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of which his father was Governor. He
rendered many fervices to the country, both
at home and abroad, particularly in the year
1634, when returning to England, he was,
by ftrefs of weather, forced into Ireland ;
where, meeting with many influential per-
fons, at the houfe of Sir John Clofworthy,
he had an opportunity to promote the inter-
eft of the Colony, by their means.

The next year he came back to New-
England, with powers from the Lords Say
and Brooke, to fettle a plantation on Con

360 I N T H R O P.

river. But finding that feme worthy
perfons from the iMavTachuictts had already
removed, and others were about removing
to make a iettlement on that river at Hart
ford and Weatht-rsfield, he gave them no
difturhance ; but having made an amicable
agreement with them, built a fort at the
mouth of the river, and furnifhed it with the
artillery and flores which had been feat over,
and began a town there, which, from the two
Lords who had a principal mare in the under
taking, w r as called Saybrook. This fort kept
the Indians in awe, and proved a fecurity to
the planters on the river.

When they had formed themfelves into a
body politic, they honoured him with an
election to the Magiftracy, and afterward
chofe him Governor of the Colony. At the
refloration of King Charles II. he undertook
a voyage to England, on the behalf of the
people, both of Connecticut and New-Haven ;
and, by his prudent addrefs, obtained from
the King a charter, incorporating both Colo
nies into one, with a grant of privileges, and
powers of government, fuperior to any plan
tation which had then been fettled in Amer
ica. During this negociation, at a private


W I N T H R O P. 361

conference with the King, he prefented his
majefty with a ring, which King Charles I.
had given to his grandfather. This prefent
rendered him very acceptable to the King,
and greatly facilitated the bufmefs. The
people, at his return, exprefied their grati
tude to him by electing him to the office of
Governor, for fourteen years together, till
his death*

Mr. Winthrop's genius led him to philo-
fophical inquiries, and his opportunities for
converfmg with learned men abroad, fur-
nifhed him with a rich variety of knowledge,
particularly of the mineral kingdom ; and
there are fome valuable communications of
his in the philofophical tranfa&ions, which
procured him the honour of being elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society. He had alfo
much (kill in the art of phyfic ; and gener-
oufly diftributed many valuable medicines
among the people, who conftantly applied
to him whenever they had need, and were
treated with a kindnefs that did honour to
their benefactor.

His many valuable qualities as a gentle
man, a Chriftian, a philofopher, and a public
ruler, procured him the univerfal refpett ot
X X the

362 W I N T H R O P.

the people under his government ; and hia
unwearied attention to the public bufmefs,
and great underftanding in the art of gov
ernment, was of unfpeakable advantage to
them. Being one of the Commiffioners of
the United Colonies of New-England, in
the year 1^676, in the height of the firft
general Indian war, as he was attending the
fervice at Bofton, he fell fick of a fever, and
died on the 5th of April, in the ferenty-firft
year of his age, and was honourably buried
m the fame tomb with his excellent father,*

* Mather's Magnaliav



ed from a noble family of Flanders, and
born at Kipling in Yorkfliire, (1582.) He
received his education at Trinity College,
in Oxford, and after taking his Bachelor's
degree, (1597) travelled over the continent
of Europe. At his return to England, in the
beginning of the reign of James I. he was
taken into the office of Sir Robert Cecil,
Secretary of State ; and when Sir Robert
was advanced to be Lord High Treafurer, he
retained Calvert in his fervice, and employed
him in feveral weighty matters of State.

By the infereft of Sir Robert, then Earl
of Salifbury, he was appointed one of the
Clerks of the Council, and received the
honour of knighthood (1617 ;) and in the
following year was made Secretary of State,
in the room of ' Sir Thomas Lake. Con
ceiving the Duke cf Buckingham to have
been inflrumehtal cf his preferment, he pre-


364 C A L V E R T.

fented him with a jewel of great value ; but
the Duke returned it, with a meflage that he
owed his advancement to his own merit and
the good pleafure of his Sovereign, who was
fully fenfible of it. His great knowledge
of public bufmefs, and his diligence and fidel-
ky in conducting it, had rendered him very
acceptable to the King, who granted him a
penfion of j 1,000 out of the cuftorns.

In 1624, he confcientioufly became a
Roman Catholic, and having freely owned
his principles to the King, refigned his office.
This ingenuous confeffion fo affected the
mind of James, that he not only continued
him on the lift of Privy Counfellors, but cre
ated him Baron of Baltimore, in the county
of Longford in Ireland.

Whilfl he was Secretary of State and one
of the Committee of Trade and Plantations,
Jie obtained from the King, a patent for the
fouth-eaftern peninfula of Newfoundland,
which he named the Province of Avalon ;
from Avalonius, a Monk, who was fuppofed
to have converted the Britim King Lucius,
and all his Court to Chriftianity ; in remem
brance of which event, the Abbey of GlaA
tonbury was founded at Avalon in Sorrier^

C A L V E R T. 365

fetdiire. Sir George gave his Province this
name, imagining it would be the firft place
in North-America where the Gofpel would
be preached.*

At Ferryland, in his Province of Avalon,
he built a fine houfe, and fpent ^25,000 in
advancing his plantation, which he vifited
twice in perfon. But it was fo annoyed by
the French, that though he once repulfed and
purfued their fhips, and took fixty prifoners ;
yet, he found his Province fo much expofed
to their infults, and the trouble and expenfe
of defending it fo very great, that he was
obliged to abandon it, and be content with
the lofs of what h had laid out, in the im
provement of a territory, the foil and cli
mate of which were confidered as unfavour
able to his views, f

Being ftill inclined to form a fettlement
in America, whither he might retire with
his family and friends, of the fame religious
principles, he made a vifit to Virginia, the
fertility and advantages of which had been
highly celebrated ; and in which he had


* See Collier's Dictionary, and Kippis's Biog. Britt.
article Cahert. Fujler's Worthies of England, 202.
Camden's Britannia, 63.

f Chalmers, 201.

C A L V E R T.

been interefted, as one of the adventurers.*
But the people tjiere, being Proteftants of the
Church of England, regarded him with a
jealous eye, on account of his religion ; and
by their unwelcome reception of him, he
was difcouraged from fettling within their

In vifiting the bay of Chefapeak, he ob-
fenged that the Virginians had eftablifhed
trading houfes on fome of the iflands ; but
that they had not extended tfreir plantations
to the northward of the river Potowmack j
although the country there was equally valu
able with that which they had planted.

When he returned to England, he appli
ed to King Charles I. for the grant of a ter
ritory northward of the Potowmack ; and
the King, who had as great an affection for
him as had his father James, readily com
plied with his requeft. But owing to the te-.
dious forms of public bufinefs, before a pa
tent could be completed and pafs the feals,
Lord Baltimore died at London on the i5th
of April, 1632, in the 5ift year of his


* Smith, 130. Beverley, 46.

C A L V E R T. 367

The character of this nobleman k thus
drawn.* Though he was a Roman Catho-
lic v he kept himfelf difengaged from all inte-
refls, behaving with fuch moderation and
propriety, that all parties were pleafed with
him, and none complained of him. He was
a man of great good fenfe, not obftinate in
his opinions, taking as much pleafure in
hearing the fentiments of others as in deliv
ering his own. Whilft he was Secretary of
State, he examined all letters^ and carried ta
the King every night an exact and well di-
gefted account of affairs. He agreed with
Sir John Popham in the defign of foreign
plantations ; but differed in the manner of
executing it. Popham was for extirpating
the original inhabitants, Calvert was for civ
ilizing and converting them. The former
was for prefent profit ; the latter for reafon-
able expectation, and for employing Gov
ernors who were not interefted merchants,
but unconcerned gentlemen ; he was for
granting liberties with caution, leaving every
one to provide for himfelf by his own induf-
try, and not to depend on a common inte-
reft. He left fomething refpe&ing Amer
ica in writing, but it does not appear that it
was ever printed. . ,.

* Collier and Kippls.

3 68 C A L V E R T.

After the death of Sir George, the patent
was again draxvn in the name of his eldeft fon,
Cecil, Lord Baltimore, and paffed the feals
on the 28th of June, 1632. The original
draught being in Latin, the patentee is call
ed Cecllius and the country " Terra Maria y
alias Maryland,"* in honour of Henrietta
Maria, the Queen confort of Charles I.f

From the great precifion of this Charter,
the powers which it gives to the proprietor,
and the privileges and exemptions which it
grants to the people, it is evident that Sir
George himfelf was the chief penman of it.
One omiffion was foon difcovered ; no pro-
vifion was made, that the laws fhpuld be
tranfmitted to the Sovereign for his approba
tion or difallowance. The Commiffioners of
Trade and Plantations made a reprefentation
of this defect to the Houfe of Commons, in

l6 33>

* Hazard, I. 327,

-j- Ogilby (p. 183) fays that a blank was left for the
name of the territory, which Lord Baltimore intended
to have filled with Crefcentia. But when the King afk-
ed him for a name, he complaifantly referred it to his
Majefty's pleafure, who propofed the name of the Queen*
to which his Lordfhip could not but eonfent.

He alfo fays, that the fecond Lord Baltimore was chriil-
ened Cecil, in honour of his father's patron ; but was
confirmed by the name of Cecilius. (P. 184.)

C A L V E R T. 369

1633, and an dtt of Parliament was propofed
as the only remedy.*

The province of Maryland is thus defcrib-
ed. All that part of a peninfula in America,
lying between the ocean on the eaft, and. the
Bay of Ghefapeak on the weft, and divided
from the other part, by a right line drawn
from Watkin's Point, in the aforefaid bay, on
the weft, to the main ocean on the eaft.
Thence to that part of Delaware Bay on the
north, which lieth under the fortieth degree of
north latitude from the equinoctial, where
New-England ends. Thence in a right line,
by the degree aforefaid, to the true meridian
of the firft fountains of the river Potowmack.
Thence following the courfe of faid river
to its mouth, where it falls into the Bay of
Chefapeak. Thence on a right line, acrofs
the bay to Watkin's Point ; with all the
iflands and iflets within thefe limits.

This region was erected into a Province ;
and the proprietor was invefted with palatine
honours. In conjunction with the freemen
or their delegates he had legiflative, and, in
perfon, or by officers of his own appointment,
he had executive powers. He had alfo the
Y Y advowfbn

* Chalmers, 203.

C A L V E R T.

advowfon of Churches, the erection of ma*
nors, boroughs, cities and ports ; faving the
liberty of fiihing and drying fiih which was
declared common to all the King's fubjecTs.
The Charter provided, that if any doubts
fhould arife concerning the fenfe of it, fuch
an interpretation fhould be given as would
be moft favourable to the intereft of the pro

The territory is faid to be " in the parts
of America not yet cultivated^ though inhabit
ed by a barbarous people," and it is provided,,
that the Province " fhould not be holden or
reputed as part of Virginia^ or of any other
Colony, but immediately dependant on the
Crown of England." Thefe claufes, togeth
er with the conftrudtion put on the fortieth
degree of latitude, proved the ground of
long and bitter controverfies, one of which
was not clofed till after the lapfe of a cen

Twelve years before the date of the Char
ter, (1620) John Porey, fometime Secretary
of Virginia, who had failed into the northern
part of the Bay of Chefapeak, reported that
he found " near one hundred Englifh peo
ple very happily fettled there, and engaged


G A L V E R T. 371

in a fur trade with the natives."*' In the
year before the date of the Charter, (1631)
King Charles had granted a licenfe under
the privy feal of Scotland, to Sir William
Alexander, proprietor of Nova-Scotia, and to
William Cleyborne, Couufellor and Secreta
ry of Virginia, to trade in thofe parts of
America, for which there had not been a
patent granted to others ; and fent an order
to the Governor of Virginia to permit them
freely to trade there. In eonfequence of
which, Sir John Harvey and his Council, in
the fame year, had granted to the faid Cley
borne, a permiffion to fail and traffic to the
" adjoining plantations of the Dutch, or to
any Englifh plantation on the territory of
America."f As nothing is faid in thefe inftru-
ments, of the Swedes, who firft planted the
fhores of the Bay of Delaware, it has been in
ferred by the advocates of Baltimore, that
they had not fettled there previous to the
Charter of Maryland ; though the family of
Penn infifted on it as a fat, that the occupan
cy of the Swedes was prior to that period.
In eonfequence of the licenfe given to Cley
borne, he and his afibciates had made a fet-


- .

* Purchas, v. 1784. f Chalmers, 2;? 7,

372 C A L V E R T.

tlement on the Ifle of Kent, far within the
limits of Maryland ; and claimed a monopoly
of the trade in the Chefapeak. Thefe peo*
pie, it is faid, fent Burgefles to the Legiflature
of Virginia, and were confidered as fubject
to its jurifdiclion, before the eftablifhment
of Maryland,

After receiving the Charter, Lord Bald-
more began to prepare for the collecting
and tranfporting a Colony to America. At
firft, he intended to go in perfon ; but after
ward changed his mind, and appointed his
brother Leonard Calvert, Governor, with
two Affiftants, Jeremy Hawley and Thomas
Cornwallis, Thefe, with about two hundred
perfons,* of good families and of the Ro^
man Catholic perfuafion, embarked at Cowes
in the Ifle of Wight, on the twenty-fecond
of November, 1633, and after a circuitous


* The names of the principal men of the Colony were,
George Calvert, brotheryto the Proprietor and Governor*
Richard Gerard, Henry Green,

Edward Winter, Nicholas Fairfax,

Frederick Winter, Thomas Dorrell,

Henry Wifeman, John Medcalf,

John Sanders, William Sayr-e,

John Baxter, John Hill.

Edward Cranfield,

See Douglafs, II. 357. Chalmers, 207. Oldmixon,
I. I8r.

C A L V E R T, 373

voyage through the Weft-Indian iflands,
touching firft at Barbadoes and then at St.
Chriftopher's, they came to anchor before
Point Comfort, in Virginia, on the twenty-
fourth of Feburary, 1634 ; and, going up to
James-Town, delivered to Governor Harvey
the letters which the King had written in
their favour. The Governor and his Coun^
cil received them with that civility which
was due to the command of their Sovereign ;
but they refolved " to maintain the rights of
the prior fettlement." They afforded to
the new Colony fupplies of provifion for
domeftic ufe ; but confidered them as intru
ders on their territory, and as obftru&ing
that traffic, from which they had derived and
expected to derive much advantage,

On the 3d of March, Calvert with his
Colony proceeded in the Bay of Chefapeak,
to the northward, and entered the Potow-
mack, up which he failed twelve leagues, and
came to anchor under an ifland, which he
named Sf. Clement. Here he fired his can
non, erected a crofs, and took pofleflion, " in
the name of the Saviour of the world and
the King of England." Thence he went
with his pinnaces fifteen leagues higher to the



Indian town of Potowmack, on the Virginian
fide of the river, now called New>-Marlbcw
rough ; where he was received in a friendly
manner by the Guardian Regent, the Prince
of the country being a minor. Thence he
failed twelve leagues farther, to the town of
Pifcataway, on the Maryland fide ; where he
found Henry Fleet^ an Englifhman, who had
refided feveral years among the natives, and
was held by them in great efteem. He pro
cured an interview between Calvert and the
Werowance or Lord of the place, and officia
ted as their interpreter. Calvert, determin
ing to purfue a courfe of conduct founded
on pacific and honourable intentions, alked
the Werowance, whether he was willing
that he and his people mould fettle in his
country. His anfwer was fliort and pru
dent : " I will not bid you to go, nor to ftay ;
but you may ufe your own difcretion."
This interview was held on board the Gov
ernor's pinnace ; the natives on the more
crowded to the water's edge, to look after
their Sovereign, and were not fatisfied of
his fafety, till he flood up and mowed him-
felf to them.


C A L V E R T, 37$

Having made this difcovery of the river, and
convinced the natives that his defigns were
amicable, the Governor^ not thinking it ad-
vifeable to make his firft fettlement, fo high
up the river, failed down to the fhips, taking
Fleet with him for a guide. The natives,
who, when they firft faw the (hips and heard
the guns, had fled from St. Clement's Ifland
and its neighbourhood, returned to their hab
itations, and feemed to repofe confidence in
their new friends ; but this was not deemed
a proper ftation. Under the conduct of
Fleetj the Governor vifited a creek on the
northern fide of the Potowmack, about four
leagues from its mouth, where was an Indian
village, furrounded by corn-fields, and called
Yoacomaco. Calvert werit on fhore, and
acquainted the Prince of the place with his
intention ; who was rather referved in his an-
fwer, but entertained him in a friendly man
ner, and gave him a lodging in his own bed.

On the next day, he (bowed Calvert the
country ; which pleafed him fo well, that
he determined there to fix his abode ; and
treated with the Prince about purchafing
the place. Calvert prefented him and his
principal men with Englim cloth, axes, hoes


$ 7 6 CALVE R T.

and knives ; and they confented that their
new friends mould refide in one part of their
town, and themfelves in the other part, till
the next harveft ; when they promifed to*
quit the place, and refign it wholly to them.
Both parties entered into a contract to live
together in a friendly manner ; or, if any
injury fhould be done, on either fide, the
offending party fhould make fatisfaction*
Calvert having given them, what he deemed
a valuable eonfideration, with which they
appeared to be content, they readily quitted
a number of their houfes and retired to the
others ; and, it being the feafon for plant-*
ing, both parties went to work. Thus on
the 2yth of March, 1634, the Englifti Colo
ny took peaceable poffeffion of the country
of Maryland ; and gave to the town the
name of St. Mary, and to the creek, on
which it was fituate, the name of St. George.

The defire of quieting the natives, by giv
ing them a reafonable and fatisfactory com-
penfation for their lands, is a trait in the
character of the firft planters, which will al
ways do honour to their memory.

It was a fortunate circumftance for thefe
adventurers, that, previous to their arrival,


C A L V E R T. 377

the Indians of Yoacomaco, had refolved to
quit their country, and retire to the weft-
ward, that they might be free from the
incurfions of the Sufquehanocks, a powerful
and warlike nation, refiding between the
Bays of Chefapeak and Delaware, who fre
quently invaded them, and carried off their
provifions and women; Some had actually
removed, and the others were preparing to
follow, but were encouraged to remain
another feafon, by the prefence of the Eng-
li'fti. They lived on friendly terms with the
Colony ; the men affifted them in hunting
and timing ; the women taught them to
manage the planting and culture of corn, and
the making it into bread ; and they were
compenfated for their labour and kindrtefs in
fuch tools and trinkets as were pleafmg to
them. According to their promife, they
quitted the place wholly, in the following
year, and the Colony had full and quiet pof-
feflion. .

At his firft fettlement in this place, Calveft
erected a houfe, and mounted a guard for the
fecurity of his people and ftores. He was,
foon after, vifited by Sir John Harvey and
by feveral of the Indian Princes. At an en-
Z z. tertainment

378 C A L V E R T.

tertainment on board one of the fhips, the
Werowance of Patuxent was feated between
the Governor of Virginia and the Governor
of Maryland. One of his own fubjecls com
ing on board and feeing his Sovereign in that
fituation^ ftarted with furprize, thinking him
a prifoner, as he had been, once before, to
the Virginians. The Prince rofe from the
table, and fatisfied the Indian that he was
fafe ; which prevented his affectionate fub-
ject from leaping into the water, as he had
attempted. This Werowance was fo much
pleafed with the conduct of Calvert and his
people, that after many other compliments he
faid to them, at parting, " I love the Englifh
fo well, that if I knew they would kill me y
I would command my people not to revenge
my death ; becaufe I am fure, they woul<J
not kill me y but through my own fault.-"

The Colony had brought with them Eng-
lifh meal ; but they found Indian corn in
great plenty, both at Barbadoes and Vir
ginia ; and by the next rpring, they were
able to export one thoufand buihels to New-
England and Newfoundland ; for which they
received dried fifh and other provillons iri
return. They procured cattle, fwine and


C A L V E R T. 379

poultry from Virginia. They were very in-
duftrious in building houfes and making gar
dens ; in which they fowed the feeds of Eu
ropean efculent vegetables ; and had the
pleafure of feeing them come to high perfec
tion. They fuffered much in their health
by the fever and ague, and many of them
died ; but when the furvivors were feafoned
to the climate, and had learned the ufe of in
digenous medicinal remedies, they enjoyed
their health much better. The country had
fo many natural advantages, that it foon be
came populous. Many Roman Catholic
families from England reforted thither, and
the proprietor, with a degree of wifdom and
generofity, then unparalleled but in Holland,
after having eftablifhed the Chriftian religion
upon the footing of common law, granted
liberty of confcience and equal privileges to
Chriftians of every denomination. With
this effential benefit, was connected fecurity
of property ; lands were given in lots of fifty
acres, to every emigrant, in abfolute fee fnn-
ple. Under fuch advantages the people
thought themfelves fo happy, that in an early
period of their Colonial exiftence, they in
return granted to the proprietor a fubfidy of


$0 C A L V E R T.

fifteen pounds of tobacco, on every poll, " as
a teftimony of their gratitude for his great
charge and folicitude, in maintaining the
government, in protecting the inhabitants
in their rights, and for reimburfm his vaft
expenfe 5" which during the two firft years
exceeded forty thoufand pounds fterling.*

t Chalmers, 208.



WILLIAM PENN, the founder oS
Pennfylvania, was the grandfon of Captain
Giles Penn, an Englifh Conful in the Medi
terranean ; and the fon of Sir William Penn,
an Admiral of the Englifh navy, in the
Protectorate of Cromwell, and in the reign
of Charles II. in which offices he rendered
very important fervices to the nation, partic
ularly by the conqueft of Jamaica from the
Spaniards, and in a naval victory over the
Dutch. William was born October 14,
1644, in the parifh of St. Catherine, near
the tower of London, educated at Chigwell,
in Eflex, and at a private fchool in London ;
and in the fifteenth year of his age entered
as a ftudent and gentleman commoner of
Chrift-Church College in Oxford.

His genius was bright j his difpofition
fober and ftudious, and being pofleiTed of a

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