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again and pulled up a faflafras root, and
fliced a piece and boiled it, till it had a good
relifh. Of this broth I gave him a pint,
which he drank and liked it well ; after
this his fight mended, and he took fome
reft. That morning he caufed me to fpend
O o in

W I N S L O \V,

in going among the fick in the town, re-
quefting me to wafh their mouths, and give
them fome of the fame I gave him. This
pains I took willingly, though it were much
offenfive to me.

" When the mefiengers were returned,
rinding his ftomach come to him, he would
not have the chickens killed, but kept them
for breed. Neither durft we give him any
phyfic, becaufe he was fo much altered,
not doubting of his recovery if he were care
ful. Upon his recovery he brake forth in
to thefe fpeeches : " Now I fee the Englifh
are my friends, and love me ; whilft I live*
I will never forget this kindnefs they have
fhewed me." At our coming away, he call
ed Hobamock to him, and privately told him
of a plot of the Maflachufetts againft Wef-
ton's Colony, and fo againft us. But he
would neither join therein, nor give way to
any of his. With this he charged him to
acquaint me, by the way, that I might in
form the Governor. Being fitted for our
return, we took leave of him, who returned
many thanks to our Governor, and alfo to
ourfelves, for our labour and love ; the like
, did all that were about him. So we de


W I N S L O W. 299

In the autumn of the fame year, Mr. Winf-
low went to England as agent for the Colo
ny, to give an account of their proceedings
to the adventurers, and procure fuch things
as were necefiary. Whilft he was in Eng
land, he publifhed a narrative of the fettle-
ment and tran factions of the Colony at
Plymouth, under this title, "Good news from
New-England, or a relation of things remark
able in that plantation, by E. Winllow."

This narrative is abridged in Purchas's
Pilgrims, and has been of great fervice to all
fucceeding hiftorians. To it, he fubjoined
an account of the manners and cuftoms, the
religious opinions and ceremonies of the
Indian natives ; which, being an original
work and now rarely to be found, is* inferted
in the Appendix.

In the following fpring (March 1624) Mr.
Winflow returned from England, having
been abfent no longer than fix months ;
bringing a good fupply of cloathing and
other neceflaries, and, what was of more
value than any other fupply, three heifers
and one bull; the firft neat cattle brought in^
to New-England.*


* Prince, 146.

300 W I N S L O \5T.

The fame year, he went again to Eng
land, where he had an opportunity of cor
recting a miftake which had been made in
his former voyage.* The adventurers, had
then, in the fame fhip with the cattle, fent
over John Lyford, as a" minifler ; who was
foon fufpected of being a^perfon unfit for
that office. When Mr. Win flow went again
to England, he imparted this fufpicion ; and
at a meeting of the adventurers, it appeared
on examination that Lyford had been a
jninifter in Ireland ; where his conduct had
been fo bad as to. oblige him to quit that
kingdom ; and that the adventurers had
been impofed upon, by falfe teftimony con
cerning him. With this difcovery, Mr.
Window came back to Plymouth in 1625,
and found the Court fitting, on the affair of
Oldham, who had returned, after banifh-
ment, The true characters of thefe impot-
tors being thus difcovered, they were both
expelled from the plantation.

About the fame time, Governor Bradford
having prevailed on the people of Plymouth
to choofe five Affiflanls, inftead of one, Mr.
Winflow was firft elected to this office ; in
which he was continued till 1633, when, by


* Prince, 153.

W I N S L O W. 301

the fame influence, he was chofen Gover
nor,* for one year.

Mr. Window was a man of great activity
and refolution, and therefore well qualified
to conduct enterprizes for the benefit of the
Colony. He frequently went to Penobfcot a
Kennebeck, and Connecticut rivers, on
trading voyages, and rendered himfeif ufeful
and agreeable to the people.

In 1635, he undertook another agency in
England for the Colonies of Plymouth and
Maifachufetts ; partly on occafion of the
intrufions which were made on the territory
of New-England, by the French on the eaft,
and by the Dutch on the weft ; and partly
to anfwer complaints, which had been made
to the Government againft the Mafiachufetts


* The following note from Governor Winthrop's Jour
nal is worthy of obfervation.f " Mr. Edward Winflow
was chofen Governor of Plymouth. Mr. Bradford hav
ing been Governor about ten [twelve} years, and now
by importunity got off"

This fingular trait in Bradford's character, of which
there is the fulleft evidence, fufficiently invalidates an in-
fmuation of Hutchinfon, that Winflow's " employment
abroad prevented a competition between Bradford and him
for the Governor's place. "J

Hutchinfon was a Governor of a different character !
f Winthrop's Journal, 47.
t Hutch. HiA. I!. 457.

302 W I N S L O W.

Colony, by Thomas Morton, who had been
twice expelled for his mifbehaviour.

At that time, the care of the Colonies -
was committed to a number of Bifhops,
Lords, and gentlemen, of whom Archbifhop
Laud was at the head.* It was alfo in con
templation to eftablifh a general government
in America, which would have fuperfeded
the charters of the Colonies.

Winflow's fituation, at that time, was,
critical, and his treatment was fevere. In his
petition to the Commiffioners, he fet forth
the encroachments of the French and Dutch,
and prayed for "a fpecial warrant to the
Englifh Colonies to defend themfelves againft-
all foreign enemies. "f Governor Winthrop
cenfured this petition, as *' ill advifed ; be-t
caufe fuch precedents might endanger their
liberties ; that they fhould do nothing, but
by commiffion out of England. "J

The petition, however, was favourably

received by fome of the Board. Winflow

' was heard feveral times in fupport of it, and

pointed out a way in which the object might


* Cotton's Appendix. Collections of the Historical
Society, vol. IV. 119.

f Hutch. II. 458. | Journal, 89. Morton, $4.

\V I N S L O \V. 303

have been attained without any charge to the
Crown, by furmfhing ibme of the chief men
of the 'Colonies with authority, which they
would exercife at their own expenfe, and
without any pijblie national disturbance.
This propofal croffed the defign of Gorges
and Mafon, whofe aim was to eflablifh a
general government ; and the Archbifhop,
who was engaged in their intereft, put a
check to Winflow's propofal, by queftioning
him on Morton's accuiation, for his own
perlbnal condudt in America. The offences
alleged againft him were, that he, not be
ing in holy orders, but a mere layman, had
taught publickly in the church, and had offi
ciated in the celebration of marriages. To the
former, Winflow anfwered, " that fometimes,
when the church was deftitute of a minifter,
he had exercifed his gift for the edification of
the brethren." To the latter, " that though
he had officiated as a magiftrate, in the
folemnizing of marriage, yet he regarded it
only as a civil contract ; that the people of
Plymouth had for a long time been deftitute
of a minifter, and were compelled by neceffi-
ty to have recourfe to the magiftrate in that
folemnity ; that this was not to them a


304 W I N S L O W.

novelty, having been accuitomed to it in
Holland where he himfelf had been married
by a Dutch magiftrate, in the S*tate-houfe."
On this honed confeffion, the Archbifhop
pronounced him guilty of the crime of fep-
araticn from the national Church, and pre
vailed on the Board to confent to his imprif-
onment. He was therefore committed to
the Fleet prifon, where he lay confined fev-


enteen weeks. But after that time, on pe
titioning the Board, he obtained a releafe.

At his return to New-England, the Colo
ny mowed him the higheft degree of refpect,
by choofing him their Governor for the fuc-
ceeding year (1636.) In this office he con-

ducted himfelf greatly to their fatisfa&ion.


In 1644 he was again honoured with the
fame appointment, and in the intermediate
*$mw ^years, was the firft on the lift of magiftrates.
When the Colonies of New-England en
tered into a confederation for their mutual
defence, in 1643, Mr. Winflow was chofen
one of the Commiffioners on behalf of
Plymouth, and was continued in that office
till 1646, when he was folicited by the Col
ony of Maffachufetts, to go again to Eng
land, to anfwer the complaints of Samuel

~ *HW' w

^ p*jt** ; flaT*j tjk



W I N S L O W. 305

Gorton and others, who had charged them
with religious intolerance and perfecution.*
The times being changed, and the Puritans
being in power, Mr. Winilow had great ad
vantage in this baiineis, from the credit and
efteem which he enjoyed with that party.
We have no account of the particulars of
this agency, but only in general, that u by
his prudent management, he prevented any.
damage, and cleared the Colony from any
blame or difhonour."

One defign of the confederation of the
Colonies, was to promote the civilization of
the Indians, and their converlion to the
Chriftian religion. In this great and good
work, Mr. Winflow was, from principle,
very zealoufly engaged. In England, he em-'
ployed his intereft and friendlhip with Mem
bers of the Parliament, and other gentlemen
of quality and fortune, to erect a Corporation-
there, for the profccution of the defign. H'
For this purpoie, an act of Parliament was
pafled (1649) incorporating a Society in
England " for propagating the Gofpel in
New-England." The CommifTioners of the
United Colonies were conftitutcd a Board
P P of


* Hutch. I. 145, I4C

f Hazard's State Paper, II.


. 1

Correfpondents, and diftributors of the
money, which was fupplied in England, by
charitable donations, from all the cities,
towns, and parimes, in the kingdom.* By
the influence and exertions of both thefe
refpetable bodies, millions were fupported
among the Indians of New-England ; the
Bible and other books of piety were tranf-
lated into the Indian tongue, and printed
for their ufe ; and much pains were taken
by feveral worthy minifters, and other gen
tlemen, to inftrut the Indians, and reduce
them to a civilized life. This fociety is ftill
in exiftence, and, till the late revolution in
America, they kept up a Board of Corref
pondents at Bofton, but fince that period, it
has been difcontinued. Of this Corporation,
at its firft eftablimment, Mr. Winflow was a
very active and faithful member in England ;
where his reputation was great, and his abil
ities highly valued by the prevailing party,
who found him fo much employment there,
and elfwhere, that he never returned to

When Oliver Cromwell (1655) planned
an expedition againft the Spaniards in the
Weft-Indies, and fent Admiral Penn and


* Hazard's Colletfior.s, L 636.

f W^



. Jl ** m

* ** !&flL% "

W I N S L W. 307

General Venables to execute it, he appoint

ed three Commiffioners to fuperintend and

direct their operations ; of which number

Winflow was the chief-; the other two were &'**jJt *

Richard Holdrip, and Edward Blagge.*

Their object was to attack St. Domingo, the

only place of ftrength which the Spaniards

had in Hifpaniola.


The commanders difagreed in their tern-

^3l^B* ^~ "^

pers and views, and the control of the Com
miffioners was of no avail. The troops, ill
appointed and badly provided, were landed
at too great a diftance from the city, and loft
their way in the woods. Worn with hun
ger and thirft, heat and fatigue, they were
routed by an inconfiderable number of Span-
lards ; fix hundred were killed, and the rem- ' v.f
nant took refuge on board their veflels.

To compenfate as far as poffible for this
unfortunate event, the fleet failed for Jamai
ca, which furrendered without any refift-
ance. But Mr. Winflow, who partook of
the chagrin of the defeat, did not enjoy the | %^
pleafure of the victory. In the paflage be
tween Hifpaniola and Jamaica, the heat ot
the climate threw him into a fever ; which,
operating with the dejection of his mind, put

* Hume, chap. Ixi,

1 * *

""" "^ "3jtt


308 W I N S L O W.

an end to his life on the 8th of May, 16
in the fixty-firft year of his age. His body
was committed to the deep, with the honours
of war, forty-two guns being fired, by the
fleet, on that occafion.

The following well-meant but inelegant
verfes were written by one of the paflengers
on board the fame fhip in which he died.

" The eighth of May, weft from 'Spnniqla fhore,
God took from us our grand Commiflioner,
"Window by name ; a man in chiefeft truft,
Whofe life vas fweet and convrfation juft ;
Whofe parts and wifdom moil men did excel ;
An honour to his place, as all can tell."*

Before his departure from New-England,
Mr. Winflow had made a fettlement on a
valuable tracl: of land in Marmneld,to which
he gave the name of Carefwell, probably
from a caflle and feat of that name in Staf
ford fhire.f His fon, Jofiah Window, was a
magiftrate and Governor of the Colony, and
General of the New-England forces, in the
war with the Indians, called Philip's war. He
died in 1680. Ifaac. the fon of Jofiah Winf
low, fuftained the chief civil and military offices
in the county of Plymouth, after its incorpo

* Morton's Memorial.

f See Camden's Britannia, 534-

t'^r^Bl. JE^" _J&JHp ' Wt^ ^



I N S L O W.

ration with MafTachufetts ; and was Prefidcnt
of the Prpvincial Council. He died in 1738.
John Winflow, the fon of Ifaac, was a Cap
tain in the unfortunate expedition to Cuba in
1 740, and afterward an officer in the Britifli
fervice, and Major-General in feveral expedi
tions to Kennebeck, Nova-Scotia, and Crown
Point. He died in 1774, aged 71. His
fon, Dr. Ifaac Winflow, is now in poflefiion
of the family eftate at Marflifield. By the
favour of this gentleman, the letter-books and
journals of his late father, Major-General
Winflow, with many ancient family papers,
containing a fund of genuine information,
are depofited in the library of the Hiftorical
Society. There are feveral other reputable
branches of this family in New-England and

, JtU




A HIS intrepid foldier, the hero of
New-England, as John Smith was of Virgin
ia, was a native of Lancafhire, in the North
of England ; but the date of his birth is not
preferred. Defcended from the younger
branch of a family of diftindtion,* he was

" heir

* All which I have been able to colled relative to the
family of Standifh, is as follows :

Henry StaudiJJ), a Franeifcan, D. D. of Cambridge,
Bifhop of St. Aikph, before the reformation, was a bigot
to Popery. Falling down on his knees, before King
Henry VIII. he petitioned him to continue the religious
eftablilhment of his anceftors. This prelate died, A. D,
1535, at a very advanced age.

John Standifh, nephew to Henry, wrote a book againft
the traaflation of the bible into the Englifh language ;
and prefented it to the Parliament. He died in 1556, in
the reign cf Queen Mary.f

Sir Richard Standijh, of Whittle, near Charley. In his
grounds a lead mine was discovered, not long before 1 695,
and wrought with good fuccefs. Near the fame place is a
quarry of mill-ftones4

The village of Standlfb, and a feat called Standijh-Hall,
are fituate near the river Douglas, in Lancafhire, between
the towns of Charley and Wigan, which are about 6 miles
diftant. Wigan is 9 miles north of Warrington, on the
fouthern fide of the county.

rSee Camden's Map of Lancaftiire.
f fuller's Worthies of England, 109, 114.
\ Camden's Britannia, 8c2.

** .

' * Jt

S T A N D I S H, 311

" heir apparent to a great eftate of lands and
livings, furreptitioufly detained from him,"
which compelled him to feek fubfiftence for
himfelf. Though fmall in ftature, he had an
active genius, a fanguine temper, and a ftrong
conftitution. Thefe qualities led him to the
profeffion of arms ; and tlie Netherlands
being, in his youth, a theatre of war, he en
tered into the fervice of Queen Elizabeth, in

aid of the Dutch ; and after the truce, fettled

* *

with the Englifh refugees, at Leyden.

When they meditated a removal to Ameri
ca, Standifh, though not a member of their
church, was thought a proper perfon to ac
company them. Whether he joined them at
their requeft or his own motion, does not
appear ; but he engaged with zeal and refolu-
tion in their enterprife, and embarked with
the firft company in 1620.

On their arrival at Cape-Cod, he was ap
pointed commander of the firft party of fix-
teen men, who went alhore on difcovery ;
and when they began their fettlement at
Plymouth, he was unanimoufly chofen Cap
tain, or chief military commander. In fev-
eral interviews with the natives, he was the
firft to meet them, and was generally accom


S T A N D I S H.

panied with a very fmall number of men, fe-
^ lected by himfelf.

After the league was made with Mafaflbit ;

O 9

one of his petty Sachems, Corbitant, became

, ^ iScLifcontented, and was meditating to join with

the Narraganfets, againfl the Englifh. Stan-

difh, with fourteen men and a guide, went to

Corbitant's place. [Swanzeyl and furrounded

his houfe ; but not finding him at home,

they informed his people of their intention
of deftroying him, if he fliould perfift in his
rebellion. Corbitant hearing of his danger,
made an acknowledgment to Mafaflbit and
entreated his mediation with the Englifh
for peace. He was foon after [Sept. 13,
1621] admitted, with eight other chiefs, to
fubfcribe an inftrument of fubmiffion to the
Englifh government.

In every hazardous enterprife, Captr. Stan-
difh was ready to put himfelf foremoft,
whether the object were difcovery, traffic, or
war ; and the people, animated by his ex
ample, and confiding in his bravery and
fidelity, thought themfelves fafe under his


When the town of Plymouth [1622] was

enclofed and fortified, the defence of it was


** ,/ ' fc

wjm &


S T A N D I S H. 313

V v

committed to the Captain, who made the
moft judicious difpofition of their force. Pie
divided them iato four fquadrons, appointing
thofe whom he thought moft fit, to com
mand ; and ordered every man, on any
alarm, to repair to his refpective ftation, and
put himfelf under his proper officer. A fe-
left company was appointed, in cafe of acci
dental fire, to mount guard, with their backs
to the fire, that they might prevent the
approach of an enemy during the con

Being fent on a trading voyage to Mata-
chieft, [between Barnftable and Yarmouth,
Feb. 1623] a fevere ftorm came on, during
the firft night, by which the harbour was
filled with ice, and Captain Standifh with
his party were obliged to lodge in one of the
huts of the favages. They came together in
a confiderable number, and under the mafk of
friendfhip promifed to fupply him with corn.
Standifh fufpeding, by their number, that *
their intention was hoftile, would not permit
his men to lie down, all at once, but ordered
them to deep and watch by turns. In the
morning a diicovery was made, that fome
things had been ftolen from his fliallop.
Qji. The

' '



14 S T A N D I S H.

The Captain immediately went with his
whole force, confifting of fix men, furround-
ed the houfe of the Sachem lanough, and
obliged him to find the thief and reftore the
ftolen things. This refolute behaviour ftruck
them with awe ; the trade went on peacea-
' bly, and when the harbour was cleared, the
fhallop came off with a load of corn, and ar
rived fafely at Plymouth.

This was the firft fufpicion of a confpiracy,
which had . for fome time been forming
among the Indians, to deftroy the Englim.
In the following month, [March] he had an
other fpecimen of their infolence at Mano-
met,* whither he went to fetch home the
corn which Governor Bradford had bought
in the preceding autumn. The Captain was
not received with that welcome which the
Governor had experienced. Two Indians
from Maflachufetts were there, one of whom
had an iron dagger, which he had gotten


* Manomet is the name of a creek or river which runs
through the town of Sandwich, into the upper part of
Buzzard's Bay, formerly called Manomet Bay. Between
this and ScufTet Creek, (into which Standiih went and re
ceived his corn) is the place, which, for more than a cen
tury, has been thought of, as proper to be cut through, t'o
form a communication by a navigable canal, from Barnf-
table Bay to Buzzard's Bay. Prince, 126.

>f*5 f.

S T A N D I S H. 315

from fome of Weflon's people at Weflaguflet,
[Weymouth] and which he gave to Cana-
cum, the Sachem of Manomet, in the view
of Standifh. The prefent was accompanied
with a fpeech, which the Captain did not
then perfectly underftand, but the purport
of it was, " That the Englifh xvere too ftrong
for the MafTachufetts Indians to attack with
out help from the others ; becaufe if they
fhould cut off the people in their bay, yet
they feared that thofe of Plymouth would re
venge their death. He therefore invited the
Sachem to join with them, and deftroy both
Colonies. He magnified his own ftrength
and courage, and derided the Europeans be
caufe he had feen them die, crying and mak
ing four faces like children." An Indian of
Paomet was prefent, who had formerly been
friendly, and now profefled the fame kind-
nefs, offering his perfonal fcrvice to get the
corn on board the mail op, though he had
never done fuch work before ; and inviting
the Captain to lodge in his hut, as the weath
er was cold. Standifh pafled the night by
his fire, but though earneftly preffed to take
his reft, kept himfelf continually in motion,
and the next day, by the help of the fquaws,


316 S T A N D I S H.

got his corn on board, and returned to Plym
outh. It was afterward difcovered that this
Indian intended to kill him, if he had fallen

About the fame time, happened Mr. Winf-
low's vifit to MafafToit in his ficknefs, and
a full difcovery of the plot, which the In
dians at Maflachufetts had contrived to de-
flroy the Englim. The people whom Wef-
ton had fent to plant a Colony at WeflagufTet,
were fo diforderly and imprudent, that the In
dians were not only difgufted with them, but
defpifed them. Thefe were deftined to be
the firft victims. Their overfeer, John San
ders, was gone to Monhegan to meet the
fifhermen, at their coming to the coaft, and
get feme provifions. During his abfence,
the Indians had grown more infolent than
before ; and it was neceflary that fome force
fhould be fent thither, as well to protect
the Colony as to crufh the confpiracy.
Standifh was the Commander of the party ;
and as this was his capital exploit, it may be
moft fatisfadtory and entertaining to give the
account of it, as related by Mr. Winilow in
his narrative.


S T A N D I S H. 317

"The 23d of March [1623] being a
yearly Court day, we came to this conclu-
fion ; that Captain Standifh mould take as
many men as he thought fufficient to make
his party good, againft all the Indians in the
MafTachufetts Bay ; and becaufe it is impoffi-
ble to deal with them upon open defiance,
but to take them in fuch traps as they lay
for others ; therefore that he fhould pretend
trade, as at other times ; but firft go to the
Englifh, and acquaint them with the plot and
the end of his own coming, that by compar
ing it with their carriage toward them, he
might better judge of the certainty of it, and
more fitly take opportunity to revenge the
fame-; but mould forbear, if it were pofTible,
till fuch time as he could make fure of Wittu-
wamat, a bloody and bold villain, whofe
head he had orders to bring with him. Up
on this, Captain Standim made choice of
eight men, and would not take more, be
caufe he would prevent jealoufy. On the
next day, before he could go, came one* of


* His name was Phinehas Pratt : An Indian followed
him to kill him, but by miffing his way, he efcaped and
got into Plymouth. This man was living in 1677, when
Mr. Hubbard wrote his hiftory. The Indian who follow
ed him went to Manomet, and on his return, vifited Plym
outh, where he was put in irons. Hubbard's MS.

3 i8 S T A N D I S H.

Wefton's company to us with a pack on

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

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