An ecclesiastical history of Ireland, from the first introduction of Christianity among the Irish, to the beginning of the thirteenth century , Compiled from the works of the most esteemed authors ... who have written and published on matters connected with the Irish church; and from Irish annals an online

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passed through certain purifications, is allowed to enter it for doing
something requisite, keeping at the same time his mouth covered
with the penom or covering of doubled linen. Hence we may
understand, how, notwithstanding the small dimensions of our
Round towers, a part of them might have served for a fire-temple,
which was entered only by the ministers of religion ; and why
the entrance into them was placed several feet above the ground,


as it was intended merely for the use of a peculiar and compara-
tively small class of persons. As the people at large were not ad-
mitted into them, they felt no inconvenience from the height of
the doors ; and the reason for placing them so high was probably
to guard against any pollution of the sacred fire, or of the place
where it was kept, which might happen, either from the breath
of people standing near the tower, or from other causes, if the
door were near the ground, For such scrupulous attention was
observed on this point, that, as Prideux states, (ib.) " the priests
" themselves never approached this fire but with a cloth (the
" penom) over their mouths, that they might not breath thereon .
« and this they did, not only when they tended the fire to lay
" more wood thereon, or do any other service about it, but also
" when they approached it to read the daily offices of their liturgy
** before it." He says likewise, that the priests " fed it only with
" wood stripped of its bark, and of that sort which they thought
" most clean, and they never did blow it either with bellows, or
" with their breath, for fear of polluting it; and to do this
" either of those ways, or to cast any unclean thing into it, was
" no less than death by the law of the land, as long as those of
** that sect reigned in it."

Dr, Milner, objecting {Letter cit.) to the hypothesis of the Irish
Round towers having been fire-temples, says, that " they ought
rather to have been left open at the top, like our great furnaces,
than closed up as they are found to be." He supposed that the
fires contained in them were great blazing masses like bonfires.
This is a mistake, whereas those of the fire-temples were small,
gentle, and placed on altars. To leave said temples open at the
top would have been in direct opposition to the object of Zoroastres,
who introduced the fashion of temples for the very purpose of pro-
tecting the holy fire against rain, storms, &c, (See above Not. 136.)
And at this day the Ateschgah of the Parsees is a covered room,
as Anquetil informs us, {loc. cit. p. 571.) who also remarks, {p. 569.)
that means are contrived for carrying off the smoke. And such
might have also been easily contrived in the Round towers with
the help of the loop-holes, which we find in them, or of the door ;
which I mention to guard against an objection that might be made
f how Jhose covered temples were kept fi'ee from smoke.

(140) See Dr. O'Conor, Eer. Hid. Scr, 1. Proleg, p. 32, and


Index to Proleg. p. 206. In the former place he quotes passages
from Tigernach, and from the Annals of Ulster and of the 4<
Masters at A. 995, in which among other buildings destroyed by
lightning at Armagh are mentioned Fiadh-Nemeadh, i, e. celestial
testimonies or indications. They are distinguished from the
Cloictcacha, or belfries, and might have been, as he conjectures,
Round towers used for astronopfiical purposes. It is well known,
that the astronomical studies w^re cultivated in Ireland, and we
have met with several Irishmen, who were well versed in them,
such as Cumian, author of the Paschal epistle, St. Virgilius,
Dungal, &c.

(141) Smith, Hist, of Cork VoL2.p,^OS,
(142^ Prideaux says {loc. cit.) that, " when they came before
these fires to worship, they always approached them on the west
side, that having their faces towards them, and also towards the
rising sun at the same time, they might direct their worship to-
wards both."

(l^S) Dr. Milner, an excellent judge in these matters, touch-
ing (Letter cit,) on the period, in wliich they were generally
erected, writes ; " It appears to me, that this must be very re-
mote, from the circular arches over the doors of many of them,
which proves them to be anterior to the introduction of the pointed
arch," &c. He also remarks, that in the times of Giraldus Cara-
brensis, as 1 have already mentioned, they were considered as of
great antiquity. The materials, of which they are built, being
usually of the best kind, ex, c, those of the tower at Cashel. which
are much better than those of the adjoining and much more mo-
dem cathedral, the excellence and neatness of the workmanship,
circumstances noticed by Dr. Milner, the thickness of the walls,
generally about three feet, and their conical form, are more than
sufficient to account for their durability and for theu' having been
so little injured by time, although some of them may have been
erected two thousand years ago.

(144) I mean, if understood of being very near the churches.
Those of Kildare and Dmmiskin (co. Louth) stand 90 feet, and
that of Downpatrick 48 from the respective churches, (Ledtvick,
Antiq. p. 304.)

(145) See Ledwich's list of Round towers, id. jr 300. seqq. It
is not, however complete. Mr. Dutton (Statistical Snrvey of


the county of Clare, ch. v. sect. 23.) makes mention of some in that
county, which are omitted in said list.

(14?6) I cannot better illustrate this point than by referring to
the conduct of Gregory the great in his directions to the missionary
Augustin, communicated in a letter to the abbot Mellitus, (ap.
Bed. EccL Hist. L. 1. cap. SO.) not to destroy the temples of the
Anglo-Saxons, but, having overturned the idols, to purify these
temples and apply them to the worship of the true God, placing
altars, &c. in them, that so the people might be induced, by the
circumstance of their having been accustomed to resort to those
places, to continue to do so for the pui'pose of acquiring the know-
ledge of the true God, and adoring him. His words are ; " Dicite
ei ( Augustino) quid diu mecum de causa Anglorum cogitans trac-
tavi, videlicet quod fana idolorum destrui in eadem gente minime
debeant ; sed ipsa quae in eis sunt idola destruantur, aqua bene-
dicta fiat, in eisdem fanis aspergatur, altaria construantur, reli-
quiae componantur. Quia, si fana eadem bene constructa sunt,
necesse est ut a cultu daemonum in obsequi a veri Dei debeant
commutari, ut, dum gens ipsa eadem fana sua non videt destrui,
de corde errorem deponat, et Deum verimt cognoscens ac adorans
ad loca, quae consuevit, Jumiliarius concurrat." A similar prin-
ciple seems to have actuated the preachers of Christianity in Ire-
land ; but, as the Round towers could not, on account of their
narrow dimensions, be changed into churches, they thought it ad-
viseable to erect churches near them.

(147) Smith, who speaks of their having been used as prisons
for penitents, (above §. 15. and Not. 131.) says, (ib. p. 409.) that
the tower of Kineth in W. Carbery (county of Cork) was built
about the year 1015, for which he refers to an old MS. containing
some annals of Munster. But, even supposing the accuracy of
his assertion, I may observe, that he represents this tower as dif-
fering from all the others he had heard of. The first story is a re-
gular hexagon, each side being 10 feet 4 inches, so that the whole
circumference is 62 feet. This is much greater than the usual cir-
cumference of the real Round towers, in which no angles appear.
Accordingly, although built somewhat in imitation of them, being
from the first story upwards (juite round, it does not precisely be-
long to that class of buildings. He does not tell us, whether the
entrance into it be several feet above the ground, or whether it


has at the top the four windows facing the cardinal points ; two re-
markable peculiarities of the Round towers strictly so called. If
it be true that it was erected as late as Smith states, it might have
been intended for a receptacle for penitents. The strongest argu-
ment I meet with for the building of any Round tower, according
to the ancient fashion in Christian times, is furnished by that o*^
Brechin in Scotland, which has over one of the two arches on its
western front a figure of our Saviour on the Cross, and between
both arches two small statues of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St.
John. (See Ledwich, p. 294 and 297, and his drawing of that
tower, and Gough's Observations on the Round tovoer of Brechin,
(Archaeologia, Vol. 2.) which, together with the drawing, have
been followed by Ledwich.) If these figures were placed there at
the time of its erection, it is evident that it must be assigned to a
Christian period. But might not they have been added long -after
the original building of the tower, and after it was applied to some
Christian purpose.'^




CC/* The numeral ktters denote the volume, and the Arabic
figures the page.

AbBAIN-DUN, iii. 22.

Abban, St. his birth, iii. 14. Two of that name, 15, 16. His
death, 15.

Abbey-leix, foundation of, iv. 262, 264.

Abingdon, its name from St. Abban, iii. 22.

Abington. See Woney-

Abstinence of the ancient Irish, iv. 349, 350, 353.

Achadh-abhla, i. 465, anciently called Cro-sailech, 468.

Achad-cinn or Achad-cill, i. 267. Abbey of lu 103.

Achad-Dagan, ii. 366.

Achadh-farcha, i. 420.

Achadh-Finglaiss, monastery of, ii. 228.

Achadh fobhair, i. 245.

Achadh-Gabhran, ii. 318,

Achadh-na-cill, i. 267.

Achadh-more, i. 248. >

Achad-ur, foundation of, iii. 26.

Achonry, St. Nathan of, i. 345.

Adalgius, disciple of St. Fursey, ii. 462, 464.

Adamnan, abbot of Hy, the time in which he flourished, i. 60.
His life of Columb-kill, ib. Makes mention of St. Patrick, 61.
When born, iii, 12. Sent to Alfred, king of Northumberland,
for the purpose of recovering captives and property carried off
from Ireland by Egfrid's pirates, 9^. Abbot of Raphoe, 97.
Again visits king Alfred, ibid. A priest and monk of the mo-
nastery of Coludi, now Coldingham in Scotland, ib. Again
sent ambassador to king Alfred, 149. Receives the Roman
Paschal computation, 150. His death, ibid.

Adamnan, bishop of Rathmuighe, death of, iii. 163.

Ad Fontanus, monastery of, ii. 267.

Adhland, St. abbot of Derry, iii. 381.
WOh. IV. E E

418 INDEX.

Ado and Dado, two sons of Autharius, blessed by Columbanus, ii.

Adrian IV. Pope, grants a bull to Henry II to take possession of

Ireland, iv. 159 to 165- Bull sent into Ireland by Henry, 222,

Aedh, Aodh, or Hugh, a common name with the Irish, ii. 333.
Aedan, St. or JNIaidoc, bishop of Ferns, his family, &c. ii. 333,

Aedan, a military man, becomes a monk at Fore, iii. 51.
Aedan, apostle of Northumberland, ii. 416. Gets a grant of

Lindisfarn, 417. His diocese, &c. 421. His death, 424.
Aedus or Hugh, a bishop, death of, i. 419.
Aedus or Hugh, monarch of Ireland, ii. 13. Killed, 198.
Aedgen, St. bishop of Fore, death of, iii. 194-.
Aedgen Brito, bishop of Kildare, death of, iii. 322.
Aelchu, abbot of Clonard, death of, iii. 166.
Aemonia, monastery of, ii. 166.'
Aengus, ceilc De. " See Aengus the Hagiologist.
Aengus, coadjutor abbot of Hy, iii. 343.
Aengus Hua Lapain, iii. 370.
Aengus, son of Natfraoich, king of Cashel, i. 280, 282, 394, 400.

ii. 98.
Aengus Macnisse, bishop of Cormor, i. 422, 435.
Aengus, son of Olild, i. 263.
Aengus, th.e Hagiologist, iii. 232, 233, 245, 249.
Aethena, mother' of St. Columb-kill, ii. 106, 112.
Africa, St. abbess of Kildare, iii. 170, 172.
Africa, wife of John De Courcey, iv. 321.
Aghabo, monastery of, ii 201. Plundered by the Danes, iii.

366. See of Ossory there, iv. 237, 239.
Aghacainid, monastery of, iii. 132, 134.
Aghadoe, the great church of, iv. 168. See of, 169.
Aghagower, i. 245, 248.
Aghamore, i. 248.

Agilbert, bishop of the West Saxons, iii. 60, 62.
Aidan St. or Maidoc, bishop of Ferns, i. 470. See Aedan.
Aidan Hua Fiachrach, St. ii. 104.
Aidan king of the British Scots, ii. 173, 178. Inquiry con-

ceming his claim to Dalreida, 237.
Aidan, disciple of St. Carthagh, ii. 359, 364.
Aidan, bishop of Glendaloch, iii. 34.
Aidan, brother to St. Flannan, bishop of Killaloe, iii. 148.
Aidan, bishop of Mayo, iii. 201.
Aidan, Hua Condumha, iii. 267.
Aidhichan, bishop and abbot of Conor, iii. 323, 324.
Aidus, St. abbot and bishop of Kildare, i. 214, 219. iii. 33.
Aidus, abbot of Tirdaglass, iii. 273, 274.
Aidus, brother of St. Foila, ii. 328.
Aidus, bishop of Sletty, iii. 1 40.

INDEX. 4] 9

Aidiis Finnliatli, monarch of Ireland, iii. 24-2, 326, 327.
Aldus, father of Cathald king of Munster, ii. 5.
Aidus, king of Connaught, ii. 145, 198, 199.
Aidus O'Fairreth, archbishop of Armagh, iii. 448.
Aidus Oirdnidhe, iii. 241, 214.

Aidus son of Ainmirech, monarch of Ireland, ii. 122. 237. iii.

Aidus, son of Brec, ii. 10, 187, 188.

Aidus, son of Degil, i. 456.

Aidus, scribe of Roscommon, iii. 329.

Aidus, surnamed Shmi, monarch of Ireland, ii. 301.

Aidus, surnamed Uairiodhnach, monarch of Ireland, ii. 301.

Ailbe, a priest, different from Ailbe of Emiy, i. 15, 210, 243.

Ailbe of Emly, St. i. 22, 23, 283, 287, 317, 396, 461. ii. 10 k

Ailbe of Senchua, i. 462-

Ailech, monastery of, ii. 29.

Ailech, the residence of the chief of Inish Owen, i. 262, 263.

Ailil, archbishop of Armagh, i. 440, 461, 462, 495.

Ailillof Maghbile, i. 410.

Aingin, or Angina, monastery of, ii. 52, 57.

Ainmirech or Ainmireus, monarch of Ireland, i. 470. ii. 13.

Aircndan, St ii. 331.

Airendanus, a priest, iii. 11.

Airdne-Coemhan, abbey of, ii. 221.

Alban, St. i. 464, 466.

Albanius, a name of the elder Gildas, i. 476.

Albert, St. brother to St. Erard, i. Ill, 113.

Albinus, caUed Alcuin, iii. 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213.

Albuin, or Witta, bishop of Buraburg, iii. 178, 180.
Alchfrid, prince, iii. 59.
Alcluid, i. 477.

Alcluith, or Dunbarton, iii. 327.
Alcuin, iii. 207 & seqq. 230.

Alderic, or Aidus Barbarus, iii* 445.

Alectum, Maclovius, bishop of, ii. 33.

Alexander III. Pope, his brief conferring the bull of Adrian, iv.

222, 223.
Alfred, educated in Ireland, i. 90, 96.
Algnied, bishop of Ardbraccan, iii. 202.
Alild or Alili Molt, monarch of Ireland, i. 392.
Alild and Illand princes of Leinster, i. 394.
Alild, abbot of Mungret, iii. 192.
Alild, abbot of Clogher, iii. 340.
Alitherus, abbot of Clonmacnois, ii. 124, 241.
All Saints, priory of, iv. 186, 187.
Alphabet, the Roman, i. 220.
Altars in churches, iv. 269, 272, 395, 397-
Alto, St. iii. 189.
Alto-Munster, monastery of, iii. 189.

420 -o INDEX.

Altraighe Cliach, district of, ii. 94.

Amalgaid, abp. of Armagh, iii. 427.

Amandiis of Bourdeaux, i. 199.

Aniarbaric, monastery of, iii. 219, 220, 221.

Amlaff, king of Dublin, iii. 432.

Amlave plunders Armagh, iii. 326. Death of, 327- See Auliff.

Amnichad, St. iii. 443.

Anagrates, fort of, ii. 267, 268.

Anat-caltrain, i. 208.

Anatolius, first in venter of the Paschal computation, ii. 375.

Anatolius, an Irishman, iii. 362, 364.

Anatrim, monastery of ii. 222.

Anchorets called Liclnsi, iv. 394, 402.

Andrew de Stokes, priory of St. iv. 249.

Andrew, disciple of St. Donatus, iii. 280, 281.

Angarbh, son of Olill king of Leinster, iii. 366.

Anglesey, battle of, i. 477,

Anmchara, meaning of, ii. 56.

Anmire, abp. of Armagh, iii. 322, 325.

Anmireus, monarch of Ireland, ii. 198.

Anselm, abp. of Canterbury, iv. 13, 14, 18, 21, 22.

Antrim, i. 346, 348, 403, 422.

Antiphonarium Benchorense, i. 59, 60. ,

Antipodes, doctrine of, taught by Fergal^ iii. 190.

Aodh Bennain king of Munster, iii. 5.

Aodh Caomh, king of Cashel, ii. 213.

Aonach-Tailten, i. 210.

Ara-chliach, i, 287.

Arbertac, St. iii. 255.

Arbogast, St iii. 101, 102.

Aractac, abbot of Ferns, iii. 176, 177-

Ara-na-'fiaomh^ see Arn-Island.

Archdall (author of the .Monasticon Hibernicum), blunders of
noticed, i, 69, 246, 247, 255, 258, 264, 267, 270, 276, 278,
296, 304, 311, 345, 348, 404, 412, 415, 463. ii. 5, 12,24,
27, 36, 39, BS, 59, 64, 73, 100, 105, 119, 123, 134, 137,
' 143, 189, 195, 211, 214, 224, 225, 231, 232, 309, 321,
325, 328, 356, 361, 362, S63, 398, 406. iii. 9, 10, 13, 19,
20,27,28,36,46,48,49,81,82, 85, 86, 88, 102, 130, 230.
iv. 130, 131, 180, 234, 249, 250, 293, 327, 334.

Archers, (S:c. exconnnunicated, iv. 271.

Architecture, ecclesiastical, iv. 391. Pagan, 406.

Archpriests, iv. 22'i. 223

Ardbraccan, ii. 316, iii. 374, 433. iv. r>S, 322, 346, 377.

Ardcarn. i. 462, 463, iv. 344, 346.
Ardfert, i. 420, 421. ii. 31, 354. .
Ardfinan, monasteiy of, iii. 84.
Ardgoal or Adrogoal, i. 148.
Ardlathrann church, ii. 339.
Ardmacha, see Armagh.


Ardmore, i. 461.

Ard-oilean, monastery of, iii. 4'9.

Ardpatrick, i. 308.

Ardsailech, i. 312.

Ardstrath or Ardstraw, ii. 190.

Arecluta, or Alcluid, i. 477.

Arectac, Abp. of Armagh, iii. 233, 234.

ArguriLis, king of Leinrster, iii 426.

Aridius, bishop, ii. 271, 272.

Aristobulus, i. 2.

Armagh, sundry things relating to, i. 74, 275, 308, 312, 315,
402, 403,450. iii. 266, 270, 271, 277, 326, 346, 347, 361,
367, 382, 385, 424, 490. iv. 31, 34, 77, 91, 94, 101, 110,
136, 182, 190, 195, 238, 256, 259, 260, 261, 303, 315,
342, 343.

Armoric Britain, i. 92.

Arn island, monastery of, ii. 51, 396.

Aroasian canons, iv. 336.

Arran, i. 404.

Artchain, monastery of, ii. 162

Artgal, son of Cathald king of Conaught, iii. 232.

Arthur, king of Britain, i. 477, 482, 483.

Artrigius, coadjutor bishop of Armagh, iii. 257, 266, 267.

Asacus, a bishop. See Asicus, i. 340.

Ashroe, or Easrue, abbey of formed, iv. 238.

Asicus a bishop, i. 242, 261, 340, 403, 418.

Assanus, St. i. 418.

Assembly at Cashel, iv. 20.

Astronomical studies cultivated by the Irish, iv. 412.

Athaddy, abbey of, iv. 186.

Athassel, monastery of, iv. 335, 336.

Athboy, great convention at, iv. 188.

Ath-cliath, now Dublin, blessed by St. Patrick, i. 275.

Ath-Truim, now Trim. See Trim.

Athracta, St. i. 245, 247, iii. 39, 43-

Attala, successor of Columbanus, ii. 295.

Attracta, i. 245, 247, 429. iii» 39, 43.

Augulus, St. bishop and martyr, i. 6.

Augurius St. a bishop, i. 6.

Augusta, London not the only city so called, i. 8.

Augustin, St. his legatine powers confined to Britain, iii. 467,

Augustinian canons, iv. 104, 105, 106, 136, 293, 313, 322,

AulifF or Amlave or Olave, a Norwegian prince, iii. 326.

Auliff, son of Godfrid, iii. 373.

AuliflP, king of the Danes, iii. 41 5.
Autharius entertains Columbanus, ii. 284.
Auxilius, St. I 195, 259, 261, 333.
Axilius, St. i. 195.

422 INDEX.


Bachull ]Mura, or staff of St. Mura, iii. 37.

Badoney, church of, i. 264<.

Badonicus, the younger Gildas so called, i. 476.

Baile-chuinnig. See Baldhuninega.

Bais-leac-mor, or Baslick, St. Sacellus, bishop of, i. 244.

Baitan, bishop of Clonmacnois, ii. 60, 413.

Baitan, founder of the monastery of Sath-regindeUy ii. 1 33.

Baitellach, abbot of Trim, death of, iii. 177.

Baithan, bishop of Teigh-baithin, ii, 413.

BcUthen, set over one of the monasteries at Ethica, ii. 162.

Baithen, abbot of Hy, ii.250. His death 259.

Baithen, son of Alia, ii. 413.

Baldhuninega or Baldhinmega, money sent for the brethren of,
iii. 230, 232.

Baldoyle, lands of, made over to the priory of All Saints, iv. 186.

Ballidughgail. See Baldoyle.

Ballimore Lough Seudy, the house of Gilbertin canons of, iv.
336, 337.

Bally baghal, town of, granted to the abbey of St. Mary's, Dublin,
iv. 248.

Ballymoon. See Beallach Mughna.

Baltinglass, abbey of, iv. 186

Banchor or Bangor near Chester, i. 437.

Banchor, Benchor, or Bangor near Carrickfergus, monastery of,
founded by St. Comgall, ii. 62. Plundered and monks killed by
the Danes, iii. 270, 272. Waste, iv. 77. Re»estabhshed, 78,
IJ, A stone oratory erected there, iv., 126.

Bangor. See Banchor.
Bantry, called Bcntraighe, i. 148.

Baptism, conferred with chrism, iii. 480, seq. Decrees respecting
it, iv. 205, 206, 211, 213, 216. Eucharistical, 4.35. Solemn
times for celebrating, 377.
Baptismal churches, fonts to be immoveably fixed in, iv. 270,

Barr, St. or St. Finnban*, bishop of Cork, ii. 313, 315, 316.
Barrindeus, St. ii 219, 221.

Barrinthus St. a disciple of St. Brendan, ii. 35, 219, 221,
Baslick, See Bais-leac-mor,
Bath, battle of, i. 476, 479.

Bavo, St. Livin abbot of the monastery of St. 467, 471.
Bealduleek, supposed to be Baldoyle, iii. 434, 435.
Beallach Maghna, battle of, iii. 351.
Bealtinne, a name given to the first of May, i. 226.
Beauford, error of, noticed, iv. 65.
Bee, St. surnamed Mac De. Death of, ii. 103.
Becan, St. of Clonard. iii. 20. His death, 129.
Becan, several of that name, ii. 396.

INDEX. 4^3

Becatus, St. i. S, 4, Q65,

Bede, testimony of, concerning Lindisfarne, iii. 76.

Beer, used by the ancient Irish monks, iv. 353.

Bees, said to be first brought to Ireland by St. Domnoch, ii. 319,
320. '

Beg-erin, now called Beg-ery, i. 29, School of, 402.

Beith-luis-niony the name of an old Irish alphabet, i. 220.

Bel, the sun so called, i. 229.

Belfries, iv. 394, 399, 400, 406.

Bell, a small one sent to St. Brigid, i. 450.

Bellilochus, abbey of, ii. 49 1 .

Benaventa in Britain, i. 491.

Benchor. See Banchor.

Benedict, succeeds St. Enda at Arran, ii. 69.

Benedictine monks introduced into the cathedral of Down, iv.

Benedictine priories near Cork and Waterford, iv. 337, 339.

Benefices, ecclesiastical, not to be received from lay persons, iv.

Benignus, St. disciple of St. Patrick, i. 221, 257, 323, 374,
402. His death, 375. ii. 42.

Bentraighe, See Bantry.

Beoadh, bishop of Ardcam, death of, i. 462, 464.

Beoan, father of St. Kiernan of Clonmacnois, ii, 50.

Beoan, a bishop, instructs St. Fursey, ii. 455, 457.

Berach, St. Abbot of Cluain-Caiipthe, ii. 323, 324, 325,

Berchan, see Byrchinus.

Berrindeus. See Saints, Irish, 2d class, ii. 13.

Bertuin, disciple of St. Fursey, ii. 462 464.

Betan and Eochad succeed Domnald and Fergus kings of Ireland

ii. 198, 199.
Bile, birth place of St. Fechin, iii. 46,47, Church of erected by

him, ib.
Bile-tortan, near Ardbraccan, i. 271.
Birr, monastery of founded, ii. 39. Plundered by the Danes, iii.

Birgitta, St. of Sweden, i, 214.

Bishops and other eminent men, deaths of several, iii. 381, 386,
428, 451, 452, 487, 488, iv. 51, 98, 99, 341, 342.

several killed by the Danes, iii. 387.

— — Irish decried by Giraldus Cambrensis, iv. 286, 288.

lay, possessing the see of Armagh, iv. 31, 33.

— — multiplication of, iv. 35.

— . — regulations respecting them, iv. 382.

subordinate to abbots, ii. 253. seq.

Bithan, abbot of Clonmacnois, iii. 34.
Bitheus, a bishop, buried at Rath*cungu, i. 34 1 .
Blacar, a Northman king, recovers Dublin from the Irish, iii. 374,
Killed, 375.

424 INDEX.

Black Abbey. See St. Andrew de Stokes.

Blaithmaic, St. goes over to Hy, and is killed by the Danes, iii.

253, 255.
Blathmac Hua Muirgeavair, St. abbot of Durrough, ui. 255.
Blathmac son of Aidus Slaine, expels St. Carthagh from Raithen,

ii. 352.
Blessed Virgin Mary de arvi camjpOy abbey of the. See Kilcoul.
Bobbio, monasteiy of, ii. 1 46, 29^, 295.
Boetan II. monarch of Ireland, ii. 198, 199.
Boetius, St. bishop of Monaster, i 4-6', 463.
Bogs, the retreats of the Irish, iv. 359.
Boisil, prior of Mailros, death of, iii. 89.
Bolcan. See Olcanus.
Bonaven, Bonaun and Bononia, i. 93.
Bonavem Tabernia^, i. 93, 103.
Boniface, St bishop of Saltzburgh, iii 178- Disputes between him

and Virgilius, 182. Accuses Virgilius to the Pope, ib.
Borchan, see Berchinus
Borneach, nunneiy of, iii. 14.

Boulogne, diocese of, governed by St. Patrick, i. 96.
Boyle, Peter O'Mordha. first abbot of, iv. 218.
Bracan, father of Canoe, i. 424.
Braccae, a kind of garment, iv. 362.
Brandubh, bishop of Hy-kinsellagh, ii. 228.
Brandubh, king of I^einster, defeats Aidus son of Ainmirech, ii.

198. Grants land to St. Maidoc to erect a monastery, 337.

Convokes a synod, 338.
Brecan, brother of St. Cairnech, i. 494.

Brecspere, Nicholas, afterwards Pope Adrian the fourth, iv. 155.
Bree, St. surnamed the -rase, death of, iii, 163.
Breffny, bishop of, iv. ^-M-.
Bregh (Meath) iii. 307.
Bregenses, the country of, i. 212.
Brendan, St. abbot of Inisquin, i. 4.50, 452.
Brendan, St. of Clonfert, i. 450. ii. 22, 28, 29, 30, 92.
Brendan, some of his sisters receive the veil from St. Senan, ii. 3.
Brendan, St. of Birr, ii. 38. Death of, 39.

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