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A classical dictionary : containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors : with the value of coins, weights, and measures used among the Greeks and Romans : and a chr online

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Online LibraryUnknownA classical dictionary : containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors : with the value of coins, weights, and measures used among the Greeks and Romans : and a chr → online text (page 1 of 189)
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I



CLASSICAL DICTIONARY;

CONTAINING

A COPIOUS ACCOUNT

OF ALL THE PROPER NAMES

MENTIONED IN ANCIENT AUTHORS:

WITH

THE VALUE OF COINS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES,
USKD AMONG THE GREEKS AND ROMANS ;

AND

A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



Br J, LEMPRIERE, D.D.



THE TENTH EDITION, CORRECTED.



LONDON:
PRINTED FOR T. CADELL AND W. DAVIES,

IN THE STRAND.
1818.



IVintt.l b> A. Su-alian,
IVintcrs-Slrec-t, London



OF



r>



L54c
Sir THOMAS DYKE ACLAND, Bart.






AS A PUBLIC MAN,

INDEPENDENT, ENLIGHTENED,

THE FRIEND OF HIS COUNTRY AND OF HER TRUEST. INTERESTSj

AS A PRIVATE MAN,
AFFABLE, BENEVOLENT, CHARITABLE;

BY HIS NEIGHBOURS

ADMIRED AND BELOVED

AS AN EXEMPLARY PATTERN OF THE VIRTUES

WHICH DIGNIFY DOMESTIC LIFE,

THIS TENTH EDITION

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED
BY

THE AUTHOR.



EXETER,
OCTOBER 1818.



A5>



PREFACE.



¥N the following pages it has been the wish of the Author to give the
-■■ most accurate and satisfactory account of all the proper names which
occur in reading the Classics, and by a judicious collection of anec-
dotes and historical facts to draw a picture of ancient times, not less in-
structive than entertaining. Such a work, it is hoped, will not be deemed
an useless acquisition in the hands of the pubhc ; and while tlie student is
initiated in the knowledge of history and mythology, and familiarized
with the ancient situation and extent of kingdoms and cities that no longer
exist, the man of letters may, perhaps, find it not a contemptible com-
panion, from which he may receive information, and be made, a second
time, acquainted with many important particulars which time, or more
laborious occupations, may have erased from his memory. In the prose-
cution of his plan, the author has been obliged to tread in the steps of
many learned men, whose studies have been directed, and not without suc-
cess, to facilitate the attainment of classical knowledge, and of the ancient
languages. Their compositions have been to him a source of information,
and he tru»**j that their labors have now found new elucidation in his
own, and that, by a due consideration of every subject, he has been
enabled to imitate^ their excellences, without copying their faults. Many
compositions of the same nature have issued from the press, but they are
partial and unsatisfactory. The attempts to be concise, have rendered
the labors of one barren and uninatructive, while long and vmconnected
quotations of passages from Greek and Latin writers, disfigure the page
of the other, and render the whole insipid and disgusting. It cannot,
therefore, be a discouraging employment now, to endeavour to finish
what others have left imperfect, and with the conciseness of Stephens,
to add the diffuse researches of Lloyd, Hoffman, Collier, &c. After
paying due attention to the ancient poets and historians, from whom the
most authentic information can be received, the labors of more modern
authors have been consulted, and every composition distinguished for
the clearness and perspicuity of historical narration, or geographical
descriptions, has been carefully examined. Truly sensiole of what he
owes to modern Latin and English writers and commentators, the author
must not forget to make a public acknowledgen^ient of the assistance he
has likewise received from the labors of the French. In the Sifecles
Parens of l'Abb6 Sabatier de Castres, he has found all the information
which judicious criticism, and a perfect knowledge of heathen mytho-

A 3 logy,



vi PREFACE.

logy, could procure. The compositions of I'Abb^ Banier have also
been useful ; and in the Dictionnaire Historique, of a literary society,
printed at Caen, a treasure of ori^nnul anecdotes, and a candid selection
and arrangement of historical facts, have been discovered.

It was the orFginal design of the author of this Dictionary to give a
minute explanation of all the names of which Pliny and other ancient
geographers make mention ; but, upon a second consideration of the
subject, he was convinced that it would have increased his volume in
bulk, and not in value. The learned reader will be sensible of the pro-
priety of this remark, when he recollects, that the names of many places
mentioned by Pliny and Pausanias, occur no where else in ancient au-
thors ; and that to Knd the true situation of an insigniticant village men-
tioned by Strabo, no other writer but Strabo is to be consulted.

This Dictionary being undertaken more particularly for the use of
schools, it h'xs i)een thought proper to mark the quantity of the penultimate
of every word, and to assist the student who can receive no fixed and po-
sitive rules for pronunciation. In this the authority of S nethius has been
followed, Hi also Leedes's edition of Labbe's Catholic! Indices.

As every publication should be calculated to facilitate literature, and
to be serviceable to the advancement of the sciences, the author of this
Dictionary did not pre?uin3 to intrude himself upon the public, before
he was sensible that his hu n')le labors would be of some service to the
lovers of the ancient languages. The undertaking was for the use of
schools, therefore bethought none so capable of judging of its merit, and
of ascertaining its utility, as those who preside over the education of
youth. With this view, he took the liberty to communicate his inten-
tions to several gentlemen in tiiat line, not less distinguished for purity
of criticis.n, than for their classical abilities, and from them he received
a'l the encouragement wnich the de)«ire of contributing to the advance-
ment of learning can expect. To them, therefore, for their approba-
tion and friendly co;nmunications, he publicly returns his thanks, and
hopes that, now his labors are completed, his Dictionary may claim
from them that patronage, and that support, to which, in their opinion,
the specimen of the work seemed to be entitled. He has paid due at-
tention to their remarks, he has received with gratitude their judiciou*
observations, and ciinnot pass over in silence their obliging reconmenda-
tions, and particularly the friendly advice he has received from the Rev.
R. Valpy, master of Heading School.

For the account of the Roman laws, and for the festivals celebrated by
the ancient inhabitants of Cireecc and Italy, he is particularly indebted to
the useful collections of Archbishop Potter, of Godwyn, and Kennet. In
the tables of ancient coins, weights, and measures, which he has annexed
to th :• 'K)dy of the Dictionary, h-' has followed the learned calculations of
Dr. Aibuthnot. The quoted a ithorities have been carefully examined,
and iVeqacntly revised: and, it is hoped, the opinions of mythologist* will
appear without confusion, and be found divested of all obscurity.

Therefore,



PREFACE. vii

Therefore, with all the confidence which an earnest desire of being
useful can command, the author otters the following pages to the public,
conscious that they may contain inaccuracies and imperfections. A
Dictionary, the candid reader is well aware, cannot he made perfect all
at once ; it must still have its faults and omissions, however cautious and
vigilant the author may have been ; and in every page there may be
found, in the opinion of some, room for improvement and for addition.
Before the candid, therefore, and the impartial, he lays his publication,
and for whatever observations the friendly critic may make, he will shew
himself grateful, and take advantage of the remarks of every judicious
reader, should the favors and the indulgence of the public demand a
second edition.

PEMBROKE COLLEGE, OXFORD,
NOVEMBER 1788.



THE very favorable reception which the first edition of the Classical
Dictionary has met from the public, fully evinces the utility of the per-
formance. From the consciousness of this, the author has spared no
pains to render this second edition more deserving of the same liberal
patronage. The hints of friends, and the animadversions of critics, have
been carefully adopted, and almost every article has been corrected and
improved. Not only new names have been introduced, but the date of
events has been more exactly ascertained; and therefore, to such as com-
pare the two editions, the improvements will appear numerous and
important in every page.

In answer to those Gentlemen who have objected against the smallness
of the print, and have recommended a larger type, the author begs
leave to observe, that it has been found impracticable to remove the in-
convenience : so much matter could not have been well compressed in
one octavo : and it must be remembered, that the book is intended as a
volume of occasional reference, and, therefore, that it cannot long
fatigue the eye.

It will be found not an unnecessary addition, to have an account of the
best editions of each classic at the end of the respective character of the
authors. Dr. Harwood's plan has in general been attended to, but the
price has not been inserted, from its great fluctuation, which often depends
more upon the caprice of opinion thap upon real value.

The chronological table prefixed to the Dictionary will, it is hoped,
be acknowledged universally useful. It has been compiled with great
accuracy, and chiefly extracted from " The Chronology and History
of the World, by Dr. J. Blair, foho edition, 1754 ;" and from Arch-
bishop Usher's " Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti," printed at
Geneva, folio, 1724.

LONDON, JULY 1792.

A 4 THE



viU PREFACE.

THE improvements introduced into this third edition will be disco-
vered to be numerous and essential. The author would have recom-
mended his work to the same liberal patronage which the public have
already extended to the two preceding impressions, without apology,
did he not conceive that some answer is due to the preface of the Biblio-
theca Classica, published at Daventer, in Holland, in the year 1794'.
The anonymous editor, whose language proves his abiUties as a scholar,
after reflecting with unbecoming severity upon the first edition of this
work, has not only been guided by the same plan, he has not only
literally translated and adopted as his own, verbatim, almost every ar-
ticle, but he has followed the original so closely, as even faithfully to
copy some of the errors which the second edition, published in 179C,
corrected, and which, in a composition so voluminous and so complex,
it is not possible for the most minute attention to avoid. Such an
attack must, therefore, be deemed as illiberal as it is unfriendly ; but,
however, far from wishing to detract from the merit of judgment and
perseverance in the translator, the author considers himself indebted to
him for the elegance and the correctness of the language in which he
has made tlic Dictionary appear in a Latin dress, and consequently for
the reconmicndation which he has given to his labors among the learned
on the Continent.

fEBRUARY 1797.



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,

FROM

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD

xo

THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
IN THE WEST, AND IN THE EAST.



Before Christ.*

THE world created in the 710th year of the Julian period 4'004'

The deluge __ _ _ 2348

The tower of Babel built, and the confusion of languages 2247

Celestial observations are first made at Babylon — 2234

The kingdom of Egypt is supposed to have begun under Misraim, )
the son of Ham, and to have continued 1663 years, to the >- 2188
conquest of Cambyses — — — j

The kingdom of Sicyon established — — 2089

The kingdom of Assyria begins — — 2059

The birth of Abraham — — — 1996

The kingdom of Argos established under Inachus — 1856

Memnon, the Egyptian, said to invent letters, 15 years before the") -.Qac,

reign of Phoroneus — — 3

The deluge of Ogyges, by which Attica remained waste above 1 ^^ ,

,200 years, till the coming of Cecrops — j

Joseph sold into Egypt by his brethren — 1728

The chronology of the Arundelian Marbles begins about this!
time, fixing here the arrival of Cecrops in Attica, an epoch > 1582
which other writers have placed later by 26 years — j

* In the following table, I have confined myself to the more easy and convenient eras
of before, (B. C.) and after, (A. D.) Christ. For the sake of those, however, that do
not wish the exclusion of the Julian period, it is necessary to observe, that, as the first
year of the Christian era always falls on the 4714th of the Julian years, the number re-
quired either before or after Christ will easily be discovered by the application of the rules of
subtraction or addition. The era from the foundation of Rome (A. U. C.) will be found
with the same facility, by recollecting diat the city was built 753 years before Christ; and
the Olympiads can likewise be recurred to by the consideration, that the conquest of Co-
roebus (B. C. 776,) forms the first Olympiad, and that the Olympic games were celebrated
after the revolution of four years. ^

Moses



X CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

B.C.

Moses born — — — 1571

The kingdom of Athens begun under Cecrops, who came from"!

Egypt with a colony of Saites. This happened about 780 >■ 1556

years before the first Olympiad — — J

Scaraander migrates from Crete, and begins the kingdom of / .

Troy — — — 3

The deluge of Deucalion in Thcssaly — — 1503

The Panathenaea first celebrated at Athens — — 1495

Cadmus comes into Greece, and builds the citadel of Thebes li93
The first Olympic games celebrated in Elis by the Idaei Dactyli 1453
The five books of Moses written in the land of Moab, where he 7 , .-o

dies the following year, aged 110 ji "

Minos florishes in Crete, and iron is found by the Dactyli by thel ,^^

accidental burning of the woods of Ida, in Crete — j Uo

The Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus 1356

The Isthmian games first instituted by Sisyphus, king of Corinth 1326
The Argonautic expedition. The first Pythian games celebrated 1 .^pq

by Adrastus, king of Argos — — J

Gideon florishes in Israel — — 1245

The Theban war of the seven lieroes against Eteocles — 1225

Olympic games celebrated by Hercules — 1222

The rape of Helen bv Theseus, and, 15 years after, by Paris 1218

Troy taken, after a siege of 10 years. /Eneas sails to Italy 1 184

Alba Longa built by Ascanius — — 1152

Migration of the jEolian colonies — — 11 2t

The return of the Heraclidae into Peloponnesus, 80 years after")

the taking of Troy. Two years after, they divide the ^'^'o- ( j|/vi

ponnesus among themselves ; and here, therefore, begins the C

kingdom of Lacedaimon under Eurysthenes and Procles J

Saul made king over Israel — — 1095

The kingdom of Sicyon ended — — 1088

The kingdom of Athens ended in the death of Codrus 1070

The migration of the Ionian colonics from Greece, and their | .

settlement in Asia Minor — — j

Dedication of Solomon's temple — — 1004

Samos built — — — 986

Division (if the kingdom of Judah and Israel — 975

Homer and Hesiod florished about this time, according to thel g^^

Marbles — — — J "

Elias the prophet taken up into heaven . — — 8%

Lycurgus, 42 years old, establishes his laws at Lacedacmon, and,*!

together with Iphitus and Cleosthenefi, restores the Olympic ( ^j, .

games at Elis, about 108 years before the era which is com- f

monly called the first Olympiad — — J

Phidon, king of Argds, is supposed to have invented scales and )

measures, and coined silver. at. iEgina. Carthage built by > 869

Dido _ _ _ \

The



Fall of the Assyrian empire by the death oi Sardanapalus, an er^ } f.^^
placed 80 years earlier by Justin — — 3



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. xi

B. C.

The kingdom of Macedonia begins, and continues 64■ 776

piad, about 23 years before the foundation of Rome J

The Ephori introduced into the government of Lacedaemon by ) ^~^

Theopompus — — — J

Isaiah begins to prophesy — • — — 757

The decennial archons begin at Athens, of which Charops is the first 7541

Rome built on the 20th of April, according to Varro, in the year 1 ^_q

3961 of the Julian period — — | 753

The rape of the Sabines — — 750

The era of Nabonassar king of Babylon begins — 747

The first INlessenian war begins, and continues 19 years, to the") ^^„

taking of Ithome — — — J

Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony — — 732
The kingdom of Israel finished by the taking of Samaria by Sal-l

raanasar king of Assyria. The first eclipse of the moon on > 721

record March 19th, according to Ptolemy — j

Candaules murdered by Gyges, who succeeds to the Lydian throne 718

Tarentum built by the Farthenians — — 707

Corcyra built by the Corinthians — — 703
The second Messenian war begins, and continues 14 years, to the"}

taking of Ira, after a siege of 1 1 years. About this time > 685

florished the poets Tyrtaeus and Archilochus — J

The government of Athens intrusted to annual archons 684

Alba destroyed — — 665

Cypselus usurps the government of Corinth, and keeps it for 301 ^-q

years — — — j- oo

Byzantium built by a colony of Argives or Athenians — 658

Cyrene built by Battus — — 630

The Scvthians invade Asia Minor, of which they keep possession") „^>

for 28 years — — — j- Oi!4.

Draco established his laws at Athens — — 623

The canal between the Nile and the Red Sea begun by king"? ^,«

Necho — — — 3

Nineveh taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his allies 606

The Phoenicians sail round Africa, by order of Necho. About") ^^.

this time florished Arion, Pittacus, Alcaeus, Sappho, &c. J

The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cyaxares 596
The Pythian games first established at Delphi. About this")

time florished Chilo, Anacharsis, Thales, Epimenides, Solon, v 591

the prophet Ezekiel, ^Esop, Stersichorus — J

Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar, 9th of June, after a siege | -07

of 18 months ' — — — j ^^^

The Isthmian games restored and celebrated every 1st and 3d ) -q^

year of the Olympiads — — \

Death



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



Death of Jeremiah the prophet — —

The Nemaean games restored — —

The first comedy acted at Athens by Susarion and Dolon
Pisistratus first usurped the sovereignty at Athens —

Cyrus begins to reign. About this time florished Anaximenes, 1
Bias, Anaximandcr, Phalaris, and Cleobulus — |

Croesus conquered by Cyrus. About this time florished Theognis /

and Pherecydes — — j

Marseilles built by the Phocaeans. The age of Pythagoras, Si- 7

monides, Thespis, Xenophanes and Anacreon — J

Babylon taken by Cyrus — —

The return of the Jews by the edict of Cyrus, and tlie rebuilding")

of the temple — — — J

The first tragedy acted at Athens on the waggon of Thespis
Learning encouraged at Athens, and a public library built
Egypt conquered by Cambyses — —

Polycrates, of Samos, put to death — —

Darius Hystaspes chosen king of Persia. About this time flo-|

rished Confucius, the celebrated Chinese philosopher J

The tyranny of the Pisistratida; abolished at Athens —

The consular government begins at Rome after the expulsion of )

the Tarquins, and continues independent 461 years, till the /-

battle of Pharsalia — — J

SarJis taken by the Athenians and burnt, which became after-
wards the cause of the invasion of Greece by the Persians.

About this time florished Heraclitus, Parmcnides, Milo the

wrestler, Aristagoras, &c. — —

The first dictator, Lartius, created at Rome



Online LibraryUnknownA classical dictionary : containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors : with the value of coins, weights, and measures used among the Greeks and Romans : and a chr → online text (page 1 of 189)