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could be collected in one Saturday's after
noon. The next day they refted.


Gilbert Window, ,1

* Edmund Margefon, i
Peter Brown, i

* Richard Britteridge, i
George Soule, [of Ed
ward Window's family.]

* Richard Clarke, i

* John Allerton, I

* Thomas Englifh, T
Edward Dotey, T both of
Edward Leifter, j .Stephen

[Hopkins's family.

Total pcrfons, 101

Richard Gardiner, i

Of whom were fubfcribers, 41

Mourt's Relation.


Whilft they lay in this harbour, which
was the fpace of five weeks f they faw great
flocks of fea-fowl and whales, every day
playing about them. The matter and mate,
who had been acquainted with the fifhery,
in the northern feas of Europe, fuppofed that
they might, in that time, have made oil, to
the value of three or four thoufand pounds.
It was too late in the feafon for cod ; and,
indeed, they caught none but fmall nfli, near
the more, and mell-fim. The margin of the
fea was fo mallow, that they were obliged to
wade afliore ; and, the weather being fevere,
many of them took colds and coughs, which,
in the courfe of the winter, proved mortal.

On Monday, the thirteenth, of November,-
the women went aihore, under a guard, to
warn their clothes , and the men were impa
tient for a further diicovery. The ftiallop,
which had been cut down- and Rowed be
tween decks, needed repairing, in which fev-
enteen days were employed. Whilft fhis
was doing, they propofed that excuriions
might be made on foot. Much caution was
neceflary in an enterprize of this kind, in a
new and favage country. After confultaticri
and preparation, fixteen men were equipped
A A with.


with mufket and ammunition, fword and
corflet, under the command of Captain Miles
Standifh, who had William Bradford, Ste
phen Hopkins and Edward Tilly for his
Council of Wan After many inftru&ions
given, they were rather permitted than or
dered to go, and the time of their abfence
was limited to two days.

When they had travelled one mile by the
fhore, they faw five or fix of the natives,
who, on fight of them, fled. They attempt
ed to purfue ; and, lighting on their track,
followed them till night ; but the thickets
through which they had to pafs, the weight
of their armour, and their debility, after a
long voyage, made them an unequal match,
in point of travelling, to thefe nimble fons of
nature. They refted, at length, by a fpring,
which afforded them the firft refrefhing
draught of American water.

The difcoveries made in this march were
few, but novel and amufing. In one place
they found a deer-trap, made by the bending
of a young tree to the earth, with a noofe
under ground, covered with acorns. Mr.
Bradford's foot was caught in the trap, from
which his companions difengaged him, and



they were all entertained with the ingenuity
of the device. In another place they came
to an Indian burying-ground ; and, in one
of the graves, they found a mortar, an earth
en pot, a bow and arrows, and other imple
ments, all which they very carefully repla^
ced ; becaufe they would not be guilty of
violating the repofitories of the dead. But
when they found a cellar, carefully lined witli
bark and covered with a heap of fand, in
which about four bufhels of feed-corn in ears
were well fecured, after reaibning on the
morality of the action, they took as much of
the corn as they could carry, intending, when
they mould find the owners, to pay them to
their fatisfaction. On the third day they
arrived, weary and welcome, where the fhip
lay, and delivered their corn into the com
mon {lore. The Company refolved to keep
it for feed, and to pay the natives the full
value, when they fhould have opportunity.

When the fhallop was repaired and rigged,
twenty-four of the Company ventured on a
fecond excurfion to the fame place, to make
a further dilcovery ; having Captain Jones
for their commander, with ten of his feamen
and the fhip's long-boat. The wind being



high, and the fea rough, the fliallop came to
anchor under the land, whilft part of the
Company waded on ihore from the long
boat, and travelled, as they fuppofed, fix or
{even miles, having directed the fhallop to
follow them the next morning. The weath
er was very cold, with fnow, and the people,
having no flicker, took fuch colds as after
ward proved fatal to many.

Before noon the next day the fhallop took
them on board, and failed to the place which
they denominated Cold Harbour.* Finding
it not navigable for fliips, and confequently
not proper for their refidence, after {hoot
ing fome geefe and ducks, which they de
voured with " foldiers' ftomachs," they went
|n fearch of feed-corn. The ground wa$


* Mr. Prince conjectures this place to have been Barn-
fiable harbour, (p. 74.) But neither the time nor dif-
tancc can agree with this conjecture* Barnflable is more
than 50 miles from Cape Cod harbour by land j a dif-
tance which they could not have travelled and back again
hi three fhort days of November. I .rather think, after
inquiry of gentlemen well acquainted with Cape Cod, that
Cold Harbour is the mouth of Paomet Cieek, between
Truro and Welfleet ; and the defcription given in Mourt's
Relation correfponds with this idea. Paomet is a tide
harbour for boats, diilant between three and four leagues
frnm the harbour of Cape Cod. See Collections of Hif-
torical Society for 1794, Vol. III. p. 196.


CARVER, t 97

frozen and covered with fnow ; but the cel
lars were known by heaps of fand ; and
the frozen earth was penetrated with their
fwords, till they gathered corn to the amount
of ten bufhels. This fortunate fupply, with
a quantity of beans preferred in the fame
manner, they took on the fame condition as
before ; and, it is remarked by Governor
Bradford, that in fix months after, they paid
the owners to their entire fatisfaction.* The
acquiiition of this corn, they always regard
ed as a particular favour of Divine Provi
dence, without which the Colony could not
have fubfifted.

Captain Jones in the fhallop went back
to the {hip with the corn and fifteen of the
weakeft of the people ; intending to fend
mattocks and fpades the next day. The
eighteen who remained, marched, as they
fuppofed, five or fix miles into the woods,
and returning another way, difcovered a
mound of earth, in which they hoped to
find more corn. On opening it, nothing ap
peared but the fkull of a man, preferved in
red earth, the fkeleton of an infant, and fuch
arms, utenfils and ornaments, as are ufually


* Prince, 75.

I 9 3 CARVE R.

depofited in Indian graves.* Not far diftant
were two deferted wigwams, with their fuiv
niture and fame venifon, fo ill preferred that
even " foldiers' ftomachs" could not relifh it,
On the arrival of the fhallop, they returned
to the (hip, the firft of December. During
their abfence, the wife of William White had
been delivered of a fon, who, from the cir-*
cumftances of his birth, was named Pere->

At this time they held a confutation ref-
pelting their future fettlement.J Some
thought that Cold Harbour might be a prop
er place, becaufe though not deep enough
for fhips it might be convenient for boats,
and becaufe a valuable fifhery for whales and


* Mourt, 1846.

f The following account of him is extracted from the
JJofton news-letter of July 31, 1704, being the fifteenth
number of the firft newfpaper printed in New- England.
"Marfhfield, July 22: Captain Peregrine Whitc t of this
town, aged eighty-three years and eight months, died here
the 2Oth inflant. He was vigorous and of a comely af-
peft, to the laft ; was the Son of William White and Su-
fanna his wife, born on board the May-flower, Captain
Jones commander, in Cape Cod harbour, November 1620,
the firft Englilhman born in New-England. Although
he was in the former part of his life extravagant ; yet he
was much reformed in his laft years, and died hopefully."
\ Morton, 23.

od might be earned on there. The land
was partly cleared of wood and good for
corn, as appeared from the feed. It was al-
fo likely to be healthful and defenfible. But
the principal reafons were, that the winter
was fo far advanced as to prevent coaftlng
and difcovery, without danger of lofmg men
and boats ; that the winds were variable,
and the ftorms fudden and violent ; that by
cold and wet lodging the people were much
affected with coughs, which, if they fhould
not foon obtain fhelter, would prove mortal j
that provifions were daily confuming and
the fhip muft referve fufficient for the home
ward voyage, whatever became of the

Others thought it beft to go to a place
called Agawam, twenty leagues northward,
where they had heard of an exc client har
bour, good fifhing, and a better foil for plant
ing. To this it was anfwered, that there
might poffibly be as good a place, nearer to
them. Robert Coppin, their pilot, who had
been here before, aflured them, that he knew
of a good harbour and a navigable river, not
more than eight leagues acrofs the bay to the
weilward. Upon the whole, they refolvcd



(o fend the fhallop round the more of the
bay on difcovery, but not beyond the harbour
,, . of which Coppin had informed them.

On Wednefday, the fixth of December,
Governor Carver, with nine of the principal
men, well armed, and the fame number of
feamen, of which Coppin was one, went out
in the fhallop. The weather was fo cold,
that the fpray of the fea froze on their coats,-
till they were eafed with ice, " like coats of
Iron.'* They failed by the eaftern more of
the bay, as they judged, fix or feven leagues,'
without finding any river or creek. At
length they law " a tongue of land,* being
fiat off from tile fhore, with a fandy point ;
they bore up to gain the point, and found
there a fair income, or road of a bay, being
4 a league over at the narroweft, and two or
three in length ; but they made right over to
the land before them." As they came near
the more, they faw ten or twelve Indians, cut
ting up a grampus, who on fight of them ran
away, carrying pieces of the rifh which they
had cut. They landed at the diftance of a
league or more from the grampus, with great


* This "tongue 'of land" is Billingfgatc Point, the
Ihore of Wclfleet harbour.



difficulty, on account of the flat fands. Here
they built a barricade, and, placing centinels,
lay down to reft.

The next morning, Thurfday, Dedember
^th, they divided themfelves into two par
ties : eight in the (hallop, and the reft on.
more, to make further difccvery of this place,
which they found to be " a bay, without ei
ther river or creek coming into it." They
gave it the name of Grampus Bay, becaufe
they law many fifh of that fpecies. They
tracked the Indians on the fand, and found a
path into the woods, which they followed
a great way, till they came to old corn-fields
and a fpacious burying-ground, inclofed with
pales. They ranged the wood till the clofe
of the day, and then came down to the fhore
to meet the fhallop which they had not ieen
fmce the morning. At high water me put
into a creek ; arid, fix men being left on
board, two eame on more and lodged with
their companions, under cover of a barricade
and a guard.

On Friday, December 8th, they rofe at

five in the morning, to be ready to go on

board at high water. At the dawn of day

they were furprifed with the war-cry of the

B B natives,


natives, and a flight of arrows. They imme
diately feized their arms, and on the firft dif-
eharge of mufketry all the Indians fled, but
one ftout man, who ftood three mots, hehind
a tree, and then retired, as they fuppofed
wounded. They took up eighteen arrows,
headed either with brafs, (leers' horns, or
birds' claws, which they fent as a prefent to
their friends in England. This unwelcome
reception, and the fhoal water of the place,*
determined them to feek further. They fail
ed along the fhore as near as the extenfive
fhoals would permit, but faw no harbour.
The weather began to look threatening, and
Coppin allured them that they might reach
the harbour, of which he had fome knowl
edge, before night. The wind being fouth-
eafterly, they put themfelves before it. f After
fome hours ic began to rain ; the ftorm in-
creafing, their rudder broke, their mail


* Morton fays, " This is thought to be a place called'
Niw>;~>-?(st" (p. 25.) A creek which now bears the name-
of Skakit, lies between Faflham and Harwich ; diftant
about three or four miles Weftward from Naufet ; the feat
of a tribe of Indians, who (as tfiey aftenvard learned)-
made this attack,

t The diftance direftly acrofs the bay from Skakit i>
about 12 leagues j in Prince's Annals it is faid they failed
!{ leagues*


fyrung, and their fails fell overboard. In this
piteous plight, fteering with two oars, the
wind and the flood tide carried them into a
cove full of breakers, arid it being dark, they
were in danger of being driven on ihore.
The pilot confeficd that he knew not the
place ; but a flout teaman, who was fteering,
called to the rowers to put about and row
hard. This effort happily brought them out
of the cove, into a fair found, and under a
point of land, where they came iafely to an
chor. They were divided in their opinions
about goiflg on more j but about midnight,
the wind fhifting to the north-weft ; the fe-
verity of the cold made a lire neceflary.
They therefore got on more, and with fomc
difficulty kindled a fire, and retted in fatety.

In the morning they found themfelves on
a fmall uninhabited ifland, within the en
trance of a fpacious bay.* Here they itaid
all the next day (Saturday) drying their
clothes, cleaning their arms, and repairing, as
well as they could, their fhallop. The fol

* This ifland has ever fmce borne the name of Clark's
Ifland, from the mate of the fliip, the firft man who ftep-
ped on fhore. The cove, where they were in danger, lies
between the Gurnet Head, and Saguiih Point, at the en
trance of Plymouth Bay.


lowing day, being the Chriflian Sabbath, they

On Monday, December nth, -they fur*
veyed and founded the bay, which is de~
fcribed to be " in the fhape of a fim-hook ; a
good harbour for {hipping, larger than that
of Cape Cod ; containing two fmall iflands
without inhabitants ; innumerable ftore of
fowls, different forts of fim, befides mell-fifh
in abundance. As they marched into the
land,* they found corn-fields and brooks, and
a very good fituation for building."')" With
this joyful news, they returned to the Com
pany ; and on the 1 6th of December the
fhip came to anchor in the harbour, with all
the paflengers, except four, who died at Cape

Having fufveyed the land, as well as the
feafon would permit, in three days ; they
pitched upon a high ground on the fouth-


* The rock on which they firft ftepped afhore, at high
water is now enclofed with a wharf. The upper part of
it has been feparated frcm the lower part, and drawn into
the public fquare of the town of Plymouth, where it is Jif-
tinguifhed by the name of The Forefather's Rock. The zzd
of December (Gregorianftyle) is regardttl by the
of Plymouth as a feftival.

j Mourt's Relatioa in Purrhns, v; 1847.

CARVER. *o 5

weft fide of the bay, which was cleared of
wood, and had formerly been planted. Un
der the fouth fide of it, was " a very fweet
brook, in the entrance of which the fhallop
and boats could be fecured, and many delicate
fprings of as good water as could be drank.
On the oppofite fide of the brook was a
cleared field, and beyond it a commanding
eminence, on which they intended to lay a
platform, and mount their cannon.

They went immediately to work, laying
out houfe-lots, and a flreet ; felling, fawing,
riving and carrying timber ; and before the
end of December, though much interrupted
by ftormy weather, by the death of two,
and the ficknefs of many of their number,
they had erected a ftore-houfe, with a
thatched roof, in which their goods were
depofited, under a guard. Two rows of
houies were begun, and as fafl as they could
be covered, the people, who were clafTed
into nineteen families, came afhore, and
lodged in them. On Lord's day, the 31 ft
of December, they attended divine fervice,
for the firft time on more, and named the
place PLYMOUTH ; partly becaufe this har
bour was fo called in Captain Smith's map,



publifhed three or four years before, and
partly in remembrance of the very kind and
friendly treatment which they had received
from the inhabitants of Plymouth, the lail
port of their native country from which
they failed.

At this time, fome of the people lodged
On fliore, and others on board the fhip, which
lay at the diftance of a mile and a half from
the town j and when the tide was out, there
could be no communication between them.
On the 1 4th of January, very early in the
morning, as Governor Carver and Mr. Brad-*
ford lay fick in bed, at the ftore-houfe, the
thatched roof, by means of a fpark, caught
on fire, and was foon confumed ; but, by the
timely affiftance of the people on more, the
lower part of the building was preferved.
Here- were depofited their whole ftock of
ammunition, and feveral loaded guns ; but
happily the fire did not reach them. The
fire was feen by the people on board the mip,
who could not come on fliore till an hour
afterward. They were greatly alarmed at
the appearance, becaufe two men, who had
ftrolle'd into the woods, were miffing, and
they were apprehenfive that the Indians had



Ynadc an attack on the place. In the even
ing the ftrollers found their way home,
alraoft dead with hunger, fatigue and cold.

The bad weather and fevcre hardftiips to
which this Company were expofed, in a cli
mate miich more rigorous than any to which
they had ever been accuftomed, with the
fcorbutic habits contracted in their voyage,
and by living fo long on fhipboard, caufed a
great mortality among them in the winter.
Before the month of April, nearly one half*
of them died. At fome times, the number
of the fick was fo great, that not more than
fix or feven were fit for duty, and thefe were
almofl wholly employed in attending the
fick. The fhip's company was in the fame
fituation ; and Captain Jones, though earn-
eftly defirous to get away, was obliged to ftay
till April, having loft one half of his men.

By the beginning of March, the Governor
was fo far recovered of his firft illnefs, that


* The exaft bill of mortality, as collected by Mr.
Prince, is as follows :

In December 6 Of thcfe, 21 were fubfcribers to
In January 8 the civil compad.

In February 17 and 23 were women, childrea
in March 13 and fervants.

Total 44 44

2o8 CARVE R.

he was able to walk three miles, to vifit a

large pond, which Francis Billington had
difcovered, from the top of a tree on a hill.
At firft it was fuppofed to be part of the
ocean ; but it proved to be the head water of
the brook which runs by the town. It
has ever fmce borne the name of the firft dif-
coverer, which would otherwife have been

Hitherto they had not feen any of the na
tives at this place.* The mortal peftilence
which raged through the country, four years
before, had almoft depopulated it. One re
markable circumftance attending this pefti
lence was not known till after this fettlement
was made. A French mip had been wreck
ed on Cape Cod.f The men were faved,
with tlieir provifioiis and goods. J The na
tives kept their eye on them, till they found
an opportunity to kill all but three or four,
and divide their goods. The captives were
fent from one tribe to another, as flaves.
One of them learned fo much of their lan
guage, as to tell them that " God was angry


* See Gorges's Life, in Vol. I. p. 355.
j- Mourt in Pur. 1 849.
1 Mcrtcn>> 36.

6 A R V E R. 209

With them, for their cruelty, and would de-
ftroy them, and give their country to anoth
er people." They anfwered that " they
were too many for God to kill." He repli
ed, that " if they were ever fo many, God
had many ways to kill them, of which they
were then ignorant." When the peftilence
came among them, (a new difeafe, probably
the yellow fever,*) they remembered the
Frenchman's words ; and when the Plym
outh fettlers arrived at Cape Cod, the few
furvivors imagined that the other part of his
prediction would foon be accomplished.
Soon after their arrival, the Indian priefts or
powows convened, and performed their in
cantations in a dark fwamp three days fuc-
ceflively, with a view to curfe and deftroy
the new comers. Had they known the mor
tality which raged among them, they would
doubtlefs have rejoiced in the fuccefs of their
endeavours, and might very eafily have taken
advantage of their weaknefs to extermi
nate them. But none of them were fecn,
till after the ficknefs had abated; though
fome tools, which had been left in the woods,
were miffing, which they had ftolen in the

C c On

* See Vol. I. p. 356.

210 C A R V E It;

On the fixteentli of March, when the
fpring was fo far advanced as to invite them
to make their gardens, a favage came boldly
into the place alone, walked through the
flreet, to the rendezvous or florc-houfe, and
pronounced the words Welcome, Englijhmen !
his name was Samofet ; he belonged to a
place, diftant five days journey to the eaft-
ward, and had learned of the fifhermen to
fpeak broken Englifh.

He was received with kindnefs and hof->
pitalityj- and he informed them, " that by the
late peitilence, and a ferocious war, the num
ber of his countrymen' had been fo diminim-
ed, that not more than one in twenty remain
ed ; that the fpot where they were now
jfeated was called Patukfet, and though form
erly populous^- yet every human being in it
had died of the peftilenee," This account
was confirmed by the ex-tent of the fields, the^
number of graves, and the remnants of fkel-
etons lying on the ground

The account which he gave of himfelfy
was, ^ that he had been abfent from home
eight moons, part of the time among the
Naufets, their nearcfl neighbours at the fouth-
eaft, who were about one hundred ftrongy



and more lately among the Wompaneags at
the weftward, who were about fixty ; that
he had heard of the attack made on them by
the Naufets at Namfkeket ; that thefe people
were full of refentment againil the Europe
ans, on account of the perfidy of Hunt, maf-
ter of an Englifh veffel, who had fome years
before the peftilence decoyed fome of the
natives (twenty from Patukfet and feven from
Naufet) on board his ihip, and fold them
abroad as flaves ; that they had killed three
Englifh fimermen, belides the Frenchmen
aforementioned, in revenge for this affront.
He alfo gave information of the loft tools,
and promifed to fee them reftored ; and
that he would bring the natives to trade with

Samofet being difmifTed with a prefent ?
returned the next day with five more of the
natives, bringing the ftolen tools, and a few
fkins for trade. They were difmifled with
a requeft to bring more, which they promifed
in a few days. Samofet feigned himfelf fick,
and remained ; but as his companions did
not return at the time, he was lent to inquire
the reafon,



On the 22d he returned, in company with
Squanto or Squantum, a native of Patukfet,
and the only one then living. He was one
of the twenty whom Hunt had carried away ;
he had been fold in Spain, had lived in Lon*
don, with John Slany Merchant, Treafurer
of the Newfoundland Company ; had learned
the Englifh language, and came back to his
native country with the fifhennen. Thefe
two perfons were deputed by the Sachem of
the Wcmpaneags, Ma-faff-o-it* whofe refi-
dence was at Sowams or Pokanoket, on the
Narraganfet Bay, to announce his coming,
and bring fome {kins as a prefent. In about
an hour, the Sachem, with his brother
^ua-dc-qui-nab^ and his whole force of fixty
men, appeared on the hill over againfl them,
Squantum was fent to know his pleafure,
and returned with the Sachem's requeft,
that one of the Company fhould come to
him. Edward Winflow immediately went
alone, carrying a prefent in his hand, with
the Governor's compliments, defiring to fee


* Mr. Prince fays that Ma-fafT-o-it is a word pf four fyl-
lables, and was fo pronounced by the ancient people of
Plymouth, (p. 101.) This remark is confirmed by the
manner in which it is fpelled in fome parts of Mr. Winf-

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