American biography: or, An historical account of those persons who have been distinguished in America, as adventurers, statesmen, philosophers, divines, warriors, authors, and other remarkable characters .. (Volume 2) online

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lefs and idle people, the natives of the coun
try, which cannot, in any comely or comfort
able manner, help themfelves ; much lefs us.
We alfo have been very chargeable to many
of our loving friends, which helped us hither,
and now again fupplied us : So that before
we think of gathering riches, we muft even
in confcience think of requiting their charge,
love, and labour ; and curfed be that profit
and gain which aimeth not at this. Befides,
how many of our dear friends did here die
at our firft entrance ! many of them, na
doubt, for want of good lodging, fhelter, and
Comfortable things ; and many more may go


8 H M A N. 277

after them quickly, if care be not taken. Is
this, then, a time for men to begin to feek
themfelves ? Paul faith, that men in the loft
days fhall be lovers of themfelves (2 Tim.
Hi. 2 ;) but it is here yet but the firft days^
and, as it were, the dawning of this new
world. It is now therefore no time for men
to look to get riches, brave clothes, dainty
fare ; but to look to prefent neceffities. It
is now no time to pamper the flefh, live at
eafe, fnatch, catch, fcrape, and hoard up ; but
rather to open the doors, the chefts, and vef-
fels, and fay, Brother, neighbour, friend,
what want ye ? any thing that I have ?
make bold with it ; it is your's to command,
to do you good, to comfort and cherifh you ;
and glad I am that I have it for you."

" Let there be no prodigal fon to come
forth and fay, Give me the portion of lands
and goods that appertain eth to me, and let
me fhift for myfelf. It is yet too foon to
put men to their fhifts ; Jfrael was feven
years in Canaan, before the land was divided
unto tribes, much longer before it was
divided unto families ; and why wouldeft
thou have thy particular portion, but becaufe
fliou thinkeft to live better than thy neigh

278 C U S IJ M A N.

bour, an$ fcorneft to Jive fo meanly as he ?
|but who, J pray thee, brought this particu
larizing firft into the world ? Did not Satan,
who was net content to keep that equal (late,
with his fellows, but would fet his throne
above the liars ? Did not he alfo entice man
to defpife his general felicity and happinefs,
and go try particular knowledge of good
and evil \ Nothing in this world doth more
referable heavenly happinefs, than for men
to live as one, being of one heart, and one
foul ; neither any thing more refembles.
hellifh horror, than for every man to mift
for himfelf j for if it be a good mind and
practice, thus to affect particulars, mine and
thine, then it mould be beft alib for God to
provide one heaven for thee, and another
for thy neighbour.

" ObjeElion. But fome will fay, If all men
will do their endeavours, as I do, I could be
content with this generality ; but many are idle
and Jlothful, and eat up others'' labours, and
therefore it is beft to part, and then every man
may do his plcafure"

" If others be idle and thou diligent, thy
fellowfhip, provocation, and example, may
well help to cure that malady in them, being

together ;

C U S H M A ft

together ; but bong afunder, (hall they not
be more idle, and lhall not gentry and begga^
ry be quickly the glorious enfigns of you?
Commonwealth ?"

" Be not too hafty to fay mefi are idle
and flothful. All men have not ftrength, (kill)
faculty, fpirit, and courage to work alike.
It is thy glory and credit, that thou canft do
fo well, and his {name and reproach, that he
can do no better ; and are not thefe fufficient
rewards to you both ?"

" If any be idle apparently, you have a law
and Governors to execute the fame, and to
follow that rule of the apoftle, to keep back
their bread, and let them not eat ; go not
therefore whifpering, to charge men with
idlenefs ; but go to the Governor and prove
them idle, and thou fhall fee them have
their deferts."

" There is no grief fo tedious as a churl-
ifh companion. Bear ye one another's
burthens, and be not a burthen one to
another. Avoid all factions, frowardnefs,
fingularity, and withdrawings, and cleave
faft to the Lord, and one to another, contin
ually ; fo fhall you be a notable precedent to
thefe poor heathens, whofe eyes arc upon


C U S H M A N.

you, and who very brutimly and cruelly do
daily eat and confume one another, through
their emulations, ways and contentions ; be
you, therefore, amamed of it, and win them, to
peace, both with yourfelves, and one another,
by your peaceable examples, which will
preach louder to them, than if you could
cry in their barbarous language ; fo alfo mall
you be an encouragement to many of your
Chriftian friends, in your native country, to
come to you, when they hear of your peace,
love and kindnefs. But, above all, it mail
go well with your fouls^ when that God of
peace and unity (hall come to vifit you with
death, as he hath done many of your aflb-
ciates, you being found of him, not in
.murmurings, difeontent, and jars, but in
brotherly love, and peace, may be translated
from this wandering wildernefs, unto that
joyful and heavenly Canaan." AMEN,




HIS eminently ufeful perfon was the
eldeft fon of a gentleman of the fame name,
of Droitwich, in \YorcefterXhire, where he
was born in 1594. Of his education and
firft appearance in life we have no knowl
edge. In the courfe of his travels on the
continent of Europe^ he became acquainted
with Mr. Robinfon and the Church under
his paftoral care at Leyden, where he fettled
arid married. To this Church he joined him-
felf, and with them he continued till their
removal to America. He came hither with
the firft Company, and his name is the third
in the lift of thofe who fubfcribed the Cove
nant of Incorporation, before their difem-
barkation at Cape-Cod. His family then
confifted of his wife and three other perfons.
He was one of the Company who coafted the
bay of Cape-Cod, and difcovered the har
bour of Plymouth ; and when the Sachem
Mafaffoit came to vifit the ftrangers, he of
fered himfelf as a hoftage, whilft a conference
was held and a treaty was made with the
{avage Prince.

M M His

W I N S L O W.

His wife died foon after his arrival ; and
in the following fpring, he married Sufanna^
the widow of William White, and mother
of Peregrine, the firft Englifh child born in
New- En gland. This was the firft marriage
folemnized in the Colony ;* (May 1 2, 1 62 1.)

In June, he went in company with Ste
phen Hopkins, to vifit the Sachem Mafaflbit
at Pokanoket.f The defign of this vifit is
related in Bradford's life. The particular
circumflances of it may properly be detailed
here, in the very words of Window's origi
nal narrative.

" We fet forward, the loth of Jiine,J
about nine in the morning ; our guide [Tif-
quantum] refolving that night to reft at
Namalket, a town under Mafaflbit, and con^
ceived by us to be very near, becaufe the
inhabitants flocked fo thick, on every flight
occafion, among us ; but we found it to be
fifteen Englifh miles. On the way, we found
ten or twelve men, women and children,
which had peftered us till we were weary of
them ; perceiving that (as the manner of
them all is) where victual is eafieft to be got,


* Prince, 105. f Purchas, rv. 1851.

$ Mr. Prince thinks this is a miftake, and that it ought
to have been the 3d of July.

\V I N S L O W. 283

there they live, efpecially in the fummer ;
by reafon whereof, our bay affording many
lobfters, they refort every fpring-tide thither,
and now returned with us to NamafkeL
Thither we came about three in the after-,
noon ; the inhabitants entertaining us, with
joy, in the beft manner they could, giving
us a kind of bread, called by them Mazium,
and the fpawn of fhads, which then they got
in abundance ; jnfomuch as they gave us
fpoons to eat them ; with thefe they boiled
mufty acorns, but of the fhads we eat hearti
ly. They defired one of our men to moot
at a crow, complaining what damage they
fuftained in their corn by them ; who moot
ing and killing, they much admired it, as
other mots on other occafions,

"After this, Tifquantum told us, we
mould hardly in one day reach Pakanokick,*
moving us to go eight miles further, where
we mould find more (lore and better victuals.
Being willing p haften our journey, we
went, and came thither at fun-fetting ; where
we found many of the men of Namafket
fifhing at a ware which they had made on a


* The fame wit-.li Pokanokct. Indian wcrds are fpelled
differently by different writers. I here follow the author
from whom I copy.

284 \V I N S L O W.

river, which belonged to them, where they
caught abundance of bafs. Thefe welcomed
us alfo, gave us of their fifh, and we them of
our victuals, not doubting but we mould have
enough wherever we came. There we lodg
ed in the open fields ; for houfes they had
none, though they fpent the moft of the fum-
mer there. The head of this river is re
ported to be not far from the place of our
abode ; upon it are and have been many
towns, it being a good length. The ground
is very good on both fides, it being for the
mod part cleared. Thpufands of men have;
lived there, which died in a great plague,
not long fince ; and pity it was and is to fee
fo many goodly fields and fo well feated^
without men to drefs the fame.

" The next morning we brake our
and took our leave and departed ; being then
accompanied with fix favages. Having gone
about fix miles by the river's fide, at a known
fhoal place, it being low water, they fpake to
us to put off our breeches, for we muft wade
through. Here let me not forget the valour
and courage of fome of the favages, on the
oppofite fide of the river ; for there were
remaining alive only two men, both aged.


W I N S L O W. 285

Thefe two, fpying a company of men enter
ing the river, ran very fwiftly, and low in
the grafs, to meet us at the bank ; where,
with fhrill voices and great courage, {landing,
charged upon us with their bows, they de
manded what we were, fuppofing us to be
enemies, and thinking to take advantage of
us in the water : but feeing we were friends,
they welcomed us with fuch food as they
had ; and we bellowed a fmall bracelet of
beads on them. Thus far, we are fure, the
tide ebbs and flows.

" Having here again refrefhed ourfelves,
we proceeded on our journey, the weather
being very hot ; yet the country fo well wa
tered, that a man could fcarce be dry, but he
fhould have a fpring at hand to cool his
thirft, befide fmall rivers in abundance. The
favages will not willingly drink but at a
fpring-head. When we came to any fmall
brook, where no bridge was, two of them
defired to carry us through of their own ac
cord ; alfo fearing we were or would be
weary, they offered to carry our pieces,
[guns ;] alfo, if we would lay off any of our
clothes, we mould have them earned ; and
as the one of them had found more fpecial


kindnefs from one of the meflengers, and
the other favage from the other, fo they
fhewed their thankfulnefs accordingly in af
fording us all help and furtherance in the

" As we pafTed along, we obferyed that
there were few places by the river, but had
been inhabited ; by reafon whereof, much
ground was clear, fave of weeds which grew
higher than our heads. There is much good
timber, oak, walnut, fir, beech, and exceed-;
ing great chefnut trees.

" Afterward we came to a town of Mak
aflbit's, where we eat oyfters, and other fim,.
From thence we went to Packanokick, but
Mafaflbit was not at home. There we ftaid,
he being fent for. When news was brought
of his coming, our guide, Tifquantum, re-
quefted that at our meeting, we would dif-
charge our pieces, One of us going to
charge his piece, the women and children,
through fear, ran away and could not be
pacified till he laid it down again ; who af
terward were better informed by our inter

" Mafaflbit being come, we difcharged
our pieces and faluted him, who, after their


W I N S L O W. 287

manner, kindly welcomed us, and took us
into his houfe, and fet us down by him,
where, having delivered our meflfage and
prefents, and having put the coat on his back$
and the chain about his neck, he was not a
little proud to behold himfelf, and his men
alfo to fee their King fo bravely attired.

" For anfwer to our meflage, he told us
we were welcome ; and he would gladly
continue that peace and friendfhip which was
between him and us j and for his men, they
fhould no more peiter us, as they had done ;
alfo that he would fend to Paomet, and help
us to feed-corn, according to our requeft.

" This being done, his men gathered near
to him, to whom he turned himfelf and made
a great fpeech ; the meaning whereof (as far
as we could learn) was, that he was com
mander of the country, and that the people
mould bring their ikins to us. He named
at leaft thirty places ; and their anfwer was
confirming and applauding what he faid.

" He then lighted tobacco for us, and fell
to difcourfing of England and of the King,
marvelling that he could live without a wife.
Alfo he talked of the Frenchmen ; bidding
us not to fuffer them to come to Narrowhi-

ganfet ;

288 W I N S L O W*

ganfet ; for it was King James's country,
and he was King James's man. It grew late,
but he offered us no victuals ; for indeed he
had not any, being fo newly come home.
So we defired to go to reft. He laid us on
the bed with himfelf and his wife ; they at
the one end, and we at the other ; it being
only planks, laid a foot from the ground,
and a thin mat upon them. Two more of
his chief men, for want of room, prefled by
ind upon us ; fo that we were worfe weaned
of our lodging, than of our journey.

a The next day being Thurfday, many of
their Sachems or petty Governors came to
fee us, and many of their men alfo. They
went to their manner of games for {kins
nd knives. We challenged them to moot
for {kins, but they dufft not ; only they de-
fired to fee one of us fhoot at a mark ; who
mooting with hail-mot, they wondered to
fee the mark fo full of holes.

" About one o'clock, Mafaflbit brought
two fifties that he had {hot ; they were like
bream, but three times fo big, and better meat.
[Probably the fifh called Tataug.] Thefe
being boiled, there were at leaft forty, that
looked for a fhare in them ; the moft eat of


them. This meal only, we had in two
nights and a day ; and had not one of us
brought a partridge, we had taken our jour
ney fafiing. Very importunate he was with
us, to ftay with him longer ; but we defired
to keep the Sabbath at home and feared we
ihould be light-headed for want of fleep ;
for what with bad lodging, barbarous fmging,
(for they ufe to fing themfelves to fleep) lice
and fleas within doors, and mufketoes with
out, we could hardly fleep, all the time of our
being there ; and we much feared that if we 1
mould ftay any longer, we mould not be
able to recover home for want of ftrength.

" On Friday morning, before fun-rifing,
we took our leave and departed; MafafP
oit being both grieved and aihamedj that he
could not better entertain us. Retaining
Tifquantum to fend from place to place, to
procure truck for us, he appointed another
[guide] Tokamahamon in his place, whom
we found faithful before and after upon all

This narrative gives us a juft idea of the

hofpitality and poverty of the Indians.

They gladly entertain ftrangers with the beft

they can afford ; but it is familiar to them

N N to

290 W I N S L O \V,

to endure long abftinence. THofe who vif~
it them muft be content to fare as they do,
or carry their own provifion and fhare it
with them.

Mr. Winflow's next excurfion was by
fea to Monahigon, an ifland near the mouth
of Penobfcot Bay, to procure a fupply of
bread from the fifhing-vefTels, who reforted
to the eaftern coaft in the fpring of 1622.
This fupply, though not large, was freely
given to the fufFering Colony ; and being;
prudently managed in the diftribution,
amounted to one quarter of a pound for each
perfon, till the next harvelt. By means of
this excurfion, the people of Plymouth be
came acquainted with the eaftern coaft ; of
which knowledge they afterwards availed
themfelves, for a beneficial traffic with the

In the fpring of the year 1623, Mr. Winf-
low made a fecond vifit to the Sachem, on
account of his ficknefs ;f the particular cir-
cumftances of which are thus given in his
own words.

" News came to Plymouth that MafFaflb-
watj was like to die, and that at the fame


* Prince, 119. Purchas, IV. 1836. f Ibid, 1860,
Thus it is fpelt in Winflow's narrative.

W I N. S L O, W. 291


time there was a Dutch mip driven fo high
on the fhore, before his dwelling, by ftrefs of
weather, that till the tides increafed, fhe could
not be got ofE Now it being a commend
able manner of the Indians, when any, ef-
pecially of note, are dangeroufly Tick, for
all that profefs friendftiip to them to vifit
them in their extremity ; therefore it was
thought meet, that as we had ever profefled
friendfhip, fo we fhould now maintain the
fame, by obferving this their laudable cuf-
tom j and the rather, becaufe we defire^ to
have fome conference with the Dutch, not
knowing when we fliould have fo fit aft

" To that end, rnyfelf having formerly
been there, and underftanding in fome meaf-
ure the Dutch tongue, the Governor [Brad
ford] again laid this fervice on myfelf, and
fitted me with fome cordials to adininifter to
him ; having one Mr. John Hamden, a
gentleman of London, who then wintered
with us, and defired much to fee the coun
try, for my confort, and Hobamock for our
guide. So we fet forward, and lodged the
fir ft night at Namafket, where we had friend-
}y entertainment.


393 W I N S L O \Y.

" The next day, about one of the clock,
we came to a ferry in Conbatant's* coun^-
try, where, upon difcharge of my piece, di
vers Indians came to us, from a houfe not
far off. They told us that MafTaflbwat was
dead, and trjat day buried ; and that the
Dutch would be gone before we could get
thither, having hove off their fhip already.
This news ftruck us blank ; but efpecially
Hobamock, who defired me to return with
all fpeed. I told him I would firft think of
it, confidering now, that he being dead, Con-
batant, or Corbitant, was the moft likely to
fucceed him, and that we were not above
three miles from Mattapuyft,f his dwelling
place. Although he were but a hollow-
hearted friend to us, I thought no time fo
fit as this to enter into more friendly terms
with him, and the reft of the Sachems there
abouts ; hoping, through the bleffing of
God, it would be a means in that unfettled
ftate, to fettle their affections toward us ; and
though it were fpmewhat dangerous, in re-


f His name Is fpclt Corbitant, Cpr.batant, and
tant. This ferry is probably the fame which is now call
ed Slade's Ferry, in Swanzey.

t A neck of land in the townfnip of Swanzsy, com
monly pronounced Mattapoifct

N S L O \V. 293

fpet of our perfonal fafety, yet efteeming it
the beft means, leaving the event to God in
his mercy, I refolved to put it in practice, if
Mr. Hamden and Hobamock durfl attempt
it with me, whom I found willing. So we
went toward Mattapuyft.

" In the wry, Hobamock manifefting a
troubled fpirit, brake forth into thefe fpeechr
es. Neen womafn Sagamus, &c. " My loving
Sachem ! many have I known, but never
any like thee !" Then turning to me, he
faid, whilft I lived, I ihouid never fee his
like among the Indians. He was no lyar,
he was not bloody and cruel like other In
dians ; in anger and paffion he was foon re
claimed ; eafy to be reconciled toward fuch
as had offended him ; ruled by reafon, in
fuch meafure as he would not fcorn the ad
vice of mean men ; and that he governed his
men better with few ftrokes, than others did
with many ; truly loving where he loved ;
yea, he feared we had not a faithful friend
Jeft among the Indians, fhewing how often
Jie retrained their malice. He continued a
Jong fpeech, with fuch figns of lamentation
and unfeigned forrow, as would have made
the hardeft heart relent.


W I N S L O W.

" At length we came to Mattapuyft, and
went to the Sachem's place ; Conbutant was
not at home, but at Pokanokick, five or fix
miles off. The fquaw Sachem gave us
friendly entertainment. Here we inquired
again concerning Maffaflbwat ; they thought
him dead, but knew no certainty. Where
upon I hired one to go with all expedition
to Pokanokick, that we might know the cer
tainty thereof, and withal to acquaint Con
butant with our being there. About half
an hour before fun-fetting the rneflenger re
turned, and told us that he was not yet dead,
though there was no hope that we mould
find him living. Upon this, we were much
revived, and fet forward with all fpeed,
though it was late within night when we
got thither. About two of the clock, that
afternoon, the Dutchman had departed, fo
that, in that refpect, our journey was fruf-

" When we came thither, we found the
houfe fo full of men, as we could fcarce get
in, though they ufed their beft diligence to
make way for us. They were in the midil
of their charms for him, making iuch a hell-
im noife, as diftempered us that were well,



and therefore unlike to eafe him that was
Tick. About him were fix or eight women,
who chafed his arms and legs to keep heat
in him. When they had made an end of
their charming, one told him that his friends
the Englifti were come to fee him, Having
his underftanding left, though his fight whol
ly gone, he afked who was come ? they told
him Winfnow ; (for they cannot pronounce
the letter L but ordinarily N in place of it ;)
he defired to fpeak with me. When I
came to him and they told him of it, he
put forth his hand to me, which I took ;
then he faid twice, though very inwardly,
" keen Winfnow ?" " art thou Winflow ?" I
anfwered " afohe" that is, " yes." Then he
doubled thefe words, " Matt a neen 'wonckunet
nawen Winfno'w /" that is to fay, " O Win
low, I fhall never fee thee again !" Then I
called Hobamock, and defired him to tell
Mafaflbit, that the Governor hearing of his
ficknefs, was forry for the fame ; and though,
by reafon of many bufinefles, he could not
himfelf come, yet he had fent me, with fuch
things for him as he thought moft likely to
do him good in this extremity ; and whereof
if he pleafed to take, I would prefently give

him ;

296 \V I N S L O W.

him j which he defired ; and, having a con
fection of many comfortable conferves, on
the point of my knife, I gave him fome,
which I could fcarce get through his teeth ;
when it was dhTolved in his mouth, he
fwallowed the juice of it, whereat thofe that
were about him were much rejoiced, faying
he had not fwallowed any thing in two days
before. Then I defired to fee his mouth,
which was exceedingly furred, and his tongue
fwelled in fuch a manner, that it was not
poffible for him to. eat fuch meat as they
had. Then I warned his mouth, and fcraped
his tongue ; after which I gave him more of
the confection, which he fwallowed with
more readinefs. Then he defired to drink j
I diflblved fome of it in water, and gave
him thereof ; and within half an hour, this
wrought a great alteration in him, and prei-
ently after his fight began to come to him.
Then I gave him more, and told him of a
rnifhap we had by the way^ in breaking a
bottle of drink, which the Governor alfo fent
him, faying, if he would fend any of his men
to Plymouth, I would fend for more of the
fame ; alfo for chickens, to make him broth,
and for other things which I knew were good


W I N S L O W. 297

for him, and would ftay the return of the
meflenger. This he took marvellous kindly,
and appointed fome who were ready to go
by two of the clock in the morning, againft
which time I made ready a letter, declaring
our good fuccefs, and defiring fuch things as
were proper. He requefted me that I would
the next day take my piece, and kill him
fome fowl, and make him fuch pottage as he
had eaten at Plymouth, which I promifed ;
but his ftomach coming to him, I muft needs
make him fome without fowl, before I went
abroad* I caufed a woman to bruife fome
corn and take the flower from it, and fet the
broken corn in a pipkin, (for they have
earthen pots of all fizes.) When the day
broke, we went out to feek herbs, (it being
the middle of March) but could not find any
but ftrawberry leaves, of which I gathered'
a handful and put into the fame, and be-
caufe I had nothing to relifh it, I went forth

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Online LibraryUnknownAmerican biography: or, An historical account of those persons who have been distinguished in America, as adventurers, statesmen, philosophers, divines, warriors, authors, and other remarkable characters .. (Volume 2) → online text (page 14 of 24)