may be
marshalled in its favor.

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The American Practitioner and News. 487

The present incumbent stands at the head of the profession in
intellect, learning, and scientific eminence, and to ask for him higher
rank, and better pay, is but to ask what in justice is due to such a man :

Whereas, The position of the Surgeon General of the United States
Army involves great and grave responsibility, the direction of vast interest,
the highest order of professional skill and learning, and executive ability ;

Whereas, The number of officers and soldiers under the direction of
the Surgeon General in an army organized as is the army of the United
States is greater than the command of a division commander; be it

Resolved, By the Medical Association of Georgia, that it is the sense of
this body that the Surgeon General of the Army should have the rank, pay,
and allowances of a Major General.

Resolved, That the Medical Association of Georgia requests all the
Medical Societies of the United States to join in this appeal.

Resolved, By the Medical Association of Georgia, that copies of these
resolutions be transmitted to the President 'of the United States, the Hon-
orable Secretary of War, and our Senators and Representatives in Congress,
with the request that all co-operate in attaining the end sought; and
further, that copies be also sent to the American Medical Association, and
all other medical societies in the United States, with the request that they
join in this memorial to Congress, and urge prompt action upon this sub-
ject by our national legislative authorities.

Hotcs anb filucrics.

At the regular annual meeting of the Louisville Medico-Chirurgical
Society held at Seelbach's Hotel, Friday evening, June 2, 1899, the follow-
ing officers were elected for the ensuing year: Dr. William Cheatham,
President; Dr. Louis Frank, Vice-President, and Dr. Thomas L. Butler,

Santiago Since the Surrender. — The last number of Scribner's
Magazine contains an article by Gen. Leonard Wood, Military Governor of
Santiago, with the above title, which gives a most impressive, instructive,
and at the same time temperate and modest account of the condition of
Santiago at the time of the surrender, of the administrative and sanitary
work in that province since General Wood's appointment, and of the
present civil and hygienic condition of affairs — a condition which repre-
sents not merely an amelioration but a revolution, and a revolution which
has abolished civil and sanitary crimes not of a few months' or a few years'
but of several centuries' duration.

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488 The American Practitioner and News.

The results which have been accomplished are admirable and astonish-
ing; the account is conspicuous among magazine articles by the very
limited pictorial presentation of the writer and chief actor and the scarcity
of the pronoun of the first person. Those who wish to know more of the
doer, as well as of the deeds, are referred to an article in McClure for March
and one in the BuflFalo Medical Journal for April.

General Wood represents at its best the type of man of which our
country is going to need many in the administration of the islands for which
she has recently made herself responsible, the type of man represented by
the Lawrences in India, the type of man which this country does well to
honor and will do well to hold up to its youth for imitation. It has been
his mission to save life not to destroy it, to prevent disease not to encourage
it, to administer even-handed justice not to enrich, aggrandize, or avenge
himself. And what he has done he has done at the peril of his own life
and his own health — not in the heat of battle or during the excitement of a
brief period, but during the heat of prostrating fevers and over long weeks
and months of self-sustainment. — Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.

The Psychic Study Club. — The new Psychic Study Club held its
second meeting on May i8th. In opening it, the president, Henry Frank,
laid stress on the absolute impartiality and freedom from prejudice with
which it was proposed by the founders of the club that the examination of
psychic phenomena should be approached. Prof. John D. Quackenbos,
of Columbia University, spoke of recent developments in the study of
hypnotism, and detailed a number of experiments made by himself. W. E.
Robinson, who was formerly an associate of Hermann, the magician, made
an expose of -'^ spirit" slate writing, and showed by actual demonstration
how easily the results attained by professional mediums could be produced
by ordinary sleight of hand. — Ibid.

Acidity of the Mouth During Sleep. — The dentists tell us that an
acid condition of the fluids of the mouth plays an important part in the
etiology of dental caries ; also that the causes of that affection are particu-
larly active during the hours of sleep, when the saliva stagnates, so to
speak, instead of being subjected to the agitation and renewal incident to
the chewing and other movements that to some extent are almost continuous
except during sleep. However carefully we may cleanse the teeth and
rinse them with antiseptic solutions on going to bed, therefore, we are
guarding but temporarily against decay ; it gains on us while we are asleep.
Possibly those who suflFer with insomnia may snatch a crumb of comfort
from this reflection, but we fear there is in it no consolation for the mouth-
breathers, for the desiccation of the mouth which takes place in them
during sleep, while enough to give rise to considerable discomfort on their
waking, is quite insufficient to hamper pathogenic bacteria in their work of
destruction. — New York Medical Journal,

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Vol. XXVIII. Louisvili^e, Ky., July i, 1899. No. i.

Certainly it is excellent discipline for an author to leel that he mast say all he has to say in the
fewest possible words, or his reader is sure to skip them ; and in the plainest possible words» or his
reader will certainly misunderstand them. Generally, also, a downright fact may be told in a plain
way ; and we want downright facts at present more than any thing else.— Ruskin.

0rtginal Clrticles*




The utility of the blood-clot in the treatment of lacerated wounds
has always been recognized by surgeons, and a blood dressing, before
the advent of antiseptic surgerj-, was considered the best; and
the surgeon learned by experience that wounds under this dressing
gave less trouble, and if left undisturbed for a suflBcient length of time
frequently healed without suppuration. This was one of the first things
to open the eyes of surgeons to the fact, and to demonstrate to them,
that suppuration was not necessary to the healing process. On the
advent of antiseptic surgery, chemical sterilization, where extensive
injuries or operative wounds necessitated a great amount of oozing,
was considered an ideal dressing. For this purpose absorbent dress-
ings were used which had been rendered antiseptic or aseptic by
saturation with a chemical germicide, or sterilization, thus preventing
decomposition of the absorbed serum or blood, hastening exsiccation
and insuring the protective action of the dressing ; but when extensive
loss of substance, consequent upon injury or operative wounds, pre-
cluded approximation of the walls of the wound and rendered healing
by first intention impossible, suppuration with its evil consequences
was almost inevitable until Schede demonstrated a modification of
the above dressing, favoring the organization of the moist blood-clot,
which rendered it possible to fill up the defects, and by preserving it

* Read before the Kentucky State Medical Society at I^nisville, Ky., May 18, 1899.


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from exsiccation and putrefaction the wound heals without suppura-
tion, granulations consuming the blood-clot, and by the time the clot
disappears cicatrization is completed and the integrity of the part
maintained. To successfully apply this method it is necessary that
we have an antiseptic or aseptic wound and a well-formed blood-clot,
immediately o\er which, and projecting slightly beyond its edge, is
laid a suitably trimmed piece of fine rubber tissue, previously well

Online LibraryUniversidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Derecho yThe American practitioner → online text (page 55 of 109)