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held in 1 17'2, in which is an injunction to the same
effect. (61) Although this synod was not attended
by the prelates of Ulster, yet we may safely infer
from their adherence to the principles of St Malachy,
that they approved of that injunction. The apos-
tolic legates, of whom there was a constant succes-
sion in Ireland during that century, undoubtedly took
care to introduce and enforce the practices of the
Roman system. Of the old Irish liturgies and of-
fices no copy is, as far as I know, to be found, except
perhaps of the one, and that the most remarkable,
which was called Cursus Scotoruniy or the liturgy
&c. of the old Scots or Irish ; which was brought
to Ireland by St. Patrick, and was the only one ob-
served during the times of the first class of Irish
saints, and consequently for above 100 years. (62)
I have had occasion to allude to it more than once,
and to remark, that after the introduction of new
liturgies or masses it was still followed by St. Com-
gall in Ireland, and by St. Columbanus, in the con-
tinent. (63) It has been said, that it was originally
the liturgy of St. Mark the Evangelist ; that it was
used by St. Gregory Nazianzen and other Greeks,
afterwards received by Cassian, Honoratus first abbot
of Lerins, St. Caesarius, bishop of Aries, and the
abbot Porcarius, also by St. Lupus of Troies and St.
German of Auxerre, the friends of St. Patrick, who
received it from them ; and that it was retained by
St. Comgall, &c. (64) This cursus continued in
force, at least with the followers of St. Columbanus,
for many years after that saint's death in 6l5. (65)
How long it might have been kept up in Ireland by
the monks of St. Comgall's institution, I am not

CHAP, xxxrr. OF iueland. S69

able to discover. It must not be confounded with
the liturgy usually called GalUcana, (p^)

(59) See Chap. xxv. ;^. 10.

(60) See Chap. xxvi. §. 6 and 10, and xxvii. J. 5.

(61) See Chap. XXIX. §. 3.

(62) See Chap. x. ^. 4. It is called in the Catalogue of saints (^ap-
Usher, Pr. p. 913.) una missa, una celehratio.

(63) See Chap. 1. §. 5. x. §. 12. xiii. §. U.

(64?) Such is the account given in the tract on the Origin of
Ecclesiastical offices, quoted by Usher, {Pr. p. 343, 840, and
917.) and published in Spelman's Councils, Sfc. {^ol. I. p. 176,
s€qq.) and in Wilkins' {Vol. 4. p. 741, seqq.). Although written
in a course style, and sometimes incorrect, owing perhaps to an
unlearned transcriber, and containing various mistakes, some of
which have been noticed by Usher, it is, however, worth copying.
After giving an account of the cursus called the Galilean one, the
origin of which he ascribes to St. John the Evangelist, and which,
he says, was followed by St. Polycarp, and in the Gauls by Sr.
Irenaeus, &c. the author continues; " Sedbeatus Marcus evangel-
ista, sicut refert Josephus et Eusebius in quarto libro, per totam
^gyptum vel Italiam taliter praedicaverunt, sicut unam ecclesiam,
ut Omnis sanctus, vel Gloria in excelsis, vel oratione Dominica,
et Amen universi tam viri quam foeminae decantarent. Tanta
fuit sua praedicatio unita, et postea Evangelium ex ore Petri apos-
toli edidit. Beatus Hieronymus adfirmat ipsum cursum, qui di-
citur praesente tempore Scotorum, beatus Marcus decantavit, et
post ipsum Gregorius Nanzenzenus, quern Hieronymus suum
magistrum esse adfirmat. Et beatus Basilius, frater ipsius S.
Gregorii, Antonius Paulus, Macarius, vel Joannes et Malchus se-
cundum ordinem patrum decantaverunt. Inde postea beatissimus
Cassianus, qui Livoronsi {Linerensiy or Liriiwnsi, Usher) monas-
terio beatum Honorium habuit comparem. Et post ipsum beatu$
Honoratus primus abbas, et S. Caesarius episcopus, qui -fuit
in Arelata, et beatus Porcarius abbas, qui in ipso monasterio fuit,
ipsum cursum decantaverunt ; qui beatum Lupum et beatum Ger-
manum monachos in eorum monasterio habuerunt ; et ipsi sub nor-
man regulae ipsum cursum ibidem decantaverunt. Et postea in
episcopatus cathedra (epuc&patu cathedram) summi honoriS; pr»
YOL. IV. B 8


reverentia sanctitatis eoriim, sunt adepti ; ct postea in Britanniis
vel Scottiis praedicaverunt, quae Vita beati Germani episcopi An-
tisioderensis et Vita beati L\:pi adfirmat. Qui beatain Patricium
spiritaliter litteras sacras docuerunt, atque enutrierunt, et ipsum
episcopum proeorum praedicatione {per eorum praedicationem,
Usher) archiepiscopum in Scottiis ac Britanniis posuerunt, qui
vixit annos centum quinquaginta tres, et ipsum cursum ibidem
decantavit. Et post ipsum beatus Wandilochus senex et beatus
Gomogillus fCo77igallus), qui habuerunt in eorum monasterio
monachos circiter tria millia. Inde beatus Wandilochus in prae-
tlicationis ministerium abbato ('a beatOf Usher) Gomogillo missus
est, ct beatus Columbanus partibus Galliarum destinati sunt
Luxogilum (Luxeii) monasterium ; et ibidem ipsum cursum de-
can taverunt. Et inde postea percrebuit formam (forma or
foma) sanctitatis eorum per universum orbem terrum ; et multa
coenobia, ex eorum doctrina, tarn virorum quam puellarum
sunt congregata. Et postea inde sumpsit exordium sub beato Co-
lumbano, quod ante beatus Marcus evangelista decantavit- Et
si nos non creditis, inquirite in Vita beati Columbani et beati Eas-
tasi fEustasiiJ abbatis, plenius, invenietis, et dicta beati Atthe-
leti ( Atthlati Usher) abbatis Ebovensis {Attalay abbot o^ Bobbio),''
From this author's being so particular in tracing the history of
the Cursus Scoiorum, i. e. of the Irish, while he treats very
slightly of four other courses or liturgies mentioned by him, it ap-
pears very probable, that he was an Irishman, and perhaps one
of those, that lived in the continent. But, it may be said, if he
were, would he have told us, that St. Patrick lived 153 years?
This I suspect to be an erratum of a copyist ; and it is plain tliat
in his text, as it now exists, there are several errata. I cannot
find, who was the blessed Wandilochus mentioned by him, except
that he appears to have been one of the first companions of St.
Columbanus, who set out with him from Ireland. They were
twelve in all ; but their names are not regularly recorded. (See
Not. 5. to Chap. XIII.) What said author has about that cursus
having been originally that of St. Mark, or as Mabillon explain*
it, {Disquisitio de Cursu Ga'licano, ^ 1 in his work De Litur-
gja Galiicana) an Alexandrian liturgy, is curious, although I
would not pretend to say, that it is certain. There is a liturgy,
called of St. Mark, which l>ad been found in Calabria by Sirlet,


and was afterwards printed in Paris. But it is more than doubtful,
v\>hether St. Mark had any thing t6 do with it. (See Bona, Rer.
LHur^ic. L.l. cap. 8.)

(65) It is plain, that it was used in the life-time of the author of
the now quoted tract. Now he lived after the death of Eustasius
and Attala, the former of whom succeeded St. Columbanus at
Luxeu, and the latter at Bobbio.

(66) We have seen, (Not. 64'.) that said author makes a dis-
tinction between them. We have another proof from its having
been remarked, in opposition to St. Columbanus and his Rule,
that the Mass, which he celebrated, differed in some points from
that, which was usually observed in France in his times, that is,
from the old Gallican liturgy, which was not set aside until long
after in the reign of Charlemagne. Jonas relates ( Vit. S. Eus-
tasii, cap. 5.) that Agrestinus, an enemy of Columbanus' Rule,
said, " Columbanum etiam a caeterorum ecclesiasticorum more
desciscere, et sacra Missariun solemn/a multiplicatione oratiomim
vel coUectarum celebrare'' It is indeed probable, that the Gal-
Jican liturgy, strictly so called, (of which see JMabillon De Lifur-
gia GaUicana) was introduced into Ireland during the period of
the second class of Irish saints. In a Mass celebrated by Columb-
kill the name of St. Martin was mentioned among the commemo-
rations. (See Not. 182. to Chap, xi.) Now as Mabillon observes,
{ih. L. 1. cap. 5.) his name was commemorated in the Gallican
liturgy. Columbkill might Iiave received his Mass from the Britons
David, Gildas, and Docus ; (see Chap. x. §. 4.) and it is said,
that the Britons followed the Gallican liturgy. Yet St. Martin's
name might have been also in the Mass, which St. German and
Lupus delivered to St. Patrick, that is in the Cursus Scotorum.
Usher (Pr. /?. 343.) and after him Stilllngfleet [Aiitiquities of
the British churches, ch. 4.) were much mistaken in the confound-
ing those two liturgies together ; for the one, which was delivered
by Cassian, German, Lupus &c. was not, as they say, the Cursur,
Galloruni) which was supposed to have been derived from St.
John, but the Cursus Scotorum attributed to St. Mark.

§. X. There are good reasons for thinking, that
the Cursus Scotorum is still extant, and that it is
the same as the ancient Missal, which Mabillon fouad

B B 2


in the monastery of Bobbio, and which, he says,
was written abont 1000 years before his time. ((^7)
From its antiquity it is clear, that it must have been
brought to Bobbio by St. Columbanus or some of
his disciples ; and hence arises a strong presumption,
that it was the liturgy used by him. (6«) The part
of the Mass, called the Canon, is taken from that
of the Roman liturgy, and agrees nearly with it as
it is read at present ; yet it has in the article, Com-
municantes after Cosmae et Damiani, the names of
some other saints, among whom is St. Martin. (69)
In this Missal there are few masses for saints. It has
those for St. Stephen, the apostles James and John,
the Cathedra S. Petri, the Assumption of the Blessed
Virgin, ihe Invention of the Holy Cross, the na-
tivity of St. John the Baptist and liis passion. Saints
Peter and Paul, the king Sigismund, (70) St.
Martin of Tours, and Michael the archangel. It
has three Rogations before the Ascension, and two
Masses for the dead, one in general, and another
Missa sacerdotis dejimct'u In it 1 find no Mass for
any Irish saint, nor even mention of any one of
them. This is the chief point, which may excite a
doubt of its being the same as the Cursiis Scotoriim,
Yet this difficulty can be easily removed by observing,
that the respect paid by the Irish clergy to St. Patrick
prevented them from adding any Mass to those con-
tained in the Missal brought by him, and that they
were loth to introduce their own saints into it. On
the other hand this Missal is accompanied with a Pe-
nitential, (71) and what is exceedingly remark-
able, one that agrees in very great part with that of
St. Columbanus, called Liber de poenitentiarum
mensura taxnnda, (72) and in some points with the
Penitential of Cummian. Accordingly the Peniten-
tial joined to the Missal maybe supposed to have
been intended for the use of the Irish church, and
hence it becomes highly probable, that said Missal
was also used by it. The antiquity of this Missal
appears from the wording of the Creed, which we


find in it j for, although it is the same in substance
as the Roman Creed, commonly called the Apostles^
creedy yet several words are different. (7^) To
show, that the copy found at Bobbio was written in
Ireland or, at least, by an Irij^hmai), it is asserted,
that the characters or letters are exactly of the same
kind as those of ancient AISS. recognized to have
been written by Irishmen. (74) Add, that, as is
usual in such old MSS,, certain vowels and conso-
nants are frequently intercb.anged for each other ac-
cording to a mode peculiar to the Irish ; (75) and
that some eminent diplomatists think it probable, that
St. Columbanus brought that Missal from his own
country. (76) On the whole, although I do not
pretend to decide on the matter, I cannot but think
that said Missal was the one used by that saint himself,
and that the only difference between it and the an-
cient Cursus Scotormn consists in his having added
to it the Mass of St. Sigismund in compliance with
the custom of the ])rovince of Besancon.

(67) He has published it in his Museum Italicum, Vol. 1. and,
finding it different in various respects from the Liturgia Gallicana,
and not well knowing what title to give it, has called it Sacramen-
tiirium Gallkanum. In a margin of the MS. is the name of
Bertulfus, wlio in all appearance was the abbot of Bobbio of that
name in the seventh century. He thought, that it was a parti-
cular Missal for the province of Becan^on, in which was Luxeu,
particularly as it contains a Mass for St. Sigismund, King of
Burgundy. I have had already i\ot 157 to Chap^ xxi,) occasion
to give a short account of this Missal ; but it is well worth some
further observations.

(68) That it was is strenuously maintauied by Doctor O'Conor
{^Rer, Hibern. Scriptor, Ep. Nuncup. p. 130. seqq,). This did
not occur to Mabillon, or at least he does not mention it. He
says, that it was not for the use of Bobbio, as there is nothing in
it about St. Columbanus or his disciples, or about monastic
affairs. But surely it might have been a general Missal for the
clergy both secular and regular ; and in such case there was no


necessity for specifying monastic matters, or introducing into iJ
the name of St. Columhanus, &c. Besides, that copy was pro-
bably wTitten before the death of St. Columbanus.

(69) In that Missal the Canon appears in only what is called the
Missa coUidinna (quotidiana) Romensis, and hence it appears,
that, it was the only one used throughout the year. After Cosmae
et Damiatii, the last names in the Roman article CommunicanteSy
come Hilarii, Martini, Awbrosii, Aiigzistini, Gregorii, Hiero-
nymi, Benedicfi. We have seen, {Not. 66.) that St. ^Martin's
name was in the Mass celebrated by Columbkill ; and hence why
may we not be allowed to conjecture, that his Mass was the same
as that of the Missal of Bobbio ? But, it will be said, the name
of St. Gregory (/. e. in all appearance, of Pope Gregory) could
not have been in a Mass celebrated by Columbkill, who died before
him. Yet this and other names might have been added after
Columbkill's death ; and in fact such additions were far from being
uncommon in ancient Missals. (See Bona, Rer. Lit. L, 2. cap,
12.) I am sure that the last name in that Mass of Columkill was
Ma7-tini ; for it was upon its being mentioned that he stopped the
choir. {Net. 182 to Chap, xi.) On the whole it is improbable,
that Columbkill's Missal was not different from that of Bobbio,
without our supposing that he followed (as hinted in Not. 66.) the
liturgy strictly called the Gallican. Were this as certain as it is
probable, it would follow of course, that the Missal of Bobbio
contains the Ciirsus Scotorum.

(70) If it was the Cursi/s Scotorum, this Mass might have
been added to it by St. Columbanus when at Luxeu.

(71) Mabillon fPref. to the Missal of Bobbio J remarks, that
this is a very singular circumstance, and almost the only instance to
be met with.

(72) This must not, as I have already observed, (above Not.
58.) be confounded with the Penitential annexed to the Rule of
St. Columbanus. We have seen (ib.) an instance of two parallel
canons of said Penitentials, differing merely as to the number of
years marked for penance. Several more such canons will be
found on comparing them, and drawn up nearly in the same words,
but sometimes not agreeing with regard to the length of the peni-
tential times. Mabillon was not aware of tliis concordance ; for


lie had not collated those penitentials. Ho found a trifling agree-
ment of Canon 47 of that of the Missal with one of the other
Penitential of Columbanus, that is, the one joined to the Rule,
and two or three rather material parallelisms between it and the
Penitential of Cummian, particularly that of Canon 2S of the
Missal with one of cap. 3. of Cummian, which I have quoted
above {Not. 51.), and between which and said Canon 28 the only
difference is, that in the latter, instead of Si dericus aut monachusi
we read simply Si quis dericus ; and instead of decern, and iribus
we find duodecim and sex, whence it appears that the regulation
by this canon was not severer than that of Cummian. But, ii
Mabillon had compared the Penitential, annexed to the Missal'
with St. Columbanus' tract De poeniientiarum mensiua ^t., he
would probably have been led at least to suspect, that said Missal
was the one used b}'- the saint himself, and consequently contained
the Cursus Scotorum.

(73) It runs thus ; " Credo in Deiun patrem omnipotenteni^
creatorem cadi et ferrae. Credo in Jesum Christiun Jilium ejus uni-
genitumy sempiternum, conception de Spiritu S. natum ex Maria

V. Passum sub Pofitio Pilato. CrucfJixwH, 7'iwrtuum, et sepultum.
Descendit ad iriferna. Tertia die resurrexit a mortuis. Ascendd
ad caelos. Sedit fsedetj ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis.
Inde venfurus Jiidicarc," &c. The remainder exactly as in the
Roman creed. I need scarcely tfll the reader, tliat this Creed
appears in said Missal at the Traditio Symboli, \vhich used to
take place on Palm Sunday, for tlie Conipetentes, but not as
forming a part of the Mass ; whereas the practice of relocating
any Creed in the Mass was not observed in those times in any
part of the Western ch.uxh, except in Spain, where the reading
of the Nicene Creed, or rather that of Constantinople, during di-
vine service was introduced in the year 589 ; and which was imi-
tated by the churches of France and Germany in the time of
Charlemagne, but not received at Rome until J. D. 101 i. (See
Bona, Rer. Liturg. L. 2. cap. 8. and Bingham, Origines &c. B.
X. ch.4i. sect. 17.)

(74) Dr. O'Conor, Rer. Hib. Se/iptor. Ep. Nimcup. p. 135
and 142.

(75) Dr. O'Conor observes [ib.p. 136.) that the vowels c and
iy and Uy as likewise the consonants h, p, and v, are constantly


interchanged. He had remarked, {p. 134.) that stzllae and stilla,
appear in the Missal for stellae and stella, Josep for Joseph,
osanna for hosanna, exorcidio for exorcizo. We have seen above
Not, 73 sedit for sedet.

(76) Dr. O'Conor quotes from the great Benedictine work
{Nouveau Traite de Diploni, Paris, 1757) the following passage
concerning this Missal : " Elle tient peutetre de I'ecriture Ro-
maine, usitee dans les Isles Britanniques avant la conversion des
Anglois. Dans cette ecriture du vi on vii siecle Te prend la place
de Voe et de 1'/, et I'm celle de Yo. — Le savant Benedictin con-
jecture, que ce Sacramentaire (from Mabillon's Sacramentarium,
Sfc.) y fut apporte de Luxeuil par St. Columban. On pent, avec
autant de fondement, supposer, que ce Saint I'aura apporte de la
Grande Bretagne en Franche Comte." Instead of Grande Bre-
tag?ie they should have written VIrelande ; for surely they knew,
that St. Colurabanus was an Irishman, and went straight from
Ireland to France.

§.11. The Irish church had a very great num-
ber of canons peculiar to itself. Of those, which
are said to have been enacted by St, Patrick, or by
him and his fellow bishops, and many of which were
undoubtedly of their formation, I have said some-
thing already. (77) They have been published
from Spelman and elsewhere, and illustrated with
learned notes by Sir James Ware. (78) After St.
Patrick's times a multitude of canons was drawn up
by various Irish synods, a vast number of which
down to the eighth century is still extant ; and out
of large collections of them the learned Benedictine
D'Achery has published very many of them, and
others have been added by his confreres Martene and
Durand. (79) I have often had occasion to refer
to several of those canons ; but it will not be amiss
to give a general view of some of the more remark-
able ones, i'ollowing, as nearly as I can, the order,
in which I find them as published by Ware, D'Ache-
ry, &c. In the synod, called of St, Patrick, there
is a canpn concerning excommunication, in which


the excommunicated person is ordered to be rejected
from communion and from table, mass and peace.
(80) This canon is illustrated by another of an
Irish synod, which distinguished six modes of ex-
communication, some greater, some lesser. (81)
There is a canon prohibiting the rebaptization of
persons already baptized, no matter by whom. This
was plainly intended against the abettors of Donatist
principles ; for it assigns as a reason, that the seed
is not infected by the iniquity of the sower. (82) It
is somewhat singular, that one of the solemn times,
besides Easter and Pentecost, for celebrating bap-
tism was in the Irish church the festival of the Epi-
phany. (83) There is a canon concerning the pro-
priety of taking out the holy sacrifice on Easter night.
It states, that it may be taken to the faithful, which,
strictly speaking, is not a taking ouU because they
believe in and receive Christ under the one roof of
faith, (84) There is a prohibition against a man
marrying the widow of his brother, (85) to which
was added another condemning not only a man, who
should act in that manner, but likewise a woman,
that married the brother of her deceased husband,
and sentencing the parties to rejection from commu-
nion until death. (8()) With regard to other ma-
trimonial regulations, I need not repeat here some
Irish canons already quoted. (87) It is remarkable,
that the system of the jubilee, as established in the
Old Testament, was observed to a certain degree in
Ireland ; but with what modifications it is difficult to
determine, although there are various canons rela-
tive to it. (d8) Some canons enjoin on the cler-
gy not to bring any suits before iiiiidel judges.
(89) These must be very ancient, as are also
some others, in which infidels are mentioned,
such as that which prohibits alms offered by Gentiles
to be received into the church. (90) Several canons
are relative to the duties of princes, the respect and
obedience due to them, and to not speaking ill of good


ones. (91) With regard to sending out of Ireland
for decisions on difficult ecclesiastical matters, there
is a canon ordering such questions to be referred to
the Apostolic see. (92)

(77) Chap. VIII. §, 3.

(78) He has them among the Opuscula S. Patricio adsrripia,
and in the following order; 1. Synodns S. Patricii consisting of
31 capitula or canons. 2. Nine other canons attributed to St,
Patrick. 3. Si/nodus episcoporunif id est, Patricii, Auxilii, Isser-
nini, containing 34 canons. 4. Three canons ascribed to St.
Patrick, besides two others not said to have been drawn up by
him, one of which is expressly staled to have been made by an
Irish synod. 5. Certain rules, called Proverbs of St. Patrick,
chiefly for the direction of ecclesiastical judges. See also the
concilia M. B. S:c. of Spelman, Vol. 1. and of Wilkins, Vol. 1.

(79) The collection by D'Achery is in his Spicilegiup^, Tom,
9. p. 1. seqq. and in De la Ban-e's edition of it Ton?. 1. p. 492,
seqq. He says in the Monitum, that the Irish canons, that follow,
were drawn up before the eighth century, pnd selected by him
from a great and ancient MS. collection of canons,, consisting of
65 books divided into several capitula or articles. Having ob-
served that this collection is valuable, utpote coritinunta serielocis
S. Scripturae, conciliorum, et SS. Patrum scite adviodum ac pru-
denter insertis a i(^r>iata, he apologizes for having omitted a con-
siderable number of said canons; 1. because many similar canons
may be found elsewhere -, and 2. because he shunned the labour of
correcting the manifold mistakes and solecisms, with which the
MS. abounded, having been copied by an ignorant person unac-
quainted with Latin. Accordingly he picked out only the most
remarkable canons, particularly such as were decreed in Irish
synods. For it is to be recollected, that in said great collection
there arc several canons copied from those of foreign councils,
besides some sentences or passages from Gildas and others.
D'Achery followed two MSS. one of the monasteiy of Corbie,
the other of that of St. Germain. He says, that the collection
was made about the eighth century (in the mai'gin A?mo circ. 790)
and (juotes a passage from Abedoc, the original writer of it, who
has in tJie end ; " Ahcdoc clericns ipse has collectiones conscripsi


laciniosae conscriptioniSf Haelhucar abhate dispensante, quae de
Sanctis Scripturis, vel divinis fontibus hie in hoc codice glomeratae

Online LibraryUnknownAn ecclesiastical history of Ireland, from the first introduction of Christianity among the Irish, to the beginning of the thirteenth century , Compiled from the works of the most esteemed authors ... who have written and published on matters connected with the Irish church; and from Irish annals an → online text (page 33 of 45)