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A synopsis of criticisms : upon those passages of the Old Testament, in which modern commentators have differed from the Authorized version; together with an explanation of various difficulties in the Hebrew and English texts (Volume 2 pt.1) online

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p Part of tho

Al>J)ISON ALEXAiVDER LIBRARY ♦
which was presented by ' *

Messks. R. L. and a. Stcak







SYNOPSIS OF CRITICISMS.



SYNOPSIS OF CRITICISMS



UPON THOSE



PASSAGES OF THE OLD TESTAMENT,



IN WHICH



MODERN COMMENTATORS HAVE DIFFERED



FROM THK



AUTHORIZED VERSION;

TOGETHEK WITH AN EXPLANATION OF VARIOUS DIFFICULTIES IN
THE HEBREW AND ENGLISH TEXTS.

BY THE REV. RICHARD A. F. BARRETT, M.A.,

FELLOW OF king's COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.



All flesh is as grass,

And all the glory of man as the flower of grass.

The grass withereth,

And the flower thereof falleth away ;

But the word of the LORD endureth for ever. — 1 Peter i. 24, 25.



VOLUME II.— PART I.



LONDON :
LONGMAN, BROWN, OREEN, AND LONGMANS.

MDCCCXLVII.



ALEXANDER MACINTOSH,

PUINTER,
GREAT NEW-STREET, LONDON.



PASSAGES



IN WHICH MODERN COMMENTATORS DIFFER FROM THE AUTHORIZED
VERSION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.



JOSHUA.



Chap. I. 4.

jT T - - : V - • T : - : t : • - i"

. ■ I- I ...J... .; -,. . _ . J T -

^v: !• VAT - J : V T - JT - - :

!■.• : 1 :

TTJV epTjflOU KOL TOP ^ AVTlki^ClVOV (COS TOV

noTafiov TOV fxeyaXov TTorafjiov 'Evcjipdrov, Kal
fcos r^y daXciao'rjs rrjs fcr^aTrji, a(p' rjXiov
bvdjxav ecTTai to. opia vfio^v.

All. Ver. — 4 From the wilderness and
this Lebanon even unto the great river, the
river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites,
and unto the great sea toward the going
down of the sun, shall be your coast.
This Lebanon.
Ged. — Yonder Lebanon.
All the land of the Hittites. Houbigant,
Michaelis, Kennicott, Geddes, Boothroyd,
and others, consider these words to be an
interpolation.

Ken. — The extent of the country granted
to the Israelites is not desci-ibed here very
clearly. For, though the four boundaries
are mentioned, the wilderness on the south,
with Lebanon on the north, and the Eu-
phrates on the east, with the Mediterranean
Sea on the West, yet, as Joshua was now at
a great distance from Lebanon, it is not
likely he should say this Lebanon ; and it is
less likely that he should describe the whole
of this country by the words, all the land of
the Hittites. The Vulgate version is free
from the word this, and the Greek version is
free from both difficulties. But there is
much greater authority ; namely, that of
Moses, expressly referred to here, in ver. 3 ;
and Deut. ii. 24 has neither the word this,

VOL, II.



nor the words all the land of the Hittites,
either in the Hebrew text or the Sa-
maritan.

Rosen. — A deserto et Libano hoc. De-
sertum ab austro Jud^am terminabit, Liba-
nus ad septentrionem. Libano additur nin ,
hoc, quia ex loco, in quo castra tunc habe-
bant Israelit£E, prospiciebatur, ille mons, de
quo vid. quas diximus in libro die Bibl.
Alter thumskunde, s. Bibl. Geographic, vol. i.,
p. ii., p. 235. nnB-in: bi-i|rr -in2rr nyi , Et
usque ad fuvium ilium magnum, fluvium
Euphratis, puta. Omnis terra Chittcporum.
Erant hi unus de septem illis Cananseorum
populis, qui terrain ad occasum Jordanis
tenebant, vid. infra, iii. 10; Genes, xv. 10;
Num. xiii. 29. Sed hie Chittaei, qui circa
Hebronem habitarunt (vid. Bibl. Geogr.,
vol. ii., p. i., p. 257), pro quibusvis Cananaeis
dicuntur, qui forsan nomen unius gentis a
terrore (nn) ductum, libentius usurparunt.
Grtecus Alexandrinus interpres vei-ba y'lx fe
D'nnrj non expressit ; videri, ut Dathius in-
quit, possent redundare, quia in describendis
limitibus loca intermedia nihil attinet com-
memorare. Sed vere monet Maurer, talia
esse sermonis popularis, minus accurati.
Arabicus interpres posuit super, i. e., ultra
terram Chitteeorum, quasi pro fe legisset bjj ;
nee id male, ''iian c^rrisi , Et usque ad
mare magnum, i. e., Mediterraneum, ut
Num. xxxiv. 6. •i'^'i'L? '^i^'?, Ingressum,
i.e., occasum solis versus, ut Deut. xi. 30;
Ps. L. 1. DDTO2 n;n'., Erit finis s. terminus
tester. Sed ''12J et pro iis, qucE fine claudun-
tur passim sumitur, ut Mattli. ii. 16, iv
BrjBXeefjL, Koi iv naai rols oplois avT?)^, in
Bethlehem et in omnibus jinibus ejus, i, e., in
toto ejus territorio.



JOSHl'A 1. 7—10.



Vor. 7.
I -J- : A : ' J- T vv • J T -

: 'i]hr\ -i2.*s Vb2 Vsbn

ttrxi't oiv KOI dySpi^ov (pvXdcnTea^ai koi
iroiflv KaBoTi (vrrtiXaTO trot Mwi-o^y 6 Trniy
^01'. Km oi'K fKKXiyfls air ai-rcov ets t^e^ui
ov8i fis dpiaTfjiii, «wi (n'ytjs iv Trdaw ots tav

Ju. I'er. — 7 Only be thou strong and
very courageous, that thou mayest observe
to do according to all the law, which Moses
mv servant conunanded thee : turn not from
it to the right hand or io the left, that thou
niavest prosper \_or, do wisely] whitherso-
ever thou goost.

That thou mayest obmrie to do.

Ged. — In the observance and practice of.

Bosen. — Modo Jinn us esfo et forfis valde
obsercare agere secundum omnem hanc legem,
quam jussit te observare Moses, seirus mens.
Pro niirr';; -it:\r"^ in pluribns codicibus et libris
editis legitur, inserta copula, nitrS "'tc?,
observare et agere (cf. Dent. vii. 12, CP'^'S^'P
cn'M cn'cri), ut est infra xxiii. G, idenique
h. 1. exprimitiu- a Gr«co Alexandrino {(pv-
\da(T(a-fiai ko.) iroifiy), et a reliquis veteribus,
pneter Chaldieum. Sed quum versu proxi-
mo legamus nVrr';^ it:cn ]t^"' , ut observes
agere: copula nee hie erit inserenda. Est
autem observare facere, i. q. aninium atten-
dere ad faciendum, operani dare, ne quid
ecrum oniittatur qua' lege sunt pra^sci-ipta.
Similis loquendi fornuila Xiun. xxiii. 12 :
"Gi"" itrx, obserrabo loqui, et 2 Reg. x. 31 :
rov ipc N? , non observavit ire in lege Jov^ rrs-% '5pb, coram Pharaone
et coram servis ejus, et in frequentissimo illo
nin; ■'^sb , coram Jova. Igitur his verbis hoc
significatur: vos aderitis frattibus vestris
strenui et expediti ad pugnandum, socia
arma cum iis conjungetis, quod ipsum pos-
trema hujus versus verba dicunt, cnix nmwi,
et adjuoetis eos.

Ver. 16.

Sni nii?i?3 ?i2ri^-!^"ni?« bb —

— Trdvra oaa eav ivniKr] rjplv TTOirjcropep, k.t.A.

All. Ver. — 16 — All that thou com-
mandest us we will do, &c.

All. Twelve MSS. read to .—Ken.

Booth. — The genius of the language sup-
ports the various reading "^^^ ,

CUAP. II. 1.

D"^^£sJn-]:? 1^3-!? 2?K?in': nbtpfT
^Db -i^wb ttJnn □•'bsnjp Q^t^^w a^y^

T- : "I- A • : V : ' vi.t t v ; :

; : • - IT T JT : -jt jt •

T IT

Koi dneareiXev ^Irjaovs vlos Navij fK 2arT\v
dvo veavlaKovs KaracrKonexxjai, Aeycoj/. dvd-
^rjre Kai I'Sere Trji> -y^j/ Kai rfjv 'lepi)(o}. ^ Kai
TTopevdevTes 01 8vo veaviaKOL flcrrjKQoaav els
lepi^o). Kai ei(TT]\do(Tav els o'lKiav yvvaiKos
TTopvrjs, fj ovofia Pan/3. Kai KareXvaav eKet.

Au. Ver. — 1 And Joshua the son of Nun
sent [or, had sent] out of Shittim two men to
spy secretly, saying. Go, view the land, even
Jericho. And they went, and came into an
harlot's liouse, named Rahab, and lodged
[Heb., lay] there.

Se7it. So Rosen.

Horsleij, Ged., Booth., Clarke, and others.
— Had sent.

Bp. Pulrick. — Joshua — sent.^ Or, had
sent, before the directions given to the
officers, mentioned in the foregoing chapter,
verses 10, 11, which best agrees with the
twenty-second verse of this chapter, and tlie
rest of tlie story.

Rosen. — Deinde misit Josua, Nunis JUlus,
ex Schittim duos viros explorantes clam.
Verbum nbttj^i interpretum plures per plus-
quamperfectum reddunt, quia quae hoc
capite de exploratorum missione narrantur
ante ea quae cap. i. habentur facta existi-



JOSHUA II. 1.



mant, reversosque ad Josuam exploratores
esse priusqiiam mandata ad populum dederit
de trajiciendo post tridiium Jordane. Nam
si ilia mandata dederit septimo die primi
mensis, simulqiie ablegati exploratores Jeri-
chuntem pervenerint, atque sub vesperam
ad Rachabam diverterint, quum memo-
rentur illi a Rachaba dimissi triduum in
nionte latuisse, et exercitus ad Jordanem
alteram triduum consedisse ; effici, inter-
})retes illi dicunt, septem, ut minimum ab
illo edicto ad trajectionem visque Jordanis
esse elapsos dies, aut saltem quinqiie, si
apud flumen non esse moratos plus quam
noetem unam dicamus. Verum recte jam
observavit Masius, nihil obstare, quo minus
res ordine narrari statuamus, et quo die
Josua triduum illud per prsecones prse-
stituebat populo, eodem die exploratores
eum amandasse ; neque tamen e Schittira
versus Jordanem movisse, nisi postquam isti
ad se revertissent. Nam si die septimo,
quo jussit populum se comparare ad tra-
jectionem Jordanis post triduum, sint simul
emissi exploratores Jerichuntem, facile fuit
expeditis viris LX stadia, id est, unum et
dimidium milliare Germanicum (vid Hnndb.
der Bihl. AlterthmnsJc, p. i., vol. i., p. 163),
e Scbittim ad Jordanem usqne (tantum enim
intervallum esse, scribit Josephus Antiquiit.,
1. v., cap. 1, § 1) et totidem stadia a Jordane
ad Jerichuntem (vid Josephum de belloJud.,
1. iv., cap. 8, § 3) intra paucas boras con-
ficere, atque ante vesperam sic satis speculari
m-bem. Diverterint igitur ad Rachabam
sub noetem, atque mox ab ea per tenebras
de muro demissi ad diem usque tertium, ex
quo die ad Rachabam diverterant, h. e. ad
eam vesperam usque, quae diem octavum
mensis Nisan sequitur, latuerint in montibus.
Ergo quod ad speculatores dicit Rachaba
infra vs. 16, latehitis in motiie (res dies, est
ac si dicat : usque ad diem tertium, quo die
integrum vobis erit pergere. Jam vero ea
nocte, quae octavum diem mensis claudebat,
et secundum Hebraeos ad diem nonum per-
tinebat, redierunt ad Josuam in castra ad
Scbittim. Josua porro, percepta explora-
torum narratione, mane castra ad Jordanem
promovit. Postero denique, id est, decimo
die, trajecit. Nihil hie est, quod narra-
tionis cursum interpellere possit. Scribit
quidem Josephus (Antiqq. loco laud.) ha3sisse
Israelitas biduum apud Jordanem, priusquam
transierint, putatque, exploratores rediisse ad
Josuam apud Jordanem morantem, totamque



hujus capitis narratlonem non suo positam
esse loco. Et tamen nihil vetat etiam ipsum
fateri, eodem imo die speculatores abivisse
Jerichuntem, et monitores viaticum populo
imperasse, triduumque prsefinivisse traji-
ciendi in Cananasam.

Harlot. — So Pool, Patrick, Michaelis,
Rosen., Gesen.

Dr. A. Clarice. — Harlofs and inn-keepers
seem to have been called by the same name,
as no doubt many who followed this mode
of life, from their exposed situation, were
not the most correct in their morals. Among
the ancients women generally kept houses of
entertainment, and among the Egyptians
and Greeks this was common. I shall
subjoin a few proofs. Herodotus, speaking
concerning the many differences between
Egypt and other countries, and the pecu-
liarity of their laws and customs, expressly
says : Ev roiat, al fiev yvvaiKes ayopa^ovcri Kai
KaTr7]\evovcrr ol Se av8pfs, Kar oikovs eoures,
v(j)cuvov(Ti. " Among the Egyptians the
women carry on all commercial concerns,
and keep taverns, while the men continue at
home and weave." Herod, in Euterp.,
c. XXXV. Diodorus Siculus, lib. i., s. 8, and
c. xxvii., asserts that " the men were the
slaves of the women in Egypt, and that it is
stipulated in the marriage contract that the
woman shall be the ruler of her husband,
and that he shall obey her in all things."
The same histoi-ian supposes that women had
these high privileges among the Egyptians,
to perpetuate the memory of the beneficent
administration of Isis, who was afterwards
deified among them.

Nymphodorus, quoted by the ancient
scholiast on the CEdipus Coloneus of So-
phocles, accounts for these customs : he
says that " Sesostris, finding the population
of Egypt rapidly increasing, fearing that he
should not be able to govern the people or
keep them united under one head, obliged
the men to assume the occupations of
women, in order that they might be ren-
dered effeminate."

Sophocles confirms the account given by
Herodotus ; speaking of Egypt he says :

Efcet yap ol p.ev apcrfVfs Kara a-reyas

QaKovcTiv IcTTOvpyovvTes' al 8e ^vuvop-ot

Ta '^u) jScov Tpo(j)eia Tropawova aei.

(Edip. Col. V. 352.

" There the men stay in their houses
weaving cloth, while the women transact all
business out of doors, provide food for the



JOSHUA II. 1.



family," &c. It is on this passage that the
scholiast cites Nymphodoriis for the informa-
tion given above, and which he says is
found in the L3th chapter of his work " On
the Customs of Barbarous Nations."

That the same custom prevailed among
the Greeks we have the following proof
from Apnleiiis : Ego vera quod prinnnn
ingrcssiii stabulum conspicatus sttm, accessi,
et de QUADAM ANU CAUPONA ilUco pevcontor.
— Metam. lib. i., p. 18, Edit. Bip. " Having
entered into the first inn I met with, and
there seeing a certain old woman, the inn-
keeper, I inquired of her."

It is very likely that women kept the
places of public entertainment among the
Philistines ; and that it was with such an
one, and not with an harlot, that Sampson
lodged (see Judges xvi. 1, &c.) ; for as this
custom certainly did prevail among the
Egyptians, of which we have the fullest
proof above, we may naturally expect it to
have prevailed also among the Canaanites
and Philistines, as we find from Apiileius
that it did afterwards among the Greeks.
Besides, there is more than presumptive
proof that this custom obtained among the
Israelites themselves, even in the most
})olished period of their history ; for it is
much more reasonable to suppose that the
ttuo ivonien, who came to Solomon for judg-
ment, relative to the dead child (1 Kings
iii. 16, &c.), V.' ere inn-keepers, than that they
were harlots. It is well known that common
prostitutes, from their abandoned course of
life, scarcely ever have children ; and the
laws were so strict against such in Israel
(Deut. xxiii. 18), that if these had been of
that class it is not at all likely they would
have dared to appear before Solomon. All
these circumstances considered, I am fully
satisfied that the term nan, zonah, in the
text, which we translate harlot, should be
rendered tavern or inn-keeper, or hostess.
The spies who were sent out on this occasion
were undoubtedly the most confidential
persons that Josluia had in his host ; they
went on an errand of the most weighty
importance, and which involved the greatest
consequences. The risk they ran of losing
their lives in this enterprise was extreme.
Is it, therefore, likely that persons who
could not escape apprehension and death,
without the miraculous interference of God,
should, in despite of that law which at this
time must have been so well known unto



them, go into a place where they might
expect, not the blessing, but the curse, of
God ? Is it not therefore more likely that
they went rather to an inn to lodge than to
a brothel ? But what completes in my
judgment the evidence on this point is, that
this very Rahab, whom we call a harlot, was
actually married to Salmon, a Jewish prz'wce,
see Matt. i. 5. And is it probable that a
prince of Judah would have taken to wife
such a person as our text represents Rahab
to be?

It is granted that the Septuagint, who are



Online LibraryUnknownA synopsis of criticisms : upon those passages of the Old Testament, in which modern commentators have differed from the Authorized version; together with an explanation of various difficulties in the Hebrew and English texts (Volume 2 pt.1) → online text (page 1 of 91)