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American biography: or, An historical account of those persons who have been distinguished in America, as adventurers, statesmen, philosophers, divines, warriors, authors, and other remarkable characters .. (Volume 2) online

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moft falutary laws were included in the body
of the Charter ; all which were declar
ed



P E- N N. . 443

ed irrevocable, except by confent of fix fev-
enths of the Aflembly with the Governor;
but the claufe refpecfting liberty of confcience
was declared abfolutely irrevocable. A pro-
vifional article was added, that if in three
years, the reprefentatives of the province
and territories fhould not join in legiflation,
each county of the province might choofe
eight perfons, and the city of Philadelphia
two, to reprefent them in one AfTembly, and
each county of the territory the fame num
ber to conftitute another Aflembly. On
the 28th of October, 1701, this Charter was
accepted by the reprefentatives of the prov
ince ; previous to which (viz. on the 25th)
the city of Philadelphia was incorporated by
another Charter, and the government of it
committed to a Mayor and Recorder, eight
Aldermen and twelve Common Councilmen.
The perfons in each of tliefe offices were
appointed by name in the Charter, who were
empowered to choofe fucceffors to themfelves
annually, and to add to the number of Al
dermen and Common Councilmen fo many
of the freemen as the whole Court fhould
think proper.

Thefe two Charters were the lair, public
of Mr. Penn's perfonal admihiflration in

Pennfylvama.



444 PEN N.

Pennfylvania. They were done in hafte^
and while he was preparing to re-embark for
England, which he did immediately on fign-
ing them. The cau,fe of his fudden depart
ure was an account which he had received,
that a bill was. about to be brought into Par
liament, for reducing the proprietary and
chartered governments tp an immediate de
pendence on the Crown. In his fpeech to
the Aflembly, he intimated his intention to
return and fettle among them with his fami
ly ; but this proved to be his laft vifit to
America. He failed from Philadelphia in
the end of October, and arrived in England
about the middle of December, 1701. The
bill in Parliament, which had fo greatly
alarmed him, was by the felicitation of the
friends of the Colonies poftponed and finally
loft. In about two months, King William
died, and Queen Anne came to the throne,
which brought Penn again into favour at
Court, and in the name of the fociety, of
which he was at the head, he prefented to
her an addrefs of congratulation.

He then refumed his favourite employ
ment of writing, preaching, and vifiting the
focieties of Friends in England, till the year

1707,



P E N N. 445

1707, when he found himfelf involved in a
luit at law with the executors of a perfon
who had formerly been his fteward. The
caufe was attended with fuch circumftances,
that though many thought him ill ufed, the
Court of Chancery did not give him relief;
which obliged him to live within the rules of
the fleet prifon for about a year, till the mat
ter was accommodated. After this he made
another circuitous journey among his friends,
and in the year 1710 took a handfome feat
at Rumcombe in Buckinghammire, where
he refided during the remainder of his life.
At his departure from Philadelphia, he left
for his Deputy, Andrew Hamilton, whofe
principal bufmefs was to endeavour a re
union of the province, and territory, which
being ineffectual, the province claimed the
privilege of a diftincl: Aflembly.

On Mr. Hamilton's death, John Evans
was appointed in 1 704 to fucceed him. His
adminiftration was one unvaried fcene of
controverfy and uneafmefs. The territory
would have received the Charter, and the
Governor warmly recommended an union,
but the province would not hearken to the
meafure. They drew up a ftatement of their

grievances,



446 PEN N.

grievances, and tranfmitted to the Proprietor
a long and bitter re m on (trance, in which
they charge him with not performing his.
promifes, but by deep laid artifices evading
them ; and with neglecting to get their laws
confirmed, though he had received great
fums of money to negociate the bufmefs.
They took a retrofpetive view of his whole
conduct, and particularly blamed his long ab-
fence from 1684 to 16.99, during which the
intereft of the province was finking, which
might have been much advanced, if he had
come over according to his repeated prom
ifes. They complained that he had not af
fixed his feal to the laft Charter ; that he,
had ordered his Deputy to call ArTemblies by
his writs, and to prorogue and diflblve them
at his pleafure ; that he had referved to him-
felf, though in England, an aflent to bills
pafled by his Deputy, by which means three
negatives were put on their acts, one by the
Deputy-Governor, another by the Proprietor,
and a third by the Crown. They alfo ad
ded to their lift of grievances, the abufes and
extortions of the Secretary, Surveyor, and oth
er officers, which might have been prevented
if he had pafled a bill propofed by the Aflem-

bly,



P E N N.

bly, in 1701, for regulating fees ; the want
of an eftablifhed judicature between him and
the people, for the Judges being appointed by
him, could not in that cafe be confidered as
independent and unbiafled ; the impofition of
quit-rents on the city lots, and leaving the
ground on which the city was built, encum
bered with the claim of its firft pofTeflbrs the
Swedes.

The language of this remonftrance was
plain and unrefervfid ; but the mode of their
conducting it, was attended with a degree of
prudence and delicacy which is not common
ly obferved by public bodies of men in fuch
circumftances. They fent it to him privately,
by a confidential perfon, and refufed to give
any copy of it, though ftrongry urged. They
were willing to reclaim the proprietor to a
due fenfe of his obligations, but were equal
ly unwilling to expofe him. They had al-
fo fome concern for themfelves ; for if it had
been publickly known, that they had fuch ob
jections to his conduct, the breach might
have been fo widened as to difTolve the rela
tion between them ; in which cafe certain
inconveniences might have arifen refpecting
oaths and militia laws, which would not have

been



P E N N;

been pleafmg to an Aflembly confifting chief
ly of Quakers;

Three years after, (viz. in 1707) they fent
him another remonftrance, in which they
complained that the grievance before men
tioned^ was not redrefled ; and they add
ed to the catalogue, articles of impeachment
againft Logan the Secretary, and Evans the-
Deputy-Governor. The latter was remov
ed from his office, and was fucceeded by
Gookin in 1709, and he by Sir William
Keith in 1717; but Logan held his place of r
Secretary, and was in facl: the prime minifter
and mover in behalf of the proprietor, though
extremely obnoxious to the people.

Thefe Deputy-Governors were dependent
6n the proprietor for their appointment, and
on the people for their fupport ; if they dif-
pleafed the former, they were recalled, if the
latter, their allowance was withheld ; and it
was next to impoffible to keep on good terms
with both. Such an appointment could be
accepted by none but indigent perfons, and
could'be relilhed by none but thofe who were
fond of perpetual controverfy.

To return to the proprietor. His infirm
ities and misfortunes increafed with his age,

and



PEN N. 449

and unfitted him for the exercife of his be-
foved work. In 1711, he dictated a preface
lo the journal of his old friend John Banks,
which was his laft printed work. The next
year he was feized with a paralytic diforder,
which impaired his memory. For three fuc-
ceeding years he continued in a (late of great
debility, but attended the meeting of Friends
at Reading, as long as he was able to ride in
his chariot, and fometimes fpake fhort and
weighty fentences, being incapable of pro
nouncing a long difcourfe. Approaching
by gradual decay to the clofe of life, he died
on the 3oth of July, 1718, in the 74th year
of his age, and was buried in his family tomb
at Jordan's in Buckinghamshire.

Notwithstanding his targe paternal inher-
itance, and the great opportunities which he
enjoyed of accumulating property by his
connexion with America, his latter days were
paHTed in a ftate far from affluent: He was
continually iubjecT: to the importunity of his
creditors, and obliged to mortgage his eftate.
He was on the point of furrendering his
province to the Crown for a valuable confid-
ration, to extricate himfelf from debt. The

inftrument
I I i



448 PEN N;

been pleafmg to an Aflembly confifting chief
ly of Quakers.

Three years after, (viz. in 1707) they fent
him another remonftrance, in which they
complained that the grievance before men-
tioned^ was not redrefled j and they add
ed to the catalogue, articles of impeachment
againft Logan the Secretary, and Evans the-
Deputy-Governor. The latter was remov
ed from his office, and was fucceeded by
Gookin in 1709, and he by Sir William.
Keith in 1717; but Logan held his place of r
Secretary, and was in faclt: the prime miniftef
and mover in behalf of the proprietor, though
extremely obnoxious to the people.

Thefe Deputy-Governors were dependent
6n the proprietor for their appointment, and
on the people for their fupport ; if they dif-
pleafed the former, they were recalled, if the
latter, their allowance was withheld ; and it
was next to impoffible to keep on good terms'
with both. Such an appointment could be
accepted by none but indigent perfons, and
could'be relifhed by none but thofe who were
fond of perpetual controverfy.

To return to the proprietor. His infirm
ities and misfortunes increafed with his age,

and



P E N N. 449

and unfitted him for the exercife of his be
loved work. In 1711, he dictated a preface
to the journal of his old friend John Banks,
which was his laft printed work. The next
year he was feized with a paralytic diforder,
which impaired his memory. For three fuc-
ceeding years he continued in a ftate of great
debility, but attended the meeting of Friends
at Reading, as long as he was able to ride in
his chariot, and fometimes fpake fhort and
weighty fentences, being incapable of pro
nouncing a long difcourfe. Approaching
by gradual decay to the clofe of life, he died
on the 3oth of July, 1718, in the 74th year
of his age, and was buried in his family tomb
at Jordan's in Buckinghamfhire.

Notwithftanding his targe paternal inher
itance, and the great opportunities which he
enjoyed of accumulating property by his
connexion with America, his latter days were
pafled in a ftate far from affluent; He was
continually fubjedfc to the importunity of his
creditors, and obliged to mortgage his eftate.
He was on the point of furrendering his
province to the Crown for a valuable confid-
eration, to extricate himfelf from debt. The

inftrument

I i i



fr E W N.

inftrument was preparing for his fignature,
but his death, which happened rather unex
pectedly, prevented the execution of it ; and
thus his province in America defcended to
his pofterity, who held it till the Revolu
tion.



APPENDIX.



Mr. WINSLOV,-'S ACCOUNT of the NATIVE;
of NEW-ENGLAND, annexed to his Narrative
of the Plantations. A. D. 1624. [Purchas,
IV. 1867.]

J\. FEW things I thought meet to add hereunto,
which I have obferved amongft the Indians ; both touching
their religion and fundry other cuftoms among them.
And firft, -whereas myfelf and others, in former letters,
(which came to the prefs againft my will and knowledge)
wrote that the Indians about us are a people without any.
religion, or knowledge of any God ; therein I erred, though
we could then gather no better ; for as they conceive of
many divine powers, fo of one, whom they call Kiebtan*
to be the principal maker of all the reft ; and to be made
by none. He, they fay, created the heavens, earth, fea and
all creatures contained therein. Alfo that he made one
man and one woman of whom they and we and all man
kind came ; but how they became fo far difperfed, that
they know not. At firft, they fay, there was no Sachem
or King, but Kichian, who dwelleth above the heavens,
\vhither all good men go when they die, to fee their friends,
and have their fill of all things. This his habitation lieth
wefhvard in the heavens, they fay ; thither the bad men
go alio, and knock at his door, but he bids them nuacket^
that is to fay, walk abroad, for there is no place for fuch ;
fo that they wander in reftlefs want and penury. Nev ;
man faw this Klehtan, only old men tell them of him, and
bid them tell their cliii-ren, yea charge them to teach their

pofcerities

* The meaning of thr word Kiclxtan l.^th n- f iTence to antiqu. .-.
for cl'ije is an old man. aad Ki:?>-:hifi a man that excccdci'i :n .<-.



452



APPENDIX.



posterities the fame, and lay the like charge upon therr..
This power they acknowledge to be good ; and when they
would obtain any great matter, meet together and cry un
to him ; and fo likewife for plenty, victory, &c. fmg, dance,
feaft, give thanks, and hang up garlands and other'things
in memory of the fame.

Another power they \vorfhip, whom they call Hobbamc:k,
and to the northward of us, Hobbamoqui ; this, as far as
we can conceive, is the devil. Him they call upon, to cure
their wounds and difeafes. When they are curable, he
perfuades them he fends the fame, for feme conceived an
ger againft them ; but upon their calling upon him, can
and doth help them ; but when they are mortal and not
curable in nature, then he perfuades them Kiehtan is an-
^ry, and fends them, whom none can cure ; infomuch as
in that r.efpecl only they fomewhat doubt whether he be
fimply good, and therefore in ficknefs never call upon him.
This Hobbamock appears m fundry forms unto them, as
in the fhape of a man, a deer, a fawn, an eag'le, &c. but
inoft ordinarily a fnake. Ha appears not to all, but the
chiefeft and moft judicious among them ; though all of
them ftrive to attain to that helliili height of honour. He
appears mod ordinary, and is moft converfant with three
forts of people : one, I confefs I neither know by name or
office dircflly ; of thefe they have few, but efteem highly
of them, and think no weapon can kill them ; another they
call by the name of Povjak, and the third Panlsfs.

The office and duty of the Powah is to be exercifed
principally in calling upon the devil, and curing difeafes of
the fick or wounded. The common people join with them
in the exercife of invocation, but do but only afTent, or as
we term it, fay Amen to that he faith ; yet fometimc
break out into a fhort mufical note with him. The Powah
is eager and free in fpeech, fierce in countenance, and join-
eth many antic and laborious geftures with the fame, over
the party difeafed. If the party be wounded, he will alfq
fecm to fuck the wound ; but if they be curable, (as they

iky)



APPENDIX. 45 j

fay) he toucheth it not, but a (hooke, that is the {hake, or
Wcbfacuck, that is the eagle, fitteth on the Ihoulder, and
Jicks the lame. This none fee but the Pownh, who tells
them he doth it himfelf. If the party be otherwife difcaf-
ed, it is accounted fufficient if in any fhape he but come
into the houfe, taking it for an undoubted fign of recovery.

And as in former ages Apollo had his temple at Delphcs,
and Diana at Ephefus, fo have I heard them call upon
fome as if they had their refidence in fome certain places,
or becaufe they appeared in thofe forms in tjie fame. Ity
the Powah's fpeech, he promifeth to facrificc many fltins
of beafts, kettles, hatchets, beads, knives, and other the
beft things they have to the fiend, it" he will come to help
the party difeafed ; but whether they perform it I know
not. The other practices I have feen, being neceflarily
called fometimes to be with their fick, and have ufed the
Left arguments I could to make them underftand againft
the fame. They have told me I fhould fee the devil at
thofe times come to the party ; but I a/Tared myfelf and
them of the contrary, which fo proved ; yea, themfelves
have confefred they never faw him when any of us were
prefent. In defperate and extraordinary hard travail in
c^hild-birth., when the party cannot be delivered by the or
dinary meanc, they fend for this Powah ; though ordina
rily their travail is not fo extreme as in other parts of the
world, they being of a more hardy nature ; for on the
third day after child-birth, I have feen the mother with the
infant, upon a fmall occafion, in cold weather, in a boat
upon the fea.

Many facrificcs the Indians ufe, and in fome cafes they
kill children. It fcemcth they are various in their reli
gious worfliip in a little diftance, and grow mora and
more cold in their wcrfhip to Kiehtan : laying, in their
memory, he was much more called upon. The Narohig-
ganfets exceed in their blind devotion, and 'have a great
Ipacious houfe, wherein only fome few (that are, as \ve
may term them, Pritfts) come : thither, at certain known

times,



454 APPENDIX.

times, refort all their people, and offer almoft all the riches
they have to their gods, as kettles, {kins, hatchets, beads,
knives, &c. all which are caft by the priefts into a great
fire that they mike in the midfl of the houfe, and there
confumed to afhes. To this offering every man bringeth
freely ; and the more he is known to bring, hath the bet
ter efteem of all men. This, the other Indians about us
approve of as good, and wifh their Sachems would ap
point the like : and becaufe the plague has not reigned at
Narohigganfet as at other places about them, they attrib
ute to this cuftom there ufcd.

The Paniefes are men of great courage and wifdom, and
to theft: aifo the devil appeareth more familiarly than to
other;, rnd as \VQ conceive, makcth covenant with them,
to prefer ve them from death, by wounds with arrows,
knives, hatchets, Sac. or at leaft both themfelves and ef-
pecially the people think themfalves to be freed from the
fame. And though againfl their battles all of them by
painting, disfigure themfelves, yet they are known by their
courage and boldncfs, by reafon whereof one of them will
chafe almoft an hundred men ; for they account it death
for whomfoever ftand in their way. Thefc are highly
efteerned of all forts of people, and are of the Sachems coun-
fel. without whom they will not war, or undertake any
weighty bufmefs. In war their Sachems, for their mors
fafety, go in the midft of them. They are commonly
men of great itature and ftrength, and fuch as will endure
:ii oft hardnefs, and yet are more difcreet, courteous and
humane in- tlv.^ir carriages than any amongft them, fcorn-
ing theft, lying, and the like bafe. dealings, and ftand
as ranch upon their reputation as any men. And to the
end ti : :,avc /ti>re of thcfe, they train up the moil

: ,.1 :md likclicil boys, from their childhood, in great

ha.rJnefs, and make them abfbiin from dainty meat, cb-
jerving divers orders prefcribed, to the end that when
::e cf age, the devil may appear to them, can fin g

to






APPENDIX. 455

to drink the juice of fentry and other bitter herbs, till they
baft, which they muft difgorge into the platter, and drink
again and again, till at length througli extraordinary pref-
flng of nature it will fecm to be all blood ; and this the
boys will do with eagernefs at the firft, and fo continue
till by reafon of faintnefs, they can fcarce ftand on their
legs, and then muft go forth into the cold : alfo they beat
their fhins with fticks, and caufe them to run through bufli-
es and ftumps and brambles, to make them hardy and
acceptable to the devil, that in time he may appear unto
them.

Their Sachems cannot be all called Kings, but only-
feme few of them, to whom the reft refort for protection
and pay homage unto them ; neither may they war with
out their knowledge and approbation ; yet to be com
manded by the greater, as occafion feemeth. Of this fort
is MaJJaJ/b-iuat our friend, and Ccnanacus of Narohigganfet
our fuppofed enemy. Every Sachem taketh cnre of the
widow and fatherlefs, alfo for fuch as are aged and any
Way maimed, if their friends be dead, or not able to pro
vide for them. A Sachem will not take any to wife but
fuch an one as is equal to him in birth ; otherwife, they
fay their feed would in time become ignoble ; and though
they have many other wives, yet are they no other than
concubines or fervants, and yield a kind of obedience to
the principal, who ordereth the family and them in it.
The. like their men obferve alfo, and will adhere to the flrft
during their lives ; but put away the other at their pleaf-
ure. This government is fucceffive and not by choice ; if
the father die before the fon or daughter be of age, then
then the child is committed to the protection and tuition
of fome one amongft them, who ruleth in his ftcad till Jic
be of age, but when that is I know not.

Every Sachem knoweth how far the bounds and limits
of his own country extendeth ; and that is his own proper
inheritance ; out of that, if any of his men defire land toj
fet their com, he giveth them as much as they can ufe, and

icts



A P P E N D" I X,

fets them in their bounds. In this circuit, whoever hunt'
sth, if any kill venifon, they bring him his fee j which is
four parts of the fame, if it be killed on land, but if in the
water, then the fkin thereof. The Great Sach'ems or
Kings know not their own bounds or limits of land, as
well as the reft. All travellers or flrangers for the moft
part lodge at the SachenVs. When they come, they tell
them how long they will (lay and to what place they go j
during which time they receive entertainment, according
to their perfons, but want not. Once a year the Paniefes"
ufe to provoke the people to' beftow much' cor A' on the Sa
chem. To that end, they appoint a certain time and place,'
near the Sachem's dwelling, where the people bring many
bafkets of corn and make a great (lack thereof. There
the Paniefes ftand ready to give thanks to the people, onT
the Sachem's behalf ; and after acquaint the Sachem
therewith, who fetcheth the fame and is no lefs thankful,'
beftowing many gifts on them.

When any are vifitcd with ficknefs, their friends refort
unto them for their comfort, and continue with them often
times till their death or recovery. If they die, they flay
a certain time to mourn for them. Night and morning
they perform this duty, many days after the burial, in a
moft doleful manner, infomuch as though it be ordinary
and die note mufical which they take from one another
and altogether ; yet it will draw tears from their eyes and
almoft from ours alfo. But if they recover, then becaufe
their ficknefs was chargeable, they fend corn and other
gifts unto them, at a certain appointed time, whereat they
feaft and dance, which they call commorc. When they"
bury the dead, they fow up the corpfe in a mat, and fo put
it in the earth ; if the party be a Sachem, they cover hini
with many curious mats, and bury all his riches with him,
and enclofe the grave with a pale. If it be a child, the
father will alfo put his own moll fpecial jewels and orna
ments in the earth with it ; alfo he will cut his hair, and
disfigure himfelf very much in token of forrow. If it b

the-



APPENDIX. 457

the man or woman of the houTe ; they will pull down the
fciatts, and leave the frame ftanding, and bury them in
or ne.tr the fame, and cither remove their dwelling or give
over houfe-keeping.

The men employ themfelres wholly in hunting, and
other exercifes of the bow, except at feme times they take
fome pains in fiftung. The women live a moft flaviflx
life ; they carry all their burdens ; fet and drefs their corn,
gather it in, and fcek out for much of their food ; beat and
make ready the corn to eat, and have all houfehold care
lying upon them.

The younger fort reverence the elder, and do all mean
offices, whilft they are together, although they be ftran-
gers. Boys and girls may not wear their hair like men.
and women, but are diftinguifhcd thereby.

A man is not accounted a man till he do fome notable
aft, or (hew forth fuch courage and refolution as becom-
cth his place. The men take much tobacco, but for boys
fo to do, they account it odious.

All their names are Significant and variable ; for when
they come to the ftate of men and women, they alter them
according to their deeds or difpofitSons.

When a maid is taken in marriage, flie fin! cutteth her
hair, and after weareth a covering on her head, till h^-r
hair be grown out. Their women are diverfely difpolfcd,
fome as modeft, as they will fcarce talk one with another
in the company of men ; being very chafte alfo ; yet otliT
er fome are light, lafcivious and wanton. If a woman
have a bad hufband, or can-not affefl him, and there be


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Online LibraryUnknownAmerican biography: or, An historical account of those persons who have been distinguished in America, as adventurers, statesmen, philosophers, divines, warriors, authors, and other remarkable characters .. (Volume 2) → online text (page 22 of 24)