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Y 4.AR 5/3:S.HRG.107-355/PT.l

■mmmtimmssttMii-: ^- ^^^- 107-355, Pr. i

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION FOR
APPROPRIATIONS FOR HSCAL YEAR 2002



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES
UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED SEVENTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
ON

S. 1416

AUTHORIZING APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2002 FOR MILITARY
ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, FOR MILITARY CON-
STRUCTION, AND FOR DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
ENERGY, TO PRESCRIBE PERSONNEL STRENGTHS FOR SUCH FISCAL
YEAR FOR THE ARMED FORCES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES



PART 1

UNIFIED COMMANDS

MILITARY POSTURE/BUDGET AMENDMENT

SERVICE SECRETARIES/SERVICE CHIEFS

BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE



MARCH 22, 27; JUNE 28; JULY 10, 12, 17, 19, 2001




Printed for the use of the Committee on Armed Services



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S. Hrg. 107-355, Pt. 1

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION FOR
APPROPRIATIONS FOR HSCAL YEAR 2002

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON ARMED SEmaCES
UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED SEVENTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
ON

S. 1416

AUTHORIZING APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2002 FOR MILITARY
ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, FOR MILITARY CON-
STRUCTION, AND FOR DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
ENERGY, TO PRESCRIBE PERSONNEL STRENGTHS FOR SUCH FISCAL
YEAR FOR THE ARMED FORCES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES



PART 1

UNIFIED COMMANDS

MILITARY POSTURE/BUDGET AMENDMENT

SERVICE SECRETARIES/SERVICE CHIEFS

BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE



MARCH 22, 27; JUNE 28; JULY 10, 12, 17, 19, 2001




Printed for the use of the Committee on Armed Services



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JOHN WARNER, Virginia, Chairman



STROM THURMOND, South Carolina
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona
BOB SMITH, New Hampshire
JAMES M. INHOFE, Oklahoma
RICK SANTORUM, Pennsylvania
PAT ROBERTS, Kansas
WAYNE ALLARD, Colorado
TIM HUTCHINSON, Arkansas
JEFF SESSIONS, Alabama
SUSAN COLLINS, Maine
JIM BUNNING, Kentucky



CARL LEVIN, Michigan
EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia
JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut
MAX CLELAND, Georgia
MARY L. LANDRIEU, Louisiana
JACK REED, Rhode Island
DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii
BILL NELSON, Florida
E. BENJAMIN NELSON, Nebraska
JEAN CARNAHAN, Missouri
MARK DAYTON, Minnesota
Les Brownlee, Staff Director
David S. Lyles, Staff Director for the Minority



CARL LEVIN, Michigan, Chairman



EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts

ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia

JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut

MAX CLELAND, Georgia

MARY L. LANDRIEU, Louisiana

JACK REED, Rhode Island

DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii

BILL NELSON, Florida

E. BENJAMIN NELSON, Nebraska

JEAN CARNAHAN, Missouri

MARK DAYTON, Minnesota

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico

David S.



JOHN WARNER, Virginia
STROM THURMOND, South Carolina
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona
BOB SMITH, New Hampshire
JAMES M. INHOFE, Oklahoma
RICK SANTORUM, Pennsylvania
PAT ROBERTS, Kansas
WAYNE ALLARD, Colorado
TIM HUTCHINSON, Arkansas
JEFF SESSIONS, Alabama
SUSAN COLLINS, Maine
JIM BUNNING, Kentucky
Lyles, Staff Director



Les Brownlee, Republican Staff Director



(II)



CONTENTS



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WITNESSES

Unified Comivianders on Their Military Strategy and Operational

Requirements

MARCH 22, 2001

Page

Ralston, Gen. Joseph W., USAF, Commander in Chief, U.S. European Com-
mand, Supreme Alhed Commander, Europe 4

Franks, Gen. Tommy R., USA, Commander in Chief, U.S. Central Command . 32

Unified and ReCxIonal Commanders on Their Military Strategy and
Operational Requirements

march 27, 2001

Blair, Adm. Dennis C, USN, Commander in Chief, United States Pacific

Command 78

Pace, Gen. Peter, USMC, Commander in Chief, United States Southern Com-
mand 98

Schwartz, Gen. Thomas A., USA, Commander, United States Forces Korea;
Commander in Chief, United Nations Command/Combined Forces Com-
mand 107

Military Posture/Budget Amendment

JUNE 28, 2001

Rumsfeld, Hon. Donald H., Secretaiy of Defense; Accompanied by Dr. Dov

S. Zakheim, Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) 179

Shelton, Gen. Henry H., USA, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 189

Secretaries and Chiefs of the Military Services

JULY 10, 2001

White, Hon. Thomas E., Secretary of the Army 261

Shinseki, Gen. Eric K, USA, Chief of Staff, United States Army 270

England, Hon. Gordon R., Secretary of the Navy 271

Clark, Adm. Vernon E., USN, Chief of Naval Operations 274

Jones, Gen. James L., Jr., USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps 282

Roche, Hon. James G., Secretary of the Air Force 293

Ryan, Gen. Michael E., USAF, Chief of Staff, United States Air Force 322

Ballistic Missile Defense Policies and Programs

JULY 12, 2001

Wolfowitz, Hon. Paul D., Deputy Secretary of Defense 436

Kadish, Lt. Gen. Ronald T., USAF, Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organi-
zation 449



(III)



IV

Page

Ballistic Missile Defense Policies and Programs

JULY 17, 2001

Wolfowitz, Hon. Paul D., Deputy Secretary of Defense 586

Kadish, Lt. Gen. Ronald T., USAF, Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organi-
zation 586

Ballistic Missile Defense Policies and Programs

JULY 19, 2001

Berger, Hon. Samuel R., Chairman, Stonebridge International, Former Assist-
ant to the President for National Security Affairs 686

Coyle, Hon. Philip E., Senior Adviser, Center for Defense Information, Former
Director, Operational Test and Evaluation, Department of Defense 692

Perle, Hon. Richard N., Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute,

Former Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy 703



DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION
FOR APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR
2002



THURSDAY, MARCH 22, 2001

U.S. Senate,
Committee on Armed Services,

Washington, DC.

UNIFIED COMMANDERS ON THEIR MILITARY STRATEGY
AND OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:49 a.m. in room SD-
106, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator John Warner (chair-
man) presiding.

Committee members present: Senators Warner, Smith, Inhofe,
Levin, E. Benjamin Nelson, and Carnahan.

Committee staff members present: Romie L. Brownlee, staff di-
rector; Judith A. Ansley, deputy staff director; and Scott W. Stucky,
general counsel.

Professional staff members present: Charles S. Abell, Charles W.
Alsup, John R. Barnes, Edward H. Edens IV, Gary M. Hall, George
W. Lauffer, Thomas L. MacKenzie, Joseph T. Sixeas, Cord A. Ster-
ling, and Eric H. Thoemmes.

Minority staff members present: David S. Lyles, staff director for
the minority; Richard D. DeBobes, minority counsel; Daniel J. Cox,
Jr., professional staff member; Richard W. Fieldhouse, professional
staff member; Creighton Greene, professional staff member; Peter
K. Levine, minority counsel; and Michael J. McCord, professional
staff member.

Staff assistants present: Beth Ann Barozie, Shekinah Z. Hill, and
Suzanne K.L. Ross.

Committee members' assistants present: Christopher J. Paul and
Dan Twining, assistants to Senator McCain; George M. Bernier,
III, assistant to Senator Santorum; Robert Alan McCurry, assistant
to Senator Roberts; Arch Galloway II, assistant to Senator Ses-
sions; Kristine Fauser, assistant to Senator Collins; David S.
Young, assistant to Senator Bunning; Menda S. Fife, assistant to
Senator Kennedy; Barry Gene (B.G.) Wright and Erik Raven, as-
sistants to Senator Byrd; Frederick M. Downey, assistant to Sen-
ator Lieberman; Elizabeth King, assistant to Senator Reed; William
K. Sutey, assistant to Senator Bill Nelson; Sheila Murphy and Eric
Pierce, assistants to Senator Ben Nelson; and Larry Smar, assist-
ant to Senator Carnahan.

(1)



OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR JOHN WARNER,
CHAIRMAN

Chairman Warner. The hearing will come to order. As you are
well aware, we are having a vote in the Senate, and as a con-
sequence many of our colleagues are in transit from the Senate
floor back to the committee.

The committee meets this morning for the first of a series of
hearings on the status and requirements of our regional com-
mands. Today we have two of our most distinguished regional com-
manders. Gen. Joseph W. Ralston, USAF, Commander in Chief,
U.S. European Command, and Supreme Allied Commander, Eu-
rope; and Gen. Tommy R. Franks, USA, Commander in Chief, U.S.
Central Command.

Clearly, you individually and those in your commands are on the
very forefront of the risks that our men and women of the Armed
Forces take the world over, but particularly in your two areas. You
represent the finest troops that this country has ever produced,
and they are not only carrying out faithfully the orders of the Com-
mander in Chief, but doing so in keeping with the finest traditions
of our U.S. military.

We rely on your unique perspectives as we here in Congress
strive to fulfill our constitutional responsibilities as a co-equal
branch of Government in providing for those troops and their fami-
lies.

As we meet this morning, the largest contingency operations the
U.S. military is engaged in around the world are in the Central
Command and the European Command. Over 20,000 U.S. troops
are stationed in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Turkey and, indeed, the
waters surrounding them, to enforce the no-fly zones over Northern
and Southern Iraq and to help provide for the defense of Kuwait.

In Bosnia, we have entered our fifth year of peacekeeping duties
with over 5,000 U.S. troops participating in NATO's Stability Force
(SFOR) operation, 4,600 of whom are in the Bosnia region. I know
there are plans to somewhat reduce those forces in keeping with
the objectives of the President. I support the President in this, and
we look forward to your comments. I think we are doing it in a
very orderly way, in consultation with our allies, and in no way in
derogation of our commitment as a full partner to NATO in this
and all other responsibilities that we collectively face with that his-
toric treaty organization.

In Kosovo, almost 6,000 U.S. troops participate in NATO's
Kosovo Force (KFOR) operation, 5,500 of whom are in-country.
With the rising tension in neighboring Macedonia, I am increas-
ingly concerned, as we all are, about the safety of our troops in the
Balkans, particularly those stationed in Kosovo and near Macedo-
nia. If we are not careful, those troops and other NATO troops
could be drawn into the conflict more than they are today. We will
hear from you, General Ralston, on this developing situation.

This past year has also seen its share of tragedy, particularly in
the Central Command's area of operation. The devastating terrorist
attack of the U.S.S. Cole in the Port of Aden on October 12 last
year, and the training accident in Kuwait just a week or so ago,
brings home to all Americans the very real dangers our men and



women in uniform face every day. There are enormous risks in car-
rying out their missions in the cause of freedom.

The U.S.S. Cole tragedy also highUghted the growing terrorist
threat facing our Nation and our mihtary forward-deployed units,
and the need for additional force protection measures to protect our
soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines. General Franks, we look to
you to provide the committee with an update of the steps you have
taken since the U.S.S. Cole attack, and the views that you have for
the future as to that force protection enhancement within your
area of responsibility. We would also like you to reexamine the en-
gagement policy which led our forces into that region, and the ne-
cessity to continue that engagement policy, but I presume under
somewhat different conditions. We welcome your testimony.

Before we begin, I would like to enter into the record at this time
statements by Senator Strom Thurmond and Senator Jim Bunning.

[The prepared statements of Senator Thurmond and Senator
Bunning follow:]

Prepared Statement by Senator Strom Thurmond

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

General Ralston and General Franks, I want to join the Chairman and the mem-
bers of this committee in welcoming you.

Mr. Chairman, General Ralston and General Franks represent regions of the
world in which the United States has a vital interest and has expended huge re-
sources to secure peace and stability. Yet, more than 10 years after the end of the
Cold War and the devastation in the desert of Iraq, our forces are deployed on com-
mitments that appear to have no ending in the very same regions. In hindsight, we
should have taken a different approach to the situations in the Balkans and Iraq.
I hope that both our witnesses will focus on the future and on how we can end the
cycle of violence in these regions. More importantly, I hope they will give us their
perspective on how we can minimize the impact of the commitments in Kosovo and
Southwest Asia on our troops and the readiness of our Armed Forces.

Mr. Chairman, I am also very interested in the quality of life of our forces sta-
tioned in Europe and those deployed to the Persian Gulf region. In particular, after
the U.S.S. Cole incident, I would like to hear the witnesses" views on force protection
and the terrorist threat facing our military personnel.

Mr. Chairman, I look forward to today's testimony and again want to thank Gen-
eral Ralston and General Franks and the soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines they
represent for their dedication and professionalism.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.



Prepared Statement by Senator Jim Bunning

General Ralston and General Franks, thank you for coming before this committee
today. We appreciate your service to this country.

Like my other colleagues, I applaud our men and women in uniform. They are
indeed the best in the world. However, I have concerns about our military being
stretched too thin and stressed, and participating in areas of the world where I be-
lieve we may have no national security interest. I fear that this is affecting our mili-
tary's readiness and operations, as well as the safety and morale of our troops.

I've expressed my frustration before about our military's chain of command sys-
tem. It is tough to get the truth and expertise that we need on these issues because
of the chain of command.

We know the President is the Commander in Chief. Whatever his policy is, you
have to salute and come over here and do it. I understand that. But it makes it
very frustrating for us because we need to hear your expertise. Because you are the
experts and the ones directly involved in these operations.

This committee is trying to work with you to be helpful. If we don't get candid
answers from you all, then we simply can't do our jobs. Therefore, you can't do your
job the way you'd like to do it, and neither can our troops.



So we would appreciate candor. We don't want your candor as soon as you retire
and put on a suit. I'm always amazed how those who retire from the military, as
soon as they put on a suit, say, "Now let me tell you how it really is."

Chairman Warner. Now, Senator Levin will be forthcoming. I
think in the need of time we have to get underway. Do you all have
a preference as to who would like to proceed?

General Franks. I will defer to General Ralston.

Chairman Warner. All right.

General Ralston.

STATEMENT OF GEN. JOSEPH W. RALSTON, USAF, COM-
MANDER IN CHIEF, U.S. EUROPEAN COMMAND, SUPREME
ALLIED COMMANDER, EUROPE

General Ralston. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much for the
opportunity to appear before the committee today, along with my
colleague, General Franks. I would like to submit my statement for
the record

Chairman Warner. Without objection.

General Ralston. — and then spend a few moments here on oral
testimony, if I may.

I would draw your attention to the poster board that we have
over here and just — I know you know this, Mr. Chairman, but for
some of our other people that are watching here, sometimes I feel
that the U.S. European Command Area of Responsibility (EUCOM
AOR) may be misnamed, because it includes a lot more than Eu-
rope. It stretches, as you see, from the northern part of Norway to
the end of South Africa. It includes the Middle East countries of
Israel, Syria, and Lebanon. It includes all of Africa that you see
there in green on that map.






'A









.-f



USEUCOM AOR



^ ~-Z



~; »lATO COUIMIWI worwi JSC'JCOM AOfl
C -cnres Oi.a««i USruCOM AOR



Mr. Chairman, that encompasses 91 countries, and we have a ht-
tle over 100,000 troops that are forward-based in the EUCOM the-
ater to engage with these 91 countries.

Now, I might add that that is 8 percent of our uniformed Active
Duty mihtary. I do not beheve that is too big of a price to pay for
engagement with those 91 countries.

I would also add that those troops, being forward-based in Eu-
rope, as you can see on the map, are that much closer to General
Franks' AOR should he need help there for redeployment.

I have some operations that I would like to talk about that are
ongoing within the EUCOM AOR, and I would like to start with
Operation Northern Watch, and if I could talk for a few minutes
about this, and then, Mr. Chairman, as I understand later on per-
haps we could have an opportunity go into closed session where we
could talk about this in more detail.



Chairman Warner. You are correct. We can do that in 222 Rus-
sell.

General Ralston. First of all, as you can see, in Operation
Northern Watch I support General Franks in his operation overall
in Iraq, and what I am talking about here is just the northern part
of that, which is the no-fly zone north of the 36th parallel.



ONW



ONW LAUNCH PKG

4F-15

8F-16

9F-16CJ/EA6-B

4 RECONNAISSANCE

'RC-ISS

"UK JAGUARS

1 AWACS

5 US TANKERS

2 UK TANKERS

8 Combat Search & Rescu

*2 C-130

*4 HH-60

'2 A-10 SANDY
2 Turkish AF F-4 Escort
j 43 Total

UNCLASSIFIED




I thought it might be useful to show a typical mission. We take
off out of Incirlik Air Base in Turkey. You fly to the east for about
an hour. You form up where those little circles are in different or-
bits, with a rather large force, about 40-some airplanes. There are
tankers, there are Airborne Warning and Control System
(AWACS), there are F-15s, F-16s, EA-6Bs for defense suppression,
there are reconnaissance airplanes, there are U.K. aircraft, there
are Turkish aircraft that are involved in this. We then go into
northern Iraq. A typical mission may be 3 hours long, and then an-
other hour back home.

Now, this is all done in support of our national policy, and what
I am about to say is in no way intended to say that we have it
wrong, or that we cannot support it, but I also want to get the facts
on the record.

Let me give you an example of last year. In 2000 we flew in the
north about 7,500 sorties. Now, this is not without risk, Mr. Chair-
man. I know you know that, but over 250 times last year our peo-
ple were fired at that we know of.

We responded over 60 times. That is more than once a week, and
I might add that we are flying a lot of single-engine aircraft over
northern Iraq. We have been doing that for a long time, and if the
law of averages caught up with us, we should have had engine fail-
ure by now.



We willingly accept that risk, but I just want to point out to the
committee that it is not a risk-free operation that our men and
women are carrying out in Operation Northern Watch.

Next I would like to talk about Bosnia for a moment. We have
had an operation ongoing, a NATO operation in Bosnia. Sometimes
people do not realize the progress that has been made. In 1996,
when we went into Bosnia, as you see on the blue bar on that chart
we had 60,000 forces that went into Bosnia. Those forces depicted
in red are the U.S. forces. That was 20,000. We were 33 percent
of the force in 1996.



3J!5._^-.-i JJt



SFOR



70,000 !
50,000 J
50,000 1
40,000 -
30.000 i
20,000 '
10.000






1 ib"/o




1S96


1998


2000


2001


a SFOR TOTAL 60,000


33,000


25,000


19,000


El SFOR US \ 20,000


7,900


5,000


3,550 If



i Q SFOR TOTAL B9 SFOR US



34 Nations



Based on the improved conditions on the gi'ound, and in con-
sultation with our NATO allies, we were able to draw that force
down, and as you notice today, we are just right at 20,000. The
U.S. has just a tad over 4,000. We are about 20 percent of the
force. I got approval from NATO, supported by the administration,
just in the last couple of weeks, to make a further reduction in
those forces. I think here in a few months we will be down to prob-
ably 3,500 Americans. We will be about 18 percent of the force.

So I think that chart dramatically shows the progress that we
are making in terms of not only the conditions on the ground that
allowed that, but in the drawdown of the forces.

Let me talk for a moment about Kosovo.

Chairman Warner. Before you leave that subject, is it your pro-
fessional judgment that that force level, be it ours or the combined
force levels, is still essential to reach the goals that the United Na-
tions and ourselves and our allies have set? That is where we fall
into problems here. We put our troops somewhere, and then we are
distracted, or go look at other situations. That situation in Bosnia



8

has quieted down, it is not on the front pages. Who is looking to
determine whether that level, indeed, is still necessary?

General Ralston. Mr. Chairman, every 6 months we do a re-
view, in conjunction with our allies in NATO, and you are correct.
It is my judgment that — well, first of all, the situation on the
ground has improved dramatically since 1995.

Chairman Warner. Basically no conflict.

General Ralston. The reason that there is no conflict there
today is because we have had those forces there. I do not want to
keep forces there any longer than necessary, but at the same time,
we need to keep forces there in order to keep that safe and secure
environment.

Now, on a military aspect we have made enormous progress. In
fairness, I must also tell you that economically, politically, we still
have a ways to go, and we need to continue to keep that pressure
on, but I would not recommend back to NATO, nor to the adminis-
tration, nor to the Congress of the United States, that we do some-
thing that I do not believe is militarily sound. I fully support this
force level, this reduction. We will continue to look for ways to
bring that down, to ease the burden, but at the same time, we have
a mission to carry out, and I want to make sure that we can do
that.

Chairman Warner. What you are saying is that ethnic tensions
that gave rise to that conflict are still there with such force and
effect that if you pulled out the troops there would be a war tomor-
row.

General Ralston. Well, it is my professional judgment that if we
precipitously pulled out the troops right now, that conflict would
start again. Whether it is tomorrow or next week, people can de-
bate.

With regard to Kosovo, let me show you a similar chart here. In
1999, when our forces went into Kosovo, we had about 47,000
troops from 39 nations, by the way. Sometimes people erroneously
think that the United States is pulling the bulk of this effort, but
you can see there, 39 nations went together with 47,000 troops. We
had about 7,000 Americans.




KFOR





45


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35


000
















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20


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39 Nations



Today, overall we have about 42,000 troops in the Kosovo force.
About 37,000 of those are in Kosovo itself, and another approxi-
mately 5,000 are in Macedonia. The U.S. contribution is about
5,500 people inside of Kosovo, and that varies between 13 and 14
percent of the force, so my message here is, this is not a U.S. oper-
ation. The U.S. troops are represented in the red that is on there,
and the other nations, the other 38 nations are carrying the bulk
of the operation that is there.

Next, please. There has been a lot of interest in the press in the
past few days on Macedonia. Let me talk about that, if I might for
a moment, in open session here, and perhaps we can go into more
detail in the closed session. Let me have the big map first. This is
Kosovo right here.



10



Central Balkan Reglor



5 e r o i



Ad r i a t



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