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him to compel the bishop to resume his pastoral
functions, in w^hich case should he voluntarily resign
the see into the hands of the archbishop, then the
clergy of that church should bring the new bishop
to election according to the canons, and the arch-
bishop might confirm and consecrate him. (116)
At this time Donogh O'Beoda was bishop of Kil-
lala, at whose request the same Pope, by a decree of
the 30th of March, same year, confirmed the anci-



334 AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CHAP. XXIXI.

cient possessions of his see. (117) In 1199 died
Richard I. king of England, and was succeeded by
his brother John, earl of Morton, styled Lord of
h'elaniL The Cistercian abbey of St. Mary of
Comerer, alias Comber or Cumber, in the now
county of Down, and barony of Castlereagh, was
founded in this year by Brian Catha Dun, ancestor
of the O'Neils of Chindeboys, who supplied it with
monks from Alba Landa in Carmarthenshire. (US)
At said year is marked the death of a holy man,
Maurice O'Baodain, in the island of Hy, (U9)
of whose monastery he was apparently a member.
Augustin, the bishop ofWaterford, who had been no-
minated by Heniy II. and had assisted at the Lateran
council in 1179, must have died about these times;
for we find that see in the possession of one Robert
in the year 1200. (120)

(114) Ware, Annals at A, 1197. (115) Ware, ih. at A. 1198.

(116) This letter is iVo. 177, Lib, 1. of the above mentioned
collection. Ware supposes, [Bishops at Raphoe) that it was
ivritten in 1198.

(117) Ware and Harris, ib. at Killala.

(118) Ware, Annals at A. 1199. Bwdi Antiq, cap. 26 at Do'wn.
Also Archdall at Cumber, who most strangely places Cumber
three miles S. W. of Strangford, while on the contrary it lies
many miles to the north of that town. Alemand in his conjec-
tural and impertinent manner attributes the foundation of this
abbey to the family of the Wliites.

(119) Tr. T/ujj. 501.

(120) Ware and Harris, Bishops at Water ford.

§. XV. To said year 1200 is assigned the founda-
tion of two Cistercian monasteries by Donogh Car-
brach O' Brian, the successor of Donald king of
North Munster. One was that of Kilcoul or Kil-
cooley in the now county of Tipperary, and barony
of Stewarda and Compsy. It was otherwise called
the abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary De arvi campo.



CHAP, XXXI. OF IRELAND. 335

and was a daughter of the monastery of lerlpont or
lerpoint, that is, it received its first monks from
that establishment. (121) The other was the abbey
of Corcumroe, if, however, it had not been ah'eady
founded by his father Donald. (122) The Cister-
cian abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Tintern,
or De votOy in the now county of Wexford, and
barony of Shelburne, was founded in this year by-
William Mareschal the elder, earl of Pembroke, in
consequence of a vow, which, when in great danger
at sea, he had made of erecting a monastery in the
place, where he might first arrive in safety. This
happened to be near Bannow bay, where Tintern is
situated. He endowed it, and supplied it with monks
from Tintern in Monmouthsliire, over whom John
Torrel was placed as first abbot. (123) Another
Cistercian monastery, likewise of the Blessed Virgin,
was established in said year at Kilbeggan in West-
meath, and supplied with monks from Mellifont.
It was called Dejiiimiiie Dei by allusion, I suppose,
to the river Brosna, near which that town is situated.
(124) About the same time the magnificent monas-
tery of Athassel, near the Suir, three miles from
Cashel, was founded in honour of St. Edmund,
king and martyr, by William Fitz-Adelm de Burgo,
for Canons Regular of St. Augustin. The founder
was buried there in 1204, as were in later times some
of his posterity. (125) In or about the same year
1200 Theobald Walter, Butler of Ireland, founded
and endowed a priory at Nenagh, likewise for Canons
Regular, with an hospital annexed, where they
were to attend the sick, that served God there. As
it was dedicated in the name of St. John, it was
commonly called Teaclueon or the house of John.
(126) The priory of St. Mary of Tristernagh in
Westmeath, barony of Moygoish, was established
and endowed for persons of the same order about
this time by GeofFry de Constantino. (127) To
these times we might, according to one account,



336 AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CHAP. XXXT.

assign the foundation of the priory of Aroasian
Canons at Rathkeale in the now county of Limerick,
under the invocation of the Blessed Virgin Mary ;
but it appears more probable, that it did not exist
until after the year 1200, (128) In like manner the
Cistercian abbey of Woney or Wetheny, alias
Abington, in said county, which some have affixed
to the latter end of the 12th century, was in all ap-
pearance not founded until 1205, the year prior to
the death of its founder Theobald Fitz-Walter,
Butler of. Ireland, who was interred there in 1206.
(129) Thus the house of Gilbertin Canons at Bal-
limore, near Lough Seudy in Westmeath, has been
assigned to the 12th century, although it was not
founded until the year 1218. (1 30) . The monastery
of Kilkenny West, in the same county, for Cruci-
feri, likewise a branch of the Canons Regular of St.
Augustin, which could not have been founded until
some time in the ISth century, has been marked as
belonging to the 12th (13 1).

(121) Ware, Antiq. cap. 26. at Tipperary. Harris, Monast.
at Cistercians. Archdall at Kilcooly. In the Monast. Angl. ( Vol.
2. p. 1029.) there is a deed of king Henry III. confirming the
grant made to this abbey, there called Kylleconil, by Donald
O'Brian. Instead of Donald must be read Donogh; for, as
Ware observes, according to the book of the statutes of the
Irish Cistercians it was founded in 1200, six years after Donald's
death. He mentions the Register of Richmond, which brings it
down to 1209. This would not prevent its having been founded
by Donogh; but in all probability the true date is 1200.

(122) See above <J. 10.

(123) Ware, z7». at Wexford, OiniX Annals at A. 1200. See
also Archdall at Tintern^ and Monast. Angl. Vol. 2. p. 1032.

(124) Ware, ib. at Westmeath, Hams, Monast. at Cister-
cians, and Archdall at Kilbeggan. Alemand in his conjectural
way attributes this foundation to the Daltons ; but Ware, infinitely
better authority, says nothing of the founder.

(125) See Ware, ib. at Tipperary, and Archdall at Athassel.



CHAP. XXXr. OF IRELAND. 337

(126) Ware, ib.

(127) Ware, ib, at JVestnieath, and Archdall at Tristernagh.
The deed for this foundation, witnessed by Simon (Rochfort)
bishop of Meath, may be seen in Monastic. Angl. Vol. 2. p,
1046.

(128) Harris (Monast.) marks it at about 1200; but neither
Ware nor Archdall mentions the time of its foundation. It ex-
isted, however, in the latter part of the 1 3th century. Were we
to beheve Alemand, its founder was one Harvey.

(129) See Ware, Antiq. cap. 26. at Limerick, and Archdall at
Ahingto7i. The charter of foundation and endowment is in Mo-
nastic. Angl. Vol. 2. p. 1034, marked about A. 1205.

(130) Ware fib. at ^e^^mea^^ has this monastery, but doe^
not mention the time of its foundation. Hanis, who is often very
loose in his dates, places it (Monast. at Praemonstre Canons) in
the 12th century. Now, as Archdall observes (at BaUimoreJy it
was not founded until 1218.

(131) Harris, Monast. at Cruciferi. Ware (loc. cit.J touches
on this monastery without telling us when founded, or who was
the founder. But Archdall (at Kilkenny West) shows, that it
was founded by Thomas Dillon, a priest, and grandson of Sir
Thomas Dillon. As Sir Thomas did not come to Ireland until
1185, and was then very young, it follows, that his grandson was
not a priest, nor a founder of a religious house until many years
after 1200. (See Lodge's Peerage at Visct. Dillon.) Alemand
attributes this foundation to the Tyrrel family, and why ? Because
there were Tyrrels in that country.

§. xvr. There were several other reh'gious esta-
bHshments formed about the end of the l2th ceiituryj
but I do not find the precise years, of their founda-
tions. The priory of St. John Baptist near Kells,
for the same order of Cruciferi, was founded by
Walter de Lacy. (132) This order had a priory,
called of St. Leonard, with an hospital annexed to
it, near Dundalk, which had been founded towards
the close of the reign of Henry IL by Bertram de
Verdon, lord of that place. (133) Two Benedictine

VOL.""lV. z



338 AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CHAP. XXXI.

priories, one near Cork, and the other near Water-
ford, both under the name of St. John the Evan-
gelist, were founded by prince John, while only-
earl of IMorton, consequently in the 12th century,
and made cells to the abbey of St. Peter and St.
Paul in Bath. (134). The Benedictine nunnery
of Kilcreunata, alias^ of the Castle wood, in the
now county of Gaiway, was founded by Cathal
Crobhdearg O'Conor about 1200. Afterwards were
annexed to it the cells of Inchmean in Mayo and
Ardcarn in Rosscommon. (135) St. Mary's nun-
nery of Grany, in the now county of Kildare, for
Augustin canonesses was founded about the same
time by Walter de Riddlesford ; (lo6) and nearly
at the same time Robert son of Richard, lord of
Noiragh, founded that of St. Mary of Timolin in
said county (barony of Narragh and Rheban) for
Augustin nuns, following the Aroasian rule, in
which he placed a daughter of his. ( 1 37) Another
nunnery of Augustin canonesses is mentioned as
having existed at this period in Killeigh, a once ce-
lebrated place in the now King's county (barony of
Geashill). (138) The house of Canons Regular of
Kilrush in the county of Kildare, three miles and
a half west of old Kilcullen, a cell to the priory of
Carthmel in Lancashire, was founded by William
Mareschal earl of Pembroke, but whether in the
late part of the 12th, or the early one of the iSth cen-
tury, I am not able to determine. (139) A priory of
the same order is vsaid to have been founded near Naas
by a baron of Naas in the 12th century. (140)
Whether the similar priory of Selsker, called oi" Sts.
Peter and Paul, near Wexford, of which the Roches
were at least, patrons, existed in these times is un-
certain. But if it be true, as some say, that it was
founded by the Danes, it must have been long prior
to the end of said century. (141) The mihtary re-
ligious orders, which had no establishments in Ireland



CHAP. XXXr. OF IRELAND. 339

until the arrival of the English, obtained many after-
wards. We have already seen of that of Kilmain-
ham by Strongbow. (14^i) At Clontarf there was
a commandery, called of St. Comgall, for Knights
Templars, since the reign of Henry II. (143) One
for Knights Hospitalers was founded at Wexford
under the names of St. John and St. Bridged by
William Mareschal, earl of Pembroke ; but whether
before or after the commencement of the l3th cen-
tury I cannot clearly discover. (144) Another
for the same order was founded by Walter de Lacy
during the reign of Richard I., consequently in the
12th century, at Kiliiiainham-beg near Nobber in the
now county of Meath. (145) The one for the same
order at the place now called Castle-buy in the Ardes,
county of Down, could not have been founded until
the 1 3th century ; for its founder was Hugh de Lacy,
earl of Ulster, who was not until then distinguished
by that title. (146) A commandery for Knights
Templars was established by Matilda de Lacy at
Kilsaran in the now county of Louth, barony of
Ardee, and, although I think it could not have been
so early, is said to have been founded in the 12th
century. (147) There were three similar comman-
deries in the county of Waterford, Kilbarry within
the Liberties of the city of Waterford, Killure two
miles east of said city, and Crook in the barony of
Gualtiere ; the two former are assigned to the l^th
century, and the last to the 13th. (148)

(132) Ware (ih, at Meath) does not mark the time. Harris
(loc, cit.J has Cejit. 12. Archdall (at Kells) following Alemand,
poor authority, says that it was in the reign of Richard I. If this
be true, it was founded in the 12th century.

(133) Ware, ib.BiLouthf and Archdall at Dundalk,

(134^) Ware, ib, at Cork and Waterford. ArchdaU (at Water-
ford) pretends, that John founded the priory there in 1185, be-
cause that was the year of his arrival in that city. This is an ill-
founded conclusion.

Z 2



S40 AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CHAP. XXXI.

(135) Ware, ib. at Galwayy and Archdall at Kilcreutiata, I do
not find mentioned in what part of the county of Gahvay this
place was situated ; but it appears, that it was not far distant from
tlie county of Roscommon.

(1S6) Ware, ib. at Kildare. Harris was mistaken (Mojiast.)
in placing this nunnery in the county of Carlow, whereas Grany
lies in the barony of Kiikea and Moon (co. Kildare) not far from
Castle-Dermot. (See Archdall at Grany.)

(137) Ware, ib. Archdall (at Timolin) says, his grand-daughter
Lecelina.

(138) Ware f i5. at Kings County) does not state by whom
this nunnery was founded, nor at what time whether before or
after the arrival of the English. The conjectural Alemand tells
us, that it was founded by the Warren family, and hence Harris
assigned it to the 12th century. Archdall also (at Killeigh)
follows Alemand, and in his careless manner refers to Ware, as
if he had attributed its foundation to the Warrens. I suspect,
that it existed long before the English settled in Ireland; for Kil-
leigh was distinguished of old as a religious place.

(139^ V^^xe (ib. at Kildare) does not mark the time of this
foundation, Harris (Monast.) assigns it to the 12th century, and
Archdall (at Kilrushe) to the beginning of the 13th.

(140) Harris, ib. and Archdall at Naas» Ware (loc. cit,) says
nothing of the time.

(141) Neither Ware [ib. at Wexford) nor Archdall (at Wex-
Jord) marks the time of its foundation. Harris {loc. cit.) assigns

it to the 12th century. This priory existed in 1240. See Ware
(Bishops of Ferns at Johannes de S. Johanne) and Archdall ib.

(142) Chap. XXIX. §. ii. (143) Ware ib. at Dublin.

(144) Ware (e^,. at Wexford) does not mention any particular
time ; nor does Archdall at Wexford. Harris (loc. cit.) in his
general way has Cent. 12.

(145) Ware, ib. at Meath.

(146) Ware {ib. at Down) does not mark the time of this
foundation, but attributes it to Hugh de Lacy, earl of Ulster.
Yet Harris {loc, cit.) and Archdall (at Castle-buy) place it in the
12th century.

(147) Although Ware {ib. at Louth) makes no mention of
the time, yet Harris (loc, -cit*) and Archdall (at Kilsaran) have



CHAP. XXXII. OF 1 ICELAND. 341

Cent, 12. But the Matilda de Lacy meant by Ware was in all
appearance the daughter of Walter de Lacy, lord of Meath, and
could not have flourished until the 13th century. Her father
died in 1234.

(148) Ware {ib. at Waterford) is silent as to the times and
founders of these establishments. But Harris (Joe. cif.) and
Archdall (at said places) mark the centuries as above ; and
Archdall adds from Alemand, fine authority, that the one of
Crook was founded by a baron of Curraghmore.



CHAP. XXXIL



Death of Thomas O' Conor archbishop of Armagh,
and of several other bishops — Inquiry concern-
ing the ancient sees of Ireland — ayid of ancient
mo7iasterieS'^The great ynonastery of Hy still
kept up, and considered as an Irish establish-
ment — Amalgad O'Fergal elected abbot of Hy
by the clergy of the North of Ireland — Account
of the early Monkish Orders in Ireland — Aii-
cient Irish liturgies — Ihe Cu7^sus Scotorum —
A?icient Irish Canons — Ecclesiastical architecture
of the ancient Irish — Description of the ancierit
church of Kildare — Inqidry on the origin and
uses of the ancient round towers.



SECT. I.

I DO not find the death of any Irish prelate
marked at the year 1200 ; but several of them died
not long after. Thomas O' Conor, archbishop of
Armagh who has left a high reputation for piety and
learning, departed this life in 1201, and was buried
in the abbey of Mellifont. After his death a great
contest took place with regard to the choice of his
successor, the electors being divided in their votes



"•342 AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CHAP. XXXII.

relative to the candidates, among whom were Ralph
le Petit, archdeacon of Meath, and Humphrey de
Tickhull. The king Jol^n espoused the party of
Tickhull ; but the Pope Innocent III. confirmed the
appointment of Eugene Mac-Gillivider, which the
king refused to agree to, insomuch that on Tickhull's
death in 1203 he took part with Ralph le Petit.
But his opposition was ineffectual ; for the Pope's
authority prevailed, and the king became reconciled
to Eugene, who thenceforth governed the see peace-
ably until his death at Rome in 121 6. (1) Catho-
licus or Cadla O'Dubhai, archbishop of Tuam, a
highly respected prelate, after having held that see
forty years, died at a very advanced age in the same
year, 1201, in the monastery of Augustin Canons at
Cong, and was succeeded by Felix O'Ruadan, a
Cistercian monk. (2) In or about said year died
Malachy, usually called the third, bishop of Down,
whose successor was one Ralph, apparently a Scotch-
man ; as did also John, bishop of Leighlin, who
was succeeded by Herlewin, a Cistercian, as John
himself had been. (3) Felix O'Dullany, bishop of
Ossory, died in 1202, and w^s buried in the Cister-
cian church of leripont or lerpoint, to which he had
been a benefactor. It is said, that many miracles
have been wrought at his tomb, which was at the
north side of the high altar. (4) According to some
writers it was he that removed the see of Ossory
from Aghaboe to Kilkenny ; but this is rather doubt-
ful. (5) He was succeeded by Hugh Rufus, an
Englislnnan, and Canon Regular of St. Augustin,
who was prior of the house of Kells in the now
county of Kilkenny. (6) Brictius, bishop of Lime-
rick, was most probably dead in these times ; for we
find, that his successor Donogh or Donat O'Brian
of the princely house of that name, a learned, li-
beral, and zealous prelate, died in 1207. (7) As
from what is related of him it appears, that he held
the see of Limerick for some years, we may fairly



CHAP. XXXII. OF IRELAND. ' 34^3

conclude, that Brictius, who was living in 1194, (8)
died about the end of the 12th century. Not to
encroach further on the history of times, of which
I do not mean to treat, I shall conclude this necro-
logy with the death of the illustrious Matthew
CVHeney, of which we read : " A. D. 1206. Mat-
*' thew, archbishop of Cashel, legate of all Ireland,
'' the wisest and most religious man of the natives
*^ of that country, having founded many churches,
** and triumphed over the old enemy of mankind
'* by working many miracles, voluntarily abandon-
'* ing all worldly pomp, happily went to rest in
** the abbey of Holy Cross" (in the county of Tip-
perary). (9) He had written some tracts, among
which was a Life of St. Cuthbert bishop of Lindis-
farne, and was succeeded by Donogh or Donatus
O'Lonargan, likewise a Cistercian monk. (10)

(1) Ware and Harris at Archbishops of Armagh. Han-is
seems to say, that Eugene was appointed by Papal provision, in-
dependently of any election But it is evident, even from his own
account of the matter, that there had been an election ; and all
that the Pope did was to confirm the choice made of Eugene as
the most regular and best supported. Innocent III. was a stre-
nuous abettor of canonical elections. John preferred the others,
being Englishmen or Normans, to Eugene, who was an Irishman,

(2) Ware, Archbishops of Tuam. Harris adds, that Felix
O'Ruadan was uncle to Roderic O'Conor, king of Connaught.
I suspect, that this is a mistake; for he lived until 1238, and is
not spoken of as having reached an extraordinaiy age, as must
have been the case were he an uncle of Roderic.

(3) Ware, Bishops at Dotmi and Lcighlin. John was the
bishop, of whom we have seen above. Chap, xxxi. <^, 13.

(4) Ware and Harris, Bishops at Ossory.

(5) See Chap. xxix. §. \^. and ib. Not. 92.

(6) Ware and Hams, ib. (7) Ib. at Limerick.

(8) See Chap. xxxi. ^.10.

(9) Annals of Mary's abbey, and Ware and Harris, Arch-
bishops of Cashel.



344 AN ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CHAP. XXXH,

(10) Ware and Harris, ih. and at Writers. Harris calls
Donat O'Lonargan the second by allusion to the O'Lonargan,
archbishop of Cashel, who assisted at the council at Kells, and
who died in 1158. But that O'Lonargan's christian name was
not Donogh or Donat. It was Domnald, alias Donald or DonalU
(See Chap, xxvii. §. 14. and xxviii. §. 5.)

§. II. The number of distinct episcopal sees was
at the close of the 12th century nearly the same as
that, which is stated to have been established by the
council at Kells, and of which I have already given
a list. (11) But about that time, or the early part
of the 13th century, three of the sees mentioned in it,
viz^ Kells, Roscrea, and Iniscatthy, were merged in
or united to others. (12) On the other hand the
see of Enaghdune (Annadown in the county of
Galway), although not in that list, continued to ex^
ist, and did so more or less until after many conten-
tions with the archbishops of Tuam it was at length,
after a long lapse of time, united to that see. (13)
In like manner the see of Dromore, which also
is omitted in said list, either still existed, or was re-
vived in an early part of the 13th century. (14)
Whether the see of Kilmore, of which likewise there
is no mention in that list, was established or not
before the 13th century, I am not able to determine.
The earliest bishop of that see, or, as its bishops
were first called, of Triburna, their original re-
sidence, or Breffny, of whose existence there is no
doubt, died as late as A. D. 1231. (15) Some of
our ancient sees, which still were kept up in the early
part of the 12th century, seem to have entirely dis-
appeared before the end of it. Thus those of Cong
and Ardcarn, which existed at the time of the synod
of Rath-Breasail in or about 1118, (16) ceased,
probably prior to the holding of the council of
Kells, the former being united to Tuam and the
latter to Elphin. (17) li^ the proceedings of said
council there is no mention made of them. As to



CHAP. XXXir. OF IRELAND. 345

several other old sees or places, in which there had
been occasionally bishops in old times, such as Trim,
Drumclieff, Lusk, &c. &c. I do not meet with a
succession of bishops in them during any part of
the 12th century. Many of our ancient monaste-
ries had by these times ceased to exist. Several of
them had been destroyed by the Danes ; others,
which were plundered and burned, as we have seen
many instances of, during the wars between the Irish
themselves, or those between them and the Anglo-
Normans, not being rebuilt dropped off. (18) But
to such persons, as wished to embrace the religious
or monastic state, sufficient opportunities were af-
forded by the many establishments for Canons Re-
gular of St. Augustin, and the Cistercian monas-
teries, adding some Benedictine ones, that were
formed during the 12th century, and of which I
have made mention in their proper and respective
places.

(11) See Chaj). xxvii. §. 15.

(12) See Chap, xxxi. ^. 9 and 11. These sees are reckoned
as existing by Cencius in his Census Camemles. But it is to be
observed, that Cencius completed that book in the year 1192,
(Fleury, Hist. Eccl. L. 78. ^.1.) at which time those junctions
had not taken place.

(13) See Ware and Harris at Archbishops of Tuam. We
have met above (Chap, xxxi. f , 7.) with a bishop of Enaghdune
named Concors. Enaghdune is in a list of Irish sees, which
Camden has (col, 1329. Gibson's ed.) from a Roman Provinciale,
and which Bingham (Origines, 8fc. B, ix. ch, 6. sect. 19.) has
copied from him. This list differs also in some other respects from
that, which I have already given {Chap, xxvii. §. 15). It omits
Kells, and has a see under the archbishop of Tuam, called De
Cellaiaro, which I know not what to make of, unless it was the
same as Kill-air in the now county of Westmeath, where St. Aldus,
son of Brec, had been bishop in the sixth century. ( See Chap,
XII. §. 2.) Kill-air, although not in the present province of Con-
naught, might have been subject to Tuam, in the same manner



S4f6 AN ECCLESIASTICAi, HISTORY CHAP. XXXII.

as Clonmacnois was for some time. In the said list both Roscom-
mon and Elphin are distinctly mentioned, while in the other we
find Roscommon alone. Bingham has ( ib.) another list, published
by Carolus a S. Paulo, hkewise from a Roman Provmciale, and
which makes the suffragan sees of Ireland amount to fifty -three*



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