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low's Narrative, Ma-faf-o-\yat.






CARVER. 213

the Sachem, and enter on a friendly treaty.
Mafaifoit left Winflow in the cuflody of
his brother, to whom another prefent was
made, and taking twenty of his men, un
armed, defcended the hill toward the brook,
over which lay a log bridge. Captain Miles
Standifh, at the head of fix men, met him at
the brook, and efcorted him and his train
to one of the beft houfes, where three or
four cufhions were placed on a green rug,
fpread over the floor. The Governor came
in, preceded by a drum and trumpet, the
found of which greatly delighted the Indians.
After mutual falutations, he entered into
converfation with the Sachem, which iflued
in a treaty. The articles were, "(i.) That
neither he nor his fhould injure any of our's.
(2.) That if they did, he mould fend the
der, that ive might punifh him. (3.)
That if our tools were taken away, he fhould
reRore them. (4.) That if any unjuftly war
red againft him, we would aid him ; and if
any warred againft us, he fhould aid us.
(5.) That he fhould certify his neighbour
confederates of this, that they might not
wrong us, but be comprifed in the conditions

of peace. (6.) That when their men came

.
to




214 CARVER.

to us, they mould leave their bows and ar
rows behind them ; as we mould leave our
pieces when we came to them. (7.) That
in doing thus, King JAMES would efteem
him as his friend and ally.'*

The conference being ended, and the com
pany having been entertained with fuch
refrefhments as the place afforded, the Sa
chem returned to his camp. This treaty,
the work of one day, being honeftly intend
ed on both fides, was kept with fidelity as
long as MafafToit lived, but was afterward
broken by Philip, his fucceflbr.

The next day Mdfaflbit fent for fome of
the Englifh to vifit him. Captain Standifh
and Ifaac Allerton went, were kindly re
ceived, and treated with ground-nuts and
tobacco.

The Sachem then returned to his head
quarters, diftant about forty miles ; but
Squantum and Samofet remained at Plym
outh, and inftru&ed the people how to
plant their corn, and drefs it with herrings,
of which an immenfe quantity came into
the brooks. The ground which they plant
ed with corn was twenty acres. They
fowed fix acres with barley and peas ; the

former




G A 11 V E Ri 215

former yielded an indifferent crop ; but the
latter were parched with the heat, and came
to nothing.

Whilft they were engaged in this labour,
in which all were alike employed, on the
5th of April, (the day on which the fhip
failed for England) Governor Carver came
out of the field, at noon, complaining of
a pain in his head, caufed by the heat
of the fun. It fcon deprived him of his
fenfes, and in a few days put an end to
his life, to the great grief of this infant
plantation. He was buried with all the
honours which could be mown to the mem
ory of a good man by a grateful people.
The men were under arms, and fired fevcral
vollies over his grave. His affectionate
wife, overcome with her lofs, furvived hin>
but fix weeks.

Mr. Carver is reprefcnted as a man of
great prudence, integrity, and firmnefs of
mincl. He had a good eftate in England,
which he fpent in the emigration to Holland
and America. He was one of the foremoft
in action, and bore a large {hare of fnffer-
ings in the fervice of the Colony, who con
fided in him as their friend and father.

Piety,




CARVE R.

Piety, humility, and benevolence, were emi
nent traits in his character ; and it is partic
ularly remarked, that in the time of general
iicknefs, which befel the Colony, and with
which he was affected, after he had himfelf
recovered, he was affiducus in attending the
fick, and performing the moft humiliating
fervices for them, without any diftin&ion of
perfons or characters*

One of his grandfons lived to the age of
one hundred and two years ; and about the
middle of the prefent century (1755) he, his
fon, grandfon, and great grandfon, were all,
at the fame time, at work, in the fame field ;
whilft an infant of the fifth generation was
toithiri the houfe, at Marfhfield.

The memory of Governor Carver is ftill
held in efteem ; a fhip belonging to Plym
outh now bears his name ; and his broad-
fword is depofited,'as a cUriofity, in the cab
inet of the Hiftorical Society, at Bofton.



XXIIL




XXIII. WILLIAM BRADFORD.

VV ILLIAM BRADFORD was born
in 1588, at Anfterfield, an obfcure village,
in the North of England.* His parents dy
ing when he was young, he was educated,
firft by his grand parents, and afterward by
his uncles, in the practice of agriculture.
His paternal inheritance was confiderable ;
but he had no other learning than iuch as
generally falls to the ihare of the children of
hufbandmen.

At twelve years of age, his mind became
ferioufly impreflfed by divine truth, in read
ing the Scriptures ; and as he increafed in
years, a native firrnnefs enabled him to vin
dicate his opinions againft oppofition. Be
ing ftigmatized as a Separatift, he was obliged
to bear the frowns of his relatives, and the
feoff of his neighbours ; but nothing could
divert or intimidate him from attending on
the miniftry of Mr. Richard Clifton, and
connecting himfelf with the church over
which he and Mr. Robinfon prefided.

D D When



* Magtwlia, II. 3<



BRADFORD.

When he was eighteen years old, he
joined in their attempt to go over to Hol
land, and was one of the feven who were
imprifoned at Bofton, in Lincoln {hire, as is
already related in the life of Robinfon ; but
he was foon liberated on account of his
youth. He was alfo one of thofe who the
next year fled from Grimfby Common,
when part of the Company went to iea, and
part were taken by the purfuivants*

After feme time, he Went over to Zealand,,
through various difficulties ; and was no'
fooner fet on fhore, than a malicious paflen-^
ger in the fame vefTel accufed him before the
Dutch magiftrates, as a fugitive from Eng^
land. But when they underftood the caufe
of his emigration, they gave him protection,,
and permiffion to join his brethren at Am-
fterdam.

It being impofiible for him to profecute
agriculture in Holland, he was obliged to-
betake himfelf to fom^ other bufmefs ; and,
being then tinder age, he put himfelf as an
apprentice to a French Protefl ant, who taught
him the art of filk-dying. As foon as he at
tained the years of manhood, he fold his pa
ternal eftate in England, and entered on a

commercial



f

BRADFORD. 219

commercial life, in which he was not very
fuccefsful.

When the Church of Leyden contemplated
a removal to America, Bradford zealoufly en
gaged in the undertaking, and came with the
firft Company, in 1620, to Cape Cod.
Whilft the fhip lay in that harbour, he was
one of the foremoft in the feveral hazardous
attempts to find a proper place for the feat
of the Colony, in one of w r hich, he, with
others of the principal perfons, narrowly e-
caped the deftruction which threatened their
fhallop.* On his return from this excur-
fion to the fhip with the joyful news of
having found an harbour, and a place for
fettlement, he had the mortification to hear
that during his abfence, his wife had acci
dentally fallen into the fea, and was
drowned.

After the fudden death of Governor Car
ver, the infant Colony caft their eyes on
Bradford to fucceed him ; but, being at that
time fo very ill that his life was defpaired
of, they waited for his recovery, and then
inverted him with the command. He was
in the thirty-third year of his age ; his

dom,

* Prince, 76.



[ 220 BRADFORD.

dom, piety, fortitude, and goodnefs of heart>
were fo confpicuous as to merit the fincere
efleem of the people. Carver had been
alone in command. They confided in his
prudence, that he would not adventure on
any matter of moment without the eonfent
of the people, or the advice of the wifeft.
To Bradford they appointed an afliftant,
Ifaac Allerton, not becaufe they had not the
fame confidence in him, but partly for the
fake of regularity, and partly on account of
his precarious health.* They appointed but
one, becaufe they were fo reduced in num
ber, that to have made a greater difpropor-
tion between rulers and people would have
been abfurd ; and they knew that it would
always be in their power to increafe the num.-'
ber at their pleafure. Their voluntary com
bination was defigned only as a temporary
expedient, till they mould obtain a charter
under the authority of their fovereign.

One of the firft ads of Bradford's admin-
iftration, was, by advice of the Company, to.
fend Edward Winflow and Stephen Hopkins
to Mafaflbit, with Squanto for their guide,
defign of this embafly was to explore

the

* Hubbard's MS. Hift. p. 49,



BRADFORD. 221

the country, to confirm the league, to learn
the fituation and ftrength of their new friend,
to carry fome prefents, to apologize for fome
mi {behaviour, to regulate the intercourfe be
tween them and the Indians, and to procure
feed-corn for the next planting fcafon.

Thefe gentlemen found the Sachem at
Pokanoket,* about forty miles from Plym
outh. They delivered the prefents, re
newed the friendfhip, and fatisfied themfelves
refpeding the ftrength of the natives, which
did not appear formidable, nor was the en
tertainment which they received either liberal
or fplendid, The marks of defolation and
death, by reafon of the peftilence, were very
confpicuousjj in all the country through
which they palled ; but they were informed
that the Narraganfets, who refided on the
weftern fhore of the bay of that name, were

very

* This was a general name for the northern fhore of
the Narraganfet Bay, between Providence and Taunton
rivers, and comprehending the prefent townlhips of Briftol,
Warren, and Barrington, in the State of Rhode-Ifland,
and Swanzey in MafTachufctts. Its northern extent is un
known. The principal feats of the Sachem were at Sa-
wams and Kikemuit. The former is a neck of land form
ed by the confluence of Barrington and Palmer's Rivers j
the latter is Mount Hope.

See Callender's Century Difcourfe, p. 30, 73.






BRADFORD,

very numerous, and that the peflilence had
not reached them.

After the return of this embafly, another
was fent to Naufet, to recover a boy who
had ftraggled from Plymouth, and had been
taken up by fome of the Indians of that
place. They were fo fortunate as to recover
the boy, and to make peace with Afpinet,
the Sachem, whom they paid for the feed-
corn which they had taken out of the ground
at Paomet, in the preceding autumn,* Dur
ing this expedition, an old woman, who had
never before feen any white people, burft
into tears of grief and rage at the fight of
them. She had loft three fons by the per-*
fidy of Thomas Hunt, who decoyed them,
with others, on board his fhip, and fold
them for flaves. Squanto, who was prefent,
told her that he had been carried away at
the fame time ; that Hunt was a bad man ;
that his countrymen difapproved his con
duct, and that the Englifh at Plymouth
would not offer them any injury. This
declaration, accompanied by a fmall prefent,
appeafed her anger, though it was impofii-*
ble to remove the caufe of her grief.

It

* Mourt's Relation in Purchas, iv. 1853,






A D F O R D,

It was fortunate for the Colony that they
had fecured the friendfhip of Mafaffoit. ; for
his influence was found to be very extenfive.
He was regarded and reverenced by all the
natives, from the Bay of Narraganfet to that
of Mafiachufetts. Though Ibme of the pet
ty Sachems were difpofed to be jealous of
the new Colony, and to difturb its peace,
yet their mutual connexion with Mafaflbit
proved the means of its prefervation ; as a
proof of which, ninje of thefe Sachems vol
untarily came to Plymouth, and fubfcribed
an inftrument of fubmiffion in the following
terms, viz.

"September 13, Anno Domini 1621.
Know all men by thefe prefents, that we,
whofe names are underwritten, do acknowl
edge ourfelves to be the loyal fubjects of
King James, King of Great-Britain, France,
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. In
witnefs whereof, and as a teftimonial of the
fame, we have fubfcribed our names, or
marks, as followeth :

Ohquamehud, Nattawahunt, Quadequina,
Cawnacome, Caunbatant, Huttamoiden,
Obbatinua, Chikatabak, Apannow."

Hobamak,



224 BRADFORD*.

Hobbamack, another of thefe fubordinate
chiefs, came and took up his refidence at
Plymouth, where he continued as a faithful
guide and interpreter as long as he lived.
The Indians of the ifland of Capawock,
which had now obtained the name of Mar
tha's or Martin's Vineyard, alfo fent meflen-
gers of peace.

Having heard much of the Bay of Mafla-
chufetts, both from the Indians and the Eng-
lifh fifhermen, Governor Bradford appoint
ed ten men, with Squanto and two other In
dians, to vifit the place, and trade with the
natives. On the iSth of September, they
failed in a fhallop, and the next day got to
the bottom of the bay, where they landed
under a cliff,* and were kindly received by
Obbatinewa, the Sachem who had fubfcrib-
ed the fubmiflion at Plymouth a few days
before. He renewed his fubmiffion, and re
ceived a promife of afliftance and defence
againft the Squaw Sachem of Maflachufetts,
and other enemies.

The appearance of this bay was pleafing.
They faw the mouths of two rivers which
emptied into it. The iflands were cleared

of

* Suppofed to be Copp's Hill, in the town of Bofton.



BRADFORD.

of wood, and had been planted ; but moft
of the people who had inhabited them either
were dead, or had removed. Thofe who
remained were continually in fear of the Ta'r-
rateneSj who frequently came from the eafl-
ward in a hoflile manner, and robbed them.
of their corn. In one of thefe predatory in-
vafions, Nanepafhamet, a Sachem, had been
(lain ; his body lay buried under a frame,
furrounded by an intrenchment and palifade.
A monument on the top of a hill defignated
the place where he was killed.

Having explored the bay, and collected
fome beaver, the ihallop returned to Plym
outh, and brought fo good a report of the
place, that the people wifhed they had been
feated there. But having planted corn and
built huts at Plymouth, and being there in
fecurity from the natives, they judged the
motives fo,r continuance to be ftronger than
for removal. Many of their pofterity have
judged other wife.

In November, a {hip arrived from Eng
land, with thirty-five paflengers, to augment
the Colony. Unhappily they were fo fhort
of provifion, that the people of Plymouth
were obliged to victual the fhip home, and
E E theu



226 B R A D F O R 0.

then put themfelves and the new comers to
half allowance. Before the next fpring
(1622) the Colony began to feel the rigour"
of famine. In the height of this diftrefs, the
Governor received from Carionicus, Sachem
of Narraganfet, a threatening meflage, in the
emblematic ftyle of the ancient Scythians ;
a bundle of arrows, bound with the fkin of
a ferpent. The Governor fent an anfwer
in the fame ftyle, the {kin of the ferpent filled
with powder and ball. The Narraganfets,
afraid of its contents, fent it back unopened ;
and here the correfpondence ended.

It was now judged proper to fortify the"
town. Accordingly it was fur/rounded with
a ftockade and four flankarts ; a guard was
kept by day and night, the Company being
divided into four fcjuadrons. A felelt num
ber were appointed, in cafe of accidental fire,
to mount guard with their backs to the fire,
to prevent a furprife from the Indians.
Within the ftockade was enclofed the top of
the hill, under which the town was built, and
a fufficiency of land for a garden to each
family. The works were begun in Februa-'
ry, and finished in March.

- Af



BRADFORD. 227

At this time the famine was very fevere.
Fiih and fpring water were the only provifion
on which the people fubfifted. The want
of bread reduced their flefh ; yet, they had
fo much health and fpirit, that, on hearing of
the maflacre in Virginia, they erected an ad
ditional fort on the top of the hill, with a flat
roof, on which the guns were mounted ; the
lower ftory ferved them for a place of wor-
ihip. Sixty acres of ground were planted
with corn ; and their gardens were fown
with the feeds of other eiculent vegetables,
in great plenty.

The arrival of two {hips with a new Col
ony, fent out by Thomas Wefton, but with
out provisions, was an additional misfortune.
Some of thefe people being fick, were lodged
in the hofpital at Plymouth till they were fo
far recovered as to join their companions,
who feated themfelves at Weflaguffet, fmce
called Weymouth.

The firft fupply of provifion was obtained
from the fi fhmg veflels ; of which thirty-five
came this fpring, from England to the coaft.
In Auguft, two fhips arrived with trading
.goods ; which the planters bought at a great
difadvantage, giving beaver in exchange.

The



The fummer being dry, and the harveft ihort,
it became necefTary to make excurfions
among the natives, to procure corn and
beans, with the goods purchafed from the
{hips. Governor Bradford undertook this
fervice, having Squanto for his guide and in
terpreter ; who was taken ill on the paflage,
and died at Manamoifc. Before his death,
he requefted the Governor to pray for him,
<c that he might go to the Englishman's
GOD."

In thefe excurfions, Mr. Bradford was
treated by the natives with great refpect ; and
the trade was conducted, on both parts, with
juftice and confidence. At Naufet, the fhal-
lop being ftranded, it was necefTary to put
the. corn, which had been purchafed, in
ibck, and to leave it, covered with mats and
fedge, in the care of the Indians, whilft the
Governor and his party came home, fifty
miles, on foot. It remained there, from
November to January ; and, when another
fhallop was fent, it was found in perfect fafe-
ty, and the ftranded fhaljop was recovered.*

At Namafket, [Middieborougb] an inland
place, he bought another quantity, which

was

* Winflow, in Purchas, iv. 1858.



BRADFORD.

.was brought home, partly by the people of
the Colony, and partly by the Indian wo
men ; their men difdaining to bear burdens.

At Manomet [Sandwich] he bargained
for more, which he was obliged to leave till
March, when Captain Standifh went and
fetched it home, the Indian women bring
ing it down to the fhallop. The whole
quantity thus purchafed, amounted to twen
ty-eight hogmeads, of corn and beans ; of
which Wefton's people had a fharc, as they
had joined in the purchafe.

In the fpring ( 1 623) the Governor receiv
ed a meflage from Mafaflbit, that he was
fick ; on which occaficn 3 it is ufual for all
the friends of the Indians to viilt them, or
fend them prefents. Mr. Winflpw again
went to vifit the Sachem, accompanied by
Mr. John Hamden,* and they had Hobamak

for

* In Winilov's Journal, Mr. Hamdcri is faid to Uc
" a gentleman of London, \vho then wintered with nz,
and defired much to fee the country." I fnppofe this to
be the fame perfon who diilinguifhed himfelf by his cppofi.
tion to the ilkgal and arbitrary demands of King Charles I.
Ho had previously (1637) embarked for New-England
with Oliver Crcmwel], Sir Arthur Haflerig, and others ;
but. they were prevented from coming by the King's
" proclamaticn i-^airJl difortkrly tranfport.:ng his Majef-

"ty's



BRADFORD.

for their, guide and interpreter.- The vifit
was very confolatory to their Tick friend, and
the more fo, as Winflow carried him fome
cordials, and made him bro^h after the Eng-
li(h mode, which contributed to his recovery,
la return far this friendly attention, Mafaflb-
_it communicated to Hobamak intelligence of
a dangerous confpiracy, then in agitation
among the Indians, in which he had been fo~
licited to join. Its object was nothing lefs
than the total extirpation of the Engliih, and
it was cccaiioned by the imprudent conduct
of Wefton's people in the Bay of MafTachu-
fetts. The Indians had it in contemplation
to make them the firft victims, and then to
fall on the people of Plymouth. Mafaflb-
it's advice was that the Engliih mould feize
and put to death the chief confpirators, whom
he named ; and faid that this would prevent
the execution of the plot. Hobamak com
municated this fecret to Winflow, as they
were returning ; and it was reported to the
Governor.

On

" ty's fubjefts to the plantations in America." Hamdcn
.was born in 1594. and was 29 years old at the time of his
being at Plymouth, in 1623.

See Neal's Hift. N. E. Vol. I. 151. Hazard's State
Papers, Vol. I. 421. Northouck's Biographical
ary, H. A. M.



BRADFORD; 231

On this alarmirig occafion the whole Com*
pany were aflembled in Court, and the news
was imparted to them. Such was their con
fidence in the Governor, that they unani-
moufly requefted him, with Allerton his Af
fiant, to concert the beft meafurcs for their
fafety. The refult was to ftrengthen the for-
tificationsj to be vigilant at home, and to fend
fuch a force to the Bay of Maflachufetts,
under Captain Standiih, as he fhould judge
fufficient to crufh the confpiracy. An In
dian who had come into the town was fuf-
pecled as a fpy,and confined in irons. Stand-
ifh with eight chofen men, and the faithful
Hobamak, went in the fhallop to Wefton's
plantation, having goods as ufual to trade
with the Indians. Here he met the perfons
who had been named as confpirators, who
perfonally infulted and threatened him. A
quarrel enfued, in which feven of the Indians
were killed. The others were fo ftruck with
terror, that they forfook their houfes and re
treated to the fwamps, where many of them
died with cold and hunger ; the furvivors
would have fued for peace, but were afraid
to go to Plymouth. Wefton's people were
fo apprehenfive of the coufequerices of this

affair,



2.3* BRADFORD.

affair, that they quitted the plantation ; and
the people of Plymouth, who offered them
protection, which they would not accept,
were glad to be rid of fuch troubleibme
neighbours.

Thus, by the fpirited conduct of a hand
ful of brave men, in conformity to the ad
vice of the friendly Sachem, the whole con-
fpiracy was annihilated. But when the re
port of this tranfaclion was carried to their
brethren in Holland, Mr, Robinfon, in his
next letter to the Governor, lamented with
great concern and tendernefs, ft O that you
had converted fome, before you had killed
any !"*

The fcarcity which they had hitherto ex
perienced was partly owing to the increafc
of their numbers, and the fcantinefs of their
fupplies from Europe ; but principally to
their mode of labouring in common, and
putting the fruit of their labour into the pub
lic ftore ; an error, which had the fame ef
fect here, as in Virginia. To remedy this
evil, as far as was confident with their en
gagements, it was agreed in the fpring of
1623 that every family flioirld plant for them-

felves,

* Prince,



BRADFORD* 233

felves, on fuch ground as fhould be afligned
to them by lot, without any divifion for in
heritance ;* and that in the time of harveft
a competent portion fhould be brought into
the common ftore, f<jf the maintenance of the
public officers, fimermen and luch other per-
ions as could not be employed in agriculture.
This regulation gave a fpring to induftry ;
the women and children cheerfully went to
work with the men, in the fields, and much
more corn was planted than ever before.
Having but one boat, the men were divided
into parties of fix or feven, who took their
turns to catch fifh ; the more afforded them
mell-filh, and ground nuts ferved them for
bread. When any deer was killed the flefli
was divided among the whole Colony. Wa
ter fowl came in plenty at the proper feafon,
but the want of boats prevented them from,
being taken in great numbers. Thus they
fubiifted, through the third fummer, in the
latter end of which two veflels arrived with
fixty paflengers. The harveft was plentiful ;
and after this time they had no general want
of food, becaufe they had learned to depend
F F on

* Prince, 133. Purchas, iv. 1866.



B R A D F O R



on their own exertions, rather than on for
eign fupplies.

The combination which they made, be
fore their landing at Cape Cod, was the firft
foundation of their Government ; but, as
they were driven to this expedient by necef-
fity, it was intended to fubfift no longer than
till they could obtain legal authority from
their Sovereign.* As foon as they knew of
the eflablimment of the Council of New-
England, they applied for a patent ; which
was taken in the name of John Peirce, in
truft for the Colony. When he faw that


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