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V Catalog Illustrating the History

from a Collection in
University of Illinois at Urbana-Chai




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LIBRARY OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
AT URBANA-CHAMPAICN



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RARE BOOK ROOH



GEOLOGY EMERGING




BATAVORVAf,
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Frontispiece of Josias SIMLER, Vallesiae et Alpium descriptio, 1633



GEOLOGY EMERGING

A Catalog Illustrating the History of Geology (1500-1850)

from a Collection in the Library of the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign



By



Dederick C. Ward, Geology Librarian, University of Illinois at

Urbana-Champaign

Albert V. Carozzi, Professor of Geology, University of Illinois at

Urbana-Champaign



Robert B. Downs Publication Fund No. 8
University of Illinois Library

and
The Graduate School of Library and Information Science

Distributed by the Publication Office,

Graduate School of Library and Information Science

University of Illinois



1984



1984 BY THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



u,uc



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Library.

Geology emerging.

(Robert B. Downs Publication Fund; no. 8)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

1. Geology History Bibliography Catalogs.

I. Ward, Dederick C. II. Carozzi, Albert V. III. Title.
IV. Series: Robert B. Downs Publication Fund (Series);
no. 8.

Z6035.U55 1984 [QE11] 016.55'09 84-8556

ISBN 0-87845-071-8







THIS PUBLICATION HAS BEEN MADE POSSIBLE
THROUGH THE GENEROSITY OF

GEORGE W. and MILDRED K. WHITE

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF

THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY FRIENDS
AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN



Contents

Acknowledgments xv

Introduction to the Catalog 1

Introduction to the Collection 4

Organization of the Catalog 33

Catalog 35

Index.. .537



List of Illustrations

Frontispiece of Dezallier d'Argenville, 1775 cover artwork

Frontispiece of Simler, 1633 frontispiece

29. Agricola, 1558 facing page 36

33. Agricola, 1621 42

38. Aimo, 1599 48

41. Albertus Magnus, 1519 54

43. Aldrovandi, 1648 60

97. Baier, 1708 66

126. Bartholinus, 1670 72

183. Beringer, 1767 78

193. Bertrand, 1763 84

194. Bertrand, 1766 90
203. Besson, 1569 96
220. Biringucci, 1558 102
248. Bonini, 1663 108
251. Boodt, 1609 114
254. Boodt, 1644 120
281. Bourguet, 1729 126
369. Buckland, 1823 132
401. Burnet, 1699 138
414. Calzolari, 1622 144

456. Cesalpino, 1602 150

457. Cesi, 1636 156
478. Chastellux, 1786 160
491. Clave, 1635 164
550. Cronstedt, 1781 168
609. Dausque, 1677 172
628. Delanges, 1779 176
660. Dezallier d'Argenville, 1755 180
667. Dolce, 1617 184

678. Donati, 1758 188

679. Dondi dall'Orologio, 1787 192
711. Du Thoum, 1616 196

751. Entzelt, 1551 200

752. Ercker, 1580 204
759. Evans, 1755 208
773. Falloppio, 1569 212



779. Faujas de Saint-Fond, 1778 facing page 216

781. Faujas de Saint-Fond, 1784 220

861. Francois, 1665 224

906. Gesner, 1565 228

914. Gimma, 1730 232

979. Guglielmini, 1739 236

1020. HaUy, 1784 240

1041. Henckel, 1760 244

1047. Hennepin, 1698 248

1093. Hoeffel, 1734 252

1116. Hooke, 1667 256

1160. Mutton, 1785 260

1172. Imperato, Ferrante, 1672 264

1173. Imperato, Francisco, 1610 268
1235. Kalm, 1753-1761 272
1257. Kircher, 1665 276
1282. Knorr, 1755-1773 280
1284. Knorr, 1768-1778 284

1321. Lang, 1708 288

1322. Lang, 1709 292
1356. Lehmann, 1756 296
1358. Leibniz, 1749 300
1367. Leonardus, 1516 304
1382. Lhwyd, 1699 308
1449. Maclure, 1817 312
1495. Marbode, 1531 316
1504. Marsigli, 1725 320
1521. Maupertuis, 1738 324
1541. Mercati, 1719 328
1601. Monardes, 1577

1608. Moreira de Mendonca, 1758 336

1611. Moro, 1740 340

1717. Palissy, 1580 344

1718. Palissy, 1636 348
1726. Panarolo, 1656 352
1728. Papin, 1647 356
1755. Pettus, 1686 360
1804. Plot, 1686 364
1823. Quirini, 1676 368
1827. Ramazzini, 1691 372
1844. Ray, 1693 376
1935. Rumpf, 1711 380
1937. Rumpf, 1741 384



1954. Saussure, 1779-1796 facing page 388

1966. Scheuchzer, 1708 392

1973. Scheuchzer, 1726 396

1975. Scheuchzer, 1731-1735 400

1991. Schopf, 1787 404

1993. Schott, 1663 408

2005. Scilla, 1752 416

2009. Scopoli, 1772 422

2023. Sendel, 1742 428

2060. Simler, 1574 434

2086. Sorrentino, 1734 440

2105. Stella, 1517 446

2107. Stelluti, 1637 452

2108. Steno, 1667 458
2110. Steno, 1669 464
2112. Steno, 1671 470
2164. Theophrastus, 1613 476
2181. Tonti, 1687 482
2214. Vallemont, 1696 488

2216. Vallisnieri, 1728 494

2217. Vallisnieri, 1726 500
2241. Venegas, 1769-1770 506
2256. Volney, 1803 512
2301. Werner, 1784 518
2321. Whiston, 1696 524
Illustration from Scheuchzer, 1726 534
Frontispiece of Beringer, 1726 537



Acknowledgments



The idea of this catalog originated with Harriet E. Wallace, Professor
Emerita of Library Administration and Geology Librarian from 1962 to
1979. She identified and selected a major portion of the titles included
in this catalog. We are deeply indebted to her infinite patience in the
tedious task of bibliographic verification of authors, titles, and editions.

Marguerite Carozzi devoted countless hours to this project by
finding many titles to which there was no lead, by examining book
by book all the uncataloged entries, and by drawing attention to the
geological content of many works, particularly in foreign languages.
The final editing and typing of the introduction, indexing, and proof-
reading are among the other tasks she efficiently undertook on our
behalf. She deserves our deepest gratitude.

N. Frederick Nash, Rare Book Librarian, and the other members of
his staff: Mary S. Ceibert, Gene K. Rinkel, and Louise M. Fitton kindly
helped on numerous occasions to trace difficult bibliographic entries,
and guided us through the various collections. Their help has been
invaluable.

Rebecca Finney did a superb performance at standardizing and
typing most of the entries.

We would like to thank Norman B. Brown, Assistant Director for
Bibliographic Services, who has actively supported for numerous years
the growth of the history of geology collection and authorized the
purchase of many titles.

Joan M. Hood, Library Director of Development and Public Affairs
handled in the most gracious way the arrangements with the University
of Illinois Library Friends and the Donors which made the publication
of this book possible.

Special thanks are due to Diana L. Walter who supervised the transfer
of hundreds of rare books from the Geology Library to the Rare Book
Room which took place during the preparation of the catalog. Lois
Johannsen and Lore Raether from the Library Friends prepared the
books for transfer.



The help of the Research and Publication Committee of the Library
in the form of grants for typing and photocopying is gratefully
acknowledged.



May 1984 D. C. Ward

A. V. Carozzi



Introduction to the Catalog

Geology Emerging is the first catalog of the Library's rare book collection
in geology. Its publication concludes a three years' bibliographical
inquiry following three decades of book collecting. Our aim is to call
attention to the outstanding history of geology collection at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Very few catalogs on collections of books in early geoscience exist.
Some announcements of special collections in the history of geology
began as annotated catalogs to exhibits. For instance, in conjunction
with the 1971 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America
in Washington, D.C, the United States Geological Survey Library
prepared an exhibit on the landmark "Historic Books in Geology." In
1962, a catalog entitled "Early Geology in the Mississippi Valley"
described an exhibit of works selected by George W. White and
Barbara Slanker at the University of Illinois. These two catalogs,
however, only hint at the richness of historical material in the collec-
tions of both libraries.

Within the last decade, catalogs of two special collections of interest
to historians of geology were published. At Oklahoma, the DeGolyer-
inspired history of science collection, strong in geology, was the
subject of The Catalog of the History of Science Collections of the
University of Oklahoma Libraries (Mantell, 1976). In 1980, the Claremont
Colleges' Libraries published the Biblioteca De Re Metallica, the Herbert
Clark Hoover Collection of Mining and Metallurgy. This superb, anno-
tated work owes its existence to the efforts of a host of bibliographers,
librarians, and historians of science over a period of many years. The
Hoover work appears to be the first modern catalog of a book col-
lection restricted to the history of geoscience. Thus Geology Emerging
continues a very young tradition.

From the vast array of scientific, natural history, theological, agri-
cultural, and travel literature in which early geology appears, we chose
to include those works which identify with the emergence of geology
as a separate discipline. From the earliest books we selected works
with important geological descriptions and authors who applied sci-
entific reasoning to problems of earth history and to geological
phenomena.



2 Introduction to the Catalog

From naturalists, in particular of the eighteenth century, and some
later scientists who published on a wide range of subjects, we selected
only their works of geological significance. We included geological
travels, but other travel narratives only if they were sustained by a
reasonable amount of geological observation. We chose, for example,
to include Fremont's 1842 expedition to the Rocky Mountains, but
not the expeditions of Pike or Lewis and Clark.

Western geology began in Europe and from there spread to America.
Geology became a definable science in Europe at the end of the
eighteenth century, whereas in colonial America, geological obser-
vation was confined mainly to travel narratives. Therefore, for early
American geology we were more liberal in our criteria for selection.
The authors were fortunate to have consulted the bibliographical
notes of Dr. George W. White, Emeritus Professor of Geology at the
University of Illinois. His notes pointed to important geological ob-
servations in works of travel and natural history that otherwise might
have escaped our attention. Similarly, Carozzi's research leading to his
translations into English of early landmark books in geology helped
to identify European contributions.

Every book in the catalog was personally inspected by the authors
or our associates. Moreover, we checked the Library's holdings against
published bibliographies, reference lists, and works cited in the fol-
lowing books on the history of geology: Karl Alfred von Zittel,
Geschichte der Geologie und Pa/aonto/og/e, bis Ende des 19. jahrhunderts
(R. Oldenbourg, 1899); Archibald Geikie, The Founders of Geology
(Macmillan, 2nd ed., 1905); Charles Davidson, The Founders of Seis-
mology (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1927); Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth
and Development of the Geological Sciences (Dover, 1938); K. F. Mather
and S. L. Mason, A Source Book in Geology (McGraw-Hill, 1939); Asit
K. Biswas, History of Hydrology (Elsevier, 1970); and H. Faul and C. Faul,
It Began with a Stone A History of Geology from the Stone Age to
the Age of Plate Tectonics (Wiley, Interscience, 1983).

We chose 1850 as our limiting year because it represents the advent
of specialized fields in geology as well as the writing of textbooks
which in North America had just started while in Europe, Lyell's
Principles was in its eighth edition. We have included a geologist's
post-1850 works if his productive period preceded or averaged out
to 1850. Similarly, all editions of a work are shown, if the Library owns
them; in the case of popular texts, publication dates may reach well
into the second half of the nineteenth century. A few geologists whose
post-1850 works are not included appear as cross-references because
they have appended notes to works in the catalog.



Introduction to the Catalog 3

The catalog contains chiefly monographic works, defined as books,
separately-bound reports, and a small collection of individual geologic
maps. Articles disbound from journals, or reprinted as separates,
sometimes with changes from the original or signed as presentation
copies, are included if the Library has cataloged them as separates.
Their historical value varies greatly, in particular if they belonged to
the first half of the nineteenth century.

We chose, however, to include a small, select group of journal
articles, in particular from the Academic Royale des Sciences at Paris
and the Royal Society of London, because these articles mark the first
introduction of fundamental concepts which may or may not have
appeared later in book form. The catalog, augmented in this way, thus
becomes more indicative of the true strength of our holdings in the
landmark works of early geology.

With the exception of landmark papers, we made no attempt to
include early serial literature. Bibliographies have been published
which classify and index this literature. Some modern examples are
John Challinor's The History of British Geology (David and Charles,
1971), Robert and Margaret Hazen's American Geological Literature,
1669-1850 (Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1980), and Harold Pestana's
Bibliography of Congressional Geology (Hafner, 1972). The University
of Illinois Library's holdings in early scientific serials is substantial,
dating from v.1 in most cases; this catalog, therefore, can be considered
complementary to and not duplicating existing bibliographies in the
history of geology.

The illustrations and the index mark the two special features in the
catalog. The illustrations are reproductions of title pages, thus de-
parting from illustrative matter in existing histories of geology which
generally consists of the reproduction of frontispieces or plates within
a work, much of it repetitive from book to book. The authors felt
that readers might like to see the title pages of some of the early
books in geology as expressions of graphic art, printers' emblems,
other artistic concerns, and as indicative of the intellectual climate of
the times. We designed an index in depth so that statistics could be
developed for any one aspect of the collection. The index is subject-
geographical on the first and second levels; the third level is reserved
for the names of authors.



Introduction to the Collection



The collection originates from geological publications which were at
first part of the Library of the land-grant Illinois Industrial Institute,
predecessor of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, geology
being considered a science basic to the state's agricultural and mineral
industry. The collection grew over the years and in the early 1950's,
the Library, under the encouragement of Dr. George W. White, then
Head of the Department of Geology, gave special attention to the
purchase of books important to the history of geology. White's
numerous visits to book dealers in North America and Europe for
almost 30 years, and his extensive correspondence with them were
instrumental in the acquisition of many of the titles.

The evaluation of this collection can be done in at least two ways.
One is to leaf through the index which combines specific topics with
individual authors and allows one to appreciate, at a glance, the size
of the coverage as well as the quality of the collection. A second
more historical way is addressed to those readers who are interested
in reading a synopsis of the history of the major fields in geology
between 1500 and 1850. This history is based on the holdings of the
collection we felt were of great importance; the enumeration of titles,
we hope, will provide a fascinating flavor. Since this kind of approach
might be linked to a so-called "tunnel vision" where the interpretations
of naturalists of the past are studied and sometimes compared with
modern concepts, we would like to explain why we have chosen this
approach.

We believe that the history of geology is nothing more than a
succession of different interpretations of the same phenomena and
facts. In that respect it differs from the history of biology, for instance,
where living things cannot be studied unchanged over hundreds of
years. Since rocks undergo only minor modifications due to weath-
ering, we can, therefore, imagine the Earth as a set of unchanging
outcrops which are visited in turn by naturalists from various countries
over many centuries, say from Avicenna through de Maillet, Werner,
Mutton, Lyell, Suess, and finally modern geologists.

What has taken place during this succession of studies has usually



Introduction to the Collection 5

occurred as follows. A given naturalist made a set of observations,
reached some conclusions, criticized or refuted some of his prede-
cessors, and generalized his deductions into a synthesis that could be,
for instance, a theory of the earth. Our first task as historian of geology
is to understand the man and his work in the context of his time,
namely his training, his regionalism, his potential of observation, his
preconceived ideas, his social and religious constraints. As an example
of preconceived ideas we might mention de Saussure who in 1779,
after a careful description of erratic boulders on glaciers high up in
Alpine valleys, and those found in front of the Alps, on the Swiss
plateau, and the slopes of the Jura Mountains, could not realize that
the presence of all these boulders pointed to a former greater extent
of Alpine glaciers. In the context of his time, we must accept the fact
that he was probably under the influence of the Wernerian concept
of a universal ocean when he stated that huge floods, during their
final drainage into cracks of the earth's crust, would be the best
mechanism to explain the presence of huge boulders in the plains.

If we now examine a second naturalist, who several decades later
observed the same set of data with improved techniques of observation
and increased general knowledge, we will find his conclusions probably
more encompassing and his theory accounting for more facts than
before. It is quite possible that at this stage he has "solved" certain
geological problems in the sense that until today all subsequently
collected evidence has confirmed his theory. This happened, for
instance, for the hydrological cycle demonstrated by Perrault in 1674,
or the volcanic origin of basalt proposed by Desmarest in 1771; no
scientist would deny their interpretations today. Although our ap-
proach could be interpreted as a history of winners, it is undeniable
that scientific knowledge has progressed in an irreversible manner by
the application of sets of more sophisticated techniques, leading to
new theories, to scientific revolutions if you wish, or toward an ultimate
truth never to be reached.

Returning to our naturalists, let us assume that we have analyzed
each individual contribution in its context and understand the major
factors which led to their concepts or theories. We then realize that
these contributions have all been influenced by previous thoughts, as
in the case of de Saussure, and have led, by positive or negative
reactions, to new interpretations. Hence we are inevitably led into a
comparative history of geology in time, that is, into an analysis of how
concepts have evolved, have dominated geology for a while, and were
modified or rejected by subsequent ideas. This evolutionary process,
irreversible and discontinuous, brings us inevitably to the present
which is just another step. It associates physics and chemistry with



6 Introduction to the Collection

geology, adds subsurface data not available to our predecessors, and
is dominated by the theory of plate tectonics.

We feel that it is only in the light of modern geology that earlier
interpretations can be adequately understood today. Of course it
would be inappropriate to emit on the basis of modern science a
judgment on past observations or theories as being "right" or "wrong."
It would be anachronistic and of no historical value to state that
Werner was "wrong" when he thought that basalt was an aqueous
precipitate in the hot universal ocean. His interpretation was not
"wrong" by any means; it was the best he could reach within his
intellectual context. Two examples will show what we mean. Basalt
may appear interlayered as submarine lava flows between limestone,
sandstone, and shale beds; it may show some kind of internal layering,
even channeling related to flow processes; it may even display in
some cases phenocrysts of plagioclases with a size sorting due to
gravity settling in the melt. All these characteristics of liquid lava
simulate the action of water. No wonder Werner believed basalt to be
an aqueous precipitate. Similarly with porphyritic granites altering to
soil profiles, the so-called "regenerated granites" sometimes show a
crude stratification because the more resistant crystals which are
scattered among finer weathering products look like angular pebbles
dispersed among sand. No wonder that Maillet, for instance, inter-
preted granite as water-laid gravel and sand. Now we understand the
reasons for his interpretation. Such deceptive aspects of geology are
of utmost interest for finding the dilemma which hampered or the
reasons which dictated some early naturalists in their conclusions. In
other words, our approach tries to assess within the science what
naturalists saw and interpreted in the past.

Lapidaries and Museum Catalogs

We shall leave aside Aristotle, Lucretius, Seneca, and Pliny, that is,
what our classical heritage said about stones, with the exception of
THEOPHRASTUS, who wrote about 314 B.C. one of the earliest known
treatises on minerals and their uses. In our collection we have De
lapidibus liber . . . with Latin and Greek texts, compiled by Daniele
Furlano in 1605 and 1613, and De gemmis et lapidibus libri
duo . . . annotated by Joannes de LAET, 1647, translated into English
in 1774 and into French in 1754. Many names given by Theophrastus
to rocks and minerals have survived. Furthermore, unlike the medieval
lapidaries, Theophrastus did not necessarily believe in the superstitions
related to stones or their supernatural powers although he recorded
them. Medieval lapidaries, on the whole, only recorded these super-
stitions describing each mineral, stone, and gem in regard to its



Introduction to the Collection 7

medicinal, magical, or mythical character. Such treatises were written
by ALBERTUS MAGNUS and copied many years later as De mineralibus
libri quinque ... in 1519, and by MARBODE, while Bishop of Rennes
in the eleventh century, later printed as De lapidibus pretiosis Encheri-
dion . . . 1531. A later lapidary was written by LEONARDOS, Speculum
lapidum clarissimi artium et medicine ... in 1516, and was translated
into English as The mirror of stones ... in 1750. STELLA in Libonothani
interpraetamenti gemmarum . . . 1517, treated gems more scientifically
and showed little belief in their magical property.

The middle of the seventeenth century saw the publication of the
voluminous works by CESI, Mineralogia . . . 1636, and by ALDROVANDI,
Musaeum metallicum in libros ////, distributum . . . 1648, which attempted
to present the entire body of knowledge of the time on the mineral
kingdom (metals, earths, rocks, concretions, fossils, artifacts, etc.).
Although these works retain a certain concern about magic which
characterized the preceding lapidaries, their encyclopedic character
is well shown by the remarkable organization of their presentation
including definitions, origin, properties, location, uses, and historical
background.

The Renaissance witnessed a renewed interest in nature, and col-
lections of natural objects such as minerals, fossils, shells, feathers,
dried plants, stuffed animals, which had been gathered from many
parts of the world, were displayed in the houses of rich collectors.
These "cabinets" were shown to important visitors and were forerun-
ners of our modern museums. Some collectors wrote detailed illus-
trated accounts of the holdings or catalogs while others hired curators
to do so. These catalogs were distributed to the curious or scientifically
inclined persons and are fundamental today for the understanding of
"geological" endeavors during that particular period, endeavors which
continued to expand well into the eighteenth century. The earliest
catalogs were written by KENTMANN, Catalogus rerum fossilium in



Online LibraryUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. LibrarGeology emerging : a catalog illustrating the history of geology (1500-1850) from a collection in the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign → online text (page 1 of 40)