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war or oppofition between that and any other people, (be
will run away from him to the contrary party, and there
live, where they never come unwelcome ; for lukere are
tnojl women there is greatejl plenty.

When a woman hath her monthly term*;, (he feparateth
herfclf from all other company, and liveth certain d.r/s in
a houfe alone ; after which, (he wa&eth hcrfelf, and all
Kick tfci

A P ? I-: N D I X,

r.hat fhe hath touched or ufed, and is again received to her
bulband's bed or f'unily. For adultery, the hufband will
beat; his wife and put her away, if he plcafa Some com.
mon {trumpets there are, us well as in other places ; but
they are fuch as either nevef married, or widows, or put
away for adultery ; -for no man will keep fuch a one to

In matters of unjut't and difhonefl dealing, the Sachem
examineth and punifheth the fame. In cafe of theft, for
the firft offence, he is difgracefully rebuked ; for the fee*
ond, beaten by the Sachem, with a cudgel on the naked
back ; for the third> he is beaten with many flrokes, and
hath his nofe (lit upwards, that thereby all men may know
and fhun him. If any man kill another, he muft likewife
die for the fame. The Sachem not only pafleth fentence
Upon malefactors, but executeth the fame with his own
hands, if t?he party be then prefent ; if not, fendeth his
own knife in cafe of death, in the hands of others to per
form the fame. But if the offender be to receive other
punifhment, he will not receive the fame but from the Sa
chem himfelf, before whom* being naked, he kneeleth, and
will not offer to run away, -though he beat him never fo
touch, it being a greater difparagement for a man to cry
riur-ng the time of his correction, than is his offence and

As for their apparel, they wear breeches and ftockings
fn one, like feme Iriih, which is made of deer fkins, and
have fhoes of the fame leather. They wear alfo a deer's
/kin loofe about them like a cloak, which they will turn to
the weather fide. In this habit they travel ; but when
they are at home, or come to their journey's end, they
prefently pull oft therr breeches, ftockings and fhoes, wring
out the water, if they be wet, and dry them, and rub or
chafe the fame. Though thefe be off, yet have they an
other fmall garment which covereth their fecrets. The
wen wear alfo, when- they go abroad in cold weather, an
otfcrjror fox fkin on their right arm j but only their bracer


A T P E N D I X. 459

on the left." Women, and all of that fex* wear firings
about their legs, \vhich the men never do.

The people are very ingenious and obfcrvative ; they
keep account of time, by the moon, and winters or fum-
mers ; they know divers of the ftars by name ; in particu
lar they know the North Star, and call it Majke, which is
to fay, the Bear.; aiib they have many names for the winds.
They will guefs very well at the wind and weather before
hand, by obfervations in the heavens. They report alfo,
that fome of them can caufe the wind to blow in what
part they liit can raife ftorms and tempers, which they
afually do, when they intend the death or deftruction cf
other people, that by reafon of the unfeafonable weather.
they may take advantage of their enemies in their houfe's.
At fuch times they perform their greateft exploits, and at
fuch feafons, when they are at enmity with any, they keep
more careful watch than at other times.

As for their language, it is very copious, large, and diffi
cult, as yet we cannot attain to any great meafare thereof;
but can underftand them, and explain ourfelves to their un-
derilanding, by the help of thofe that daily converfe with
us. And though there be difference .in an hundred miles
diflance of place, both in language and manners, yet
not fo much but that they very well underftand each other.
And thus much of their lives and manners.

Inftead of Records and Chronicles, they take this courfe ;
Where any remarkable a<fl is done, in memory of it, either
in the place, or by fome pathway near adjoining, they
make a round hole in the ground about a foot deep, and
as much over, v.-hich when others pafiing by behold, they
inquire the caufe and occafion of the lame, which being
once known, they are careful to acquaint all men, as occa
fion ferveth therewith ; and' left fuch holes inoiild be lilk-ci
or grown up by any accident, as men pa/'s by, they will
oft renew the fame : By which means many tilings of great
antiquity are freih in memory. So that as a man travel-


leth, if he can underftand his guide, his journey will be left,
tedious, by rcafon of many hiftorical difcourfes which will
be related to him.

For that continent on which we are, called New-Eng
land, although k hath ever been conceived by the EnglifH
to be a part of the main land adjoining to Virginia, yet by 1
relation of the Indians it fhould appear to be otherwife ;
for they afErm confidently that it is an- iiland, and that
either the Dutch or French pafs through from fea to fea
between us and 'Virginia, and drive a great trade m the
fame. The name of that inlet of the fea they call Moht'
57;, which I take to be the fame which we call Hudfon's
river, up which Mafter Hudfon went many leagues, and
for want of means (as I hear) left it undifcovered. For
confirmation of this their opinion is thus much ; though
Virginia be not above an hundred leagues from us, yet they
never heard of Powhatan, or knew that any Englifii were
planted in his country, fave only by us and Ttfquantum^
who went thither in an Englifh fhip ; and therefore it is
more probable, becaufe the water is not pa/Table for them,
who are very adventurous in their boats.

Then for the temperature of the air, in almoft three
years experience I can fcarce diftinguifc New-England
from Old-England, in refpecl of heat and cold, froft, fnow,
rain, wind, &c. Some object becaufe our plantation lieth
in the latitude of two and forty, it muft needs be much,
hotter. I confefs I cannot give the reafon of the contrary ;
only experience teaches us, that if it do exceed England, it
is fo little as muft require better judgments to difcern it.
And for the winter, I rather think (if there be difference)
it is both fnarper and longer in New- England than Old ;
and yet the want of thofe comforts in the one, which 1 have
enjoyed in the ether, may deceive my judgment alfo.
But in my beft obfervation, comparing our own conditions-
with the relations of other parts of America, I cannot
conceive of any to agree better with the constitutions of
the Englifh, not being oupreffed with the extremity of



beat, nor nipped by biting cold, by which means, bleffed

be God, we enjoy our health, notwithstanding thofe dilH-
cukies we have undergone, in fuch a meafure as would
have been admired had we lived in England with the
like means. The day is two hours longer than here when
at the fhorteft, and as much fhorter when at the longeft.

The foil is variable, in fome places mould, in Come clay,
and others a mixed fund, &c. The chiefeft grain is the
Indian maife or Guinea wheat ; the feed-time beginncth in
the midil of April, and continueth good till the midit of
May. Our harvcft beginneth with September. This
corn increafeth in great meafure, but is inferior in quality
to the fame in Virginia ; the reafon I conceive is becaufo
Virginia is far hotter than it is with us, it requiring great
heat to ripen. But whereas it is objected againft New-Eng
land, that corn will not grow there except ths ground be;
manured with fifh : I anfwer, that where men fet with fifh
(as with us) it is more eafy fo to do than to clear ground,
and fet without fome five or fix years, and fo begin anew,
as in Virginia and elfewhcre. Not but that in fome places
where they cannot be taken with cafe in fuch abundance,
the Indians fet four years together without them, and
lhave as good corn or better than we have that fet with
them ; though indeed I think if we had cattle to till the
ground, it would be more profitable and better agreeable
to the foil to fow wheat, rye, barley, peas and oats, than
to fet maife, which our Indians call E'vactim : for we have
had experience that they like and thrive well ; and the
other will not be procured without good labour and dili
gence, efpecially at feed-time, when it muft alfo be watched
by night, to keep the wolves from the fifh, till it be rotten,
which will be in fourteen days, yet men agreeing together
and taking their turns, it is not much.

Much might be fpoken of the benefit that nay come to
fuch as ihall plant here, by trading with the Indians for
furs, if men take a right cc-urfe for obtaining the fame ;
for I dare prcfume upon that fmall experience I have had



to affirm, that the Englifh, Dutch and French return
yearly many thoufand pounds profit by trade only, from
that ifland on which we are feated.

Tobacco may be there planted, hut not with that profit
as in fome other places, neither were it profitable there to
follow it, though the increafe were equal, becaufe fifh is a
better and richer commodity, and more neceflary, which
may be and there are had in as great abundance as in any
other part of the world ; witnefs the weft-country mer
chants of England, which return incredible gains yearly
from thence. And if they can fo do, which here buy
their fait at a great charge, and tranfport more company
to make their voyage than will fail their fhips, what may
the planters expect when once they are feated, and make
th ; moft of their fait there, and employ themfelves at leaft
eight months in fifhing, whereas the other fifh but four
a s nd have their fhip lie dead in the harbour- all the time,
whereas fuch fhipping as belong to Plantations may take
freight of paflengers or cattle thither, and have their
Jading provided againft they come ? I confefs we have
come fo far fhort of the means, to raife fuch returns, as
with great difficulty we have preferved our lives ; info-
much as when I look back upon our condition, and weak
means to preferve the fame, I rather admire at God's mer
cies and providence in our prefervation, than that no great
er things have been effected by us. But though our be-
<nnning have been thus raw, fmall and difficult, as thou
haft feen, yet the fame God that hath hitherto led us
through the former, I hope xvill raife means to accomplifh
the latter.



.LLERTON Ifaac, Afflftant to Governor

Bradford, 220

Archer Gabriel, Journalift of Gofnold's Voyage, no
Argal Samuel, fails from Virginia with Sir George:

Somers, 34

, returns to Virginia, ibia

, carries Lord Delaware to England, 40

, returns to Virginia, ibid

, his Voyage to the Patowmack, 41

, obtains Focahcntas from Japazaws, and car
ries her to James-Town, ibid

, accompanies Dale on a Treaty with the

Chickahomeny Indians, 44
' , expedition to the Northern part of Virginia, 5 1

1 , attacks the French at Mount Defart, 52

, takes PofTeffion of their Fort, Ibid

, takes and dcttroys Fort Royal, 53

, his Conference with Biencourt, ibid

, vifits the Dutch at Hudlbn's River, 55

* , Dutch Governor furrenders to him, ibid

, his Voyage to England, 86

, appointed Deputy-Governor of Virginia, 5*7

, arrives in Virginia, ibid

, revives Difcipline, 58

, becomes Odious by his Rigour, 59

, charged with Peculation, 59, 60

, his oppreflive Treatment of Brewfter, Lord

Delaware's Agent, 60

, fuperfeded, 61

, efcapes by Aid of the Earl of Warwick, 62

, commands a Ship againft the Algcrines, 63

< , knighted by King James, ibid

. , his Character, 62


Baltimore Lord, vide Calvert George.

Bermuda Iflands, Defcription of them, 27, 28

Bofton founded, 340

, favours the Opinion of Mr. Hutchinfon, 348

, Oppofition to Governor Winthrop, 347, 350

Brewfter William, his Education, 252

-, enters into the Service of Davifon, ibid

4^4 INDEX.


Brewfter, intruded with the Keys of Fluffing, 252

, honoured by the States of Holland, 253

, adheres to Davifon in his Misfortunes, 254

, joins Mr. Clifton's and Robinfon's Church, 255

, removes to Holland, 258

, employed as an Inftru&or at Leyden, ibid

, fets up a Printing-Office, ibi4

, removes to America, 257

, chofen Ruling Elder at Plymouth, ibid

, officiates as a Preacher, ibid

, his Death, 263

, his Character, 263, 265;

, his Library, 260

Bradford William, his Birth and Education, 217

, joins Robinfon's and Clifton's Church ibid

, imprifoned, 218

, removes to Amfterdarh, ibid

, unfuccefsful in Trade, 2 1 9

, accompanies the Adventurers to New-England, ibid
* , makes an Excurfion from Cape-Cod Harbour, ibid

, his Wife drowned, ibid

, chofen Governor of New-Plymouth, ibid

, fends an Embafly to Mafia/Toil, 220

, fends a Party to the Bay of Maflachufetts, 224

, receives a threatening Meffage from Canonicns, 226

, makes a Voyage for Corn, &c. 228, 229

, fends Meflengers to MaflafToit in his Sicknefs, 229

, receives Intelligence of a Conspiracy of the In
dians, 230

, adopts Meafures cf Defence, 231

, furrenders the Patent to the Colony, 239

, his Death, 244

, his Character, 245, 248

, his Hiftory of the Colony, 246

r, Part of his Letter Book found at Halifax, 247

, his difcreet and decifive Proceedings with

Lyford, 248, 250

, his Defcendants, 251

Brown Robert, Head of a zealous Party of Puritans, 151
Bucks Richard, Chaplain to Sir George Somers, 28

Buzzard's Bay, 114

Calvert George, his Birth and Education, 363

, in the Service of Sir Robert Cecil, ibid

, Secretary of State, ibi.l

INDEX. 465


Calvert, receives a Penfion from King James, 364

, becomes a Catholic, ibid

, created Baron of Baltimore, ibid

, attempts a Settlement at Newfoundland and

abandons it, 364, 365

, vifits Virginia, 365

, receives a Grant of the Territory North of the

Patowmack, 366

. , his Death, ibid

= , his Character, 367

Calvert Cecil, Lord Baltimore, receives a Patent of Ma
ryland, 368

, fettles the Colony, 3 7 2, 380

, appoints his Brother Leonard, Governor, 372

Calvert Leonard, Governor of Maryland, 372

, conducts Settlers to the Colony, 372, 380

Cape-Cod difcovered by Goihold, 1 1 9

Carver John, appointed Agent to the English Settlers

at Leyden, 169, 179

, fuperintends the Equipments for Emigration, 1 8

, chofen Governor of the Company,. 190

, makes an Excurflon from Cape-Cod to look for

a Harbour, 200

, Skirmifii \vjth the Natives, 2O1, 202

-, lands on Clark's Ifland, 203

, returns to the Ship, 204

, makes a Settlement at Plymouth, 204, 205

, his Sicknefs, 206

, his Recovery and Vifit to Billington's Sea, 208

, his Interview with MafTaiFoit, , 213, 214

, his Death, . 215

, his Character, 215, 216

, his Pofterity, 216*

, a Ship named for him, ibid

, his Sword in the Cabinet of the Hidoi'ical Society, ibid

Cattle firft brought to New-England, 299

Clarke's Ifland, 203

Chickahominy Indians, Treaty between them and the

Virginians, 44, 45

Chanco reveals a Plot of the Indians and preferves James-
Town, 79
Convicls, firil: fent to Virginia, 67
Copper Ornaments worn by the Indians of New-England 299
Cuihman Robert, Agent from the EngUlh at Leycien, to

the Virginia Company, 25;

I N D E X-


Cafliman, Agent for Removal, 268

, embarks for America, ibid

* , returns to England, 269

, arrives at Plymouth, ibid

, delivers a Difcourfe on Self Love, ibid

, fails for England, ibid

, taken by the French, ibid

. , his Death and Character, 270

* , his fon a Ruling Elder at Plymouth, 273

, Extract from his Difcourfe on Self Love, 274, 280


Dale Sir Thomas, Governor of Virginia, 22

, built Henrico, 23

, Arrival in Virginia, 37

, his energetic Proceedings, 38

, furrenders the Command to Sir Thomas Gates, 40

, refumes die Command, 45

, returns to England, 49

, his Character as Governor, 49, 50

Delaware Lord arrives in Virginia, 26

, builds two Forts on James River, 36

* , leaves Virginia, ibid

'-, arrives at the Weftern Iflands, 37

, fails for Virginia, 59

, his Death, ibid


Elizabeth Ifland, 107, 109

>.. , viftted by the Author, ia 1797, 1 10, 1 14

. , Defcriptkm of it, f 14, 116

Evans John, Penn's Deputy, 445


Forefather P.ock, at Plymouth, 204


Gates Sir Thomas arrives in Virginia, as Governor, 40

, returns to England, 4$,

Gay Head, called Down Cliff, by Gofnold, 1 1 2

Gilbert Bartholomew, his Voyage to Virginia, 133, 134

, killed by the Natives, 1 34

Gookiu Daniel fettles in Virginia, 2 1

, removes to New-England, ibid

Goinold Bartholomew, his Voyage to Virginia, 101

, his fecond Voyage, ibid

, difcovers Land near Maflachufetts Bay, 102, 103

, difcovers Cape-Cod, 104

, his Interview with the Natives, 105

, difcovers Martha's Vineyard, 107

, difcovers Down Cliff, (Gay Head) ibid

I N D . E X.

Gofnold, anchors at Elizabeth Ifland, (Cuttahunk) ibid

* , builds a Fort, 117

, vifits the Main, ibid

, his Interview and Traffic with the Natives, 1 1 8

, attacked, 1 2 1

, fails for England, ibid

, accompanies John Smith to Virginia, 123

, his Death, ibid

Hackluyt Richard, engaged in an Adventure to New-

England, 123

Hamilton Andrew, Penn's Deputy, 445

Hamden John, accompanies Window to MaiTaflbit, 229

Harvey Sir John, Governor of Virginia, 99

Henrico, built by Sir Thomas Dale, 40


James, (King) tenacious of his Prerogatives, 19

, his Proceedings with the Virginia Company, 86, 98

, his Death, ibid

-, his Charatfer, 152

James II. (King) friendly to William Penn, 428

, liberates the Quakers, 43 1


Lead Ore, in Virginia, 80

Lotteries, Supplies by them for Virginia, 18

Luferae, an American wild Animal, x 30


Martha's Vineyard, No-mans-land, ilrft fo named, in

. , Martin Pring lands upon it, 127

.. , Defcription of its Productions, 1 30

Maryland made a Province, 369

, fettled by the Calverts, 372, 380

.. , many Roman Catholics refort there, 379

Maifucre, general in Virginia, by the Natives, 79, 80
Maflaifoit, his Interview with the Plymouth Settlers, 212, 213

" , Treaty with him, 213

* , his Sickncfs, 229

, vifited by W inflow, 290

Mavoihen, an ancient Name for the Diftricl of Maine, 149


Nova Scotia, granted to Sir William Alexander, 55
Newport Chriftopher, Commander in th^ Navy of

Queen Elizabeth, 21

, makes a Settlement in Virginia, 22

New- York fir ft fettled, 56

Norumbega, ancient Name fpr Parts of the DifiricT: cf

Maine, IAQ

46S I N D E X.


Opitchapnn Succeeds Powhatan, 63

Opechancanough has a Houfe built for him by the Eng!iih> 64

-," makes a Treaty with the Settlers in Vir-

' ginia, ibid

, artful ConducT towards Gov. Wyat, 75

demands Satisfaction for the Death of

Nematanou, 77
, plans and executes a general Maflacre

of the Englilh, 78,80


Penn William, liis Birth and Education, 381

- , his religious Impreffion, ibid

, punifhed at the Univerfity for Nonconformity, 382

, travels to France, ibid

, Student at Lincoln's Inn, 383

" ' g oes to Ireland, ibid

- , attaches 'himfelf to the Quakers, ibid

, arrefted at a Conventicle, 384

, his fen fable Plea in his Defence and his Difcharge, ibid

, difca'rded by his Father, 385

- , an itinerant Preacher, ibid

, publishes a Book which offends the fpiritual Lords, ibi J

- , imprisoned in the Tower, ibid

, releafed, 386

, his fecond Journey to Ireland, ibid

, preaches in the Street in London, 387

- , arrefted, tried and acquitted, ibid

, his Father reconciled to him, 388

, great Increafe of Property on the Death of his

Father, ibid

, irhprifoned in Newgate, 389

, travels oh the Continent, ibid

, returns to England, marries, &c. ibid

, travels with Fraaicis Barclay and Keith, ibid

, fettles the Government of the Churches, ibid

, pleads for the Quakers, before Parliament, 391

, Character of his Writings, 392

, his Political Character and Opinions, 393

, receives a Charter of Pennfylvania, 598

, his Terms of Settlement, 401, 402

, fends a Letter to the Indians, 402

, elected Fellow of the Royal Society, 403

, completes a Frame of Government for his Province, ibid

, embarks with a Number of Quakers for America, 408'

, arrives at Newcaftle> ibia

INDEX. 465


Pcnn, cordially received by the Settlers, 408

, goes to Chefter, 409

; , names his Settlement Philadelphia, 410

, calls a General Affembly, ibid

, his kind Attentions to th f e Natives, 412

, his Treaties, 4131 415

, lays out Philadelphia, 419, 420

, Specimen of his Style of Preaching, 422

, his Departure for England, 424

, his Controverfy with Lord Baltimore refpefting

Boundaries, 4 2 5> 4 2 ^

, .publifhes a Book on Liberty of Confcience, 429

, iufpetfed of affedting Popery, ibid

, Addrefs to his Brethren, ibid

, prefentsto King James II. an Addrefs of Thanks

from the Quakers, 431

, fufpe&ed of being an Enemy to King \Villiam, 433

, repeatedly tried and acquitted, 433> 434

, conceals himfelf, ibid

, his Writings whilft in Retirement, 434, 435

, Conduct of his Wife renders him fufpected, 435

, her Death,

, his fecond Marriage, ibid

, involved in Debt, 436

, ineffectual Application to the Pcnnfylvanians for a
Loan, ibid

, returns to Pennfylvania, 440

, his prudent Meafurcs, ibid

, figns a new Charter, 444

, returns tq England, ibid

, confined in the Fleet Prifon, 445

, receives a Remonftrance from the Pcnnfylva
nians, 444 448

, his Embarraurnents, 449

, contemplates a Surrender of his Province to the

Crown to relieve himfelf, ibid

, his Death, ibid
Penobfcot River, difcovered by Weymouth, 149

" , called Pentagoft by the French, 150

Pennfylvania, original Frame of its Government, 403, 408

Alteration in the Government, 423

early flourilhing State of it, 4 2 3> 424

Difficulties from Pcnn's Abfence, 456, 440
new Charter, 444, ^48

fjparated from the three lower Counties, 445
Controverfies with Penn's Peputies, 445, 44.$



Percy, Governor of Virginia, 37

Philadelphia founded and named by Penn, 418

, Situation and original Plan of it, 419, 420

, its flourifliing Situation in two Years after

its Foundation, 424

Plymouth firfl fettled and named, 204, 205

>- - , the Harbour difcovered by Winflow and others, 281

, fortified, 226

, Defence of it committed to Miles Standifh, 3 1 3

, Defcription of its Situation, 204

, dangerous Fire at its firft Settlement, 206

Plymouth Colony, its Settlement, Progrefs, Sufferings,
Government, Laws, &c. vid. Carver, Bradford,
Brewfter, Winflow, and Standiilt, 179 336

Powhatan, reconciled to the Englifh, 42, 43

, his Death and Character, 63

Pocahontas, preferves H. Spelman from Powhatan, 34

- , concealed by Japazaws, 41

1 obtained by Argal_& conveyed to Jameftown, ibid

, married to J. Rolfe, 42

, accompanies Sir T. Dale to England, 49

, her Defcendants, 43

Pring Martin fails for North Virginia, 1 24

, difcovers Fox Iflands, ibid

, enters Saco, Kennebeck, York, and Pifcataqua

Rivers, 126

T , enters Maflachufetts Bay, ibid

, lands at Edgartown, 128

, Interview with the Natives, 129

, fends a Cargo of Saffafras to England, 131

~ , returns to England, j 33

. , his fecond Voyage, 149

Protfor Mrs. her heroic Defence againft the Indians, 83


Quakers debarred from their Meeting-Houfes in London } 387
, affemble in the Streets, ibid

, their Caufe rendered Popular by an intemperate

Expreffion of Sir John Howel's, 388

, their Church Government and Difcipline fettled

by Penn and others, 389

, their Sentiments concerning Marriage, ibid

-. , r fuffer by a ted Law made againft Papifts, 391

, ineffectual Application to Parliament for Relief, ibid

, Penn's Exertion in their Behalf, 428, 429

, relieved by James II. 431

-. , their Addrefs of Thanks to him, ibid

, become Obnoxious on that Account, ibid

INDEX, 47 i


Kaleigh Sir Walter, his Death, 63

Robinfon John, his Birth and Education, 152

, Minifler of a Congregation of Diflenters, 152

, his Congregation persecuted, 153, 154

, removes with his Church to Amfterdam, 157

, removes to Leyden, ibid

, his public Difpute with Epifcopius, 160

> his Sentiments, 162 164

, his Church contemplates a Removal, 165, 166

, apply to the Virginia Company, 169

, preaches to them previous to Removal, 171

, his juft and liberal Sentiments, 173, 174

< , his affectionate Leave of thofe who embarked

for America, 1.74

, prevented from removing to America, 175

, his Death, Character and Pofterity, 176, 178

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23

Online LibraryUnknownAmerican biography: or, An historical account of those persons who have been distinguished in America, as adventurers, statesmen, philosophers, divines, warriors, authors, and other remarkable characters .. (Volume 2) → online text (page 23 of 24)