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becomes more general. Many instances may be quoted.
Perhaps, as bearing on the reduction of pauperism, that of a
widow may be mentioned assisted to become independent
by charity, endowed and voluntary, instead of receiving the
allowances of the Poor Law. It is this :

At a Board of Guardians there was recently a revision of cases



A CHAKITIES BOAED 175

and it was determined to take advantage of the considerable endow-
ments of the borough to take off the rates applicants for whom it
seemed possible to make arrangements by which they could support
themselves. One of these was a woman of twenty-eight, who
had two young children to keep. Her husband was dying in the
infirmary, and she became a widow while she was being helped.
She received 2s. Sd. a week in outdoor relief, earned Is. Qd. a week
by charing, and occupied a room at 3s. a week. Her rent was
owing ; she had clothes in pawn. The family was more than half-
starved. She was referred to the Charity Organisation Committee,
with which the Trustees of the Endowed Charities were working in
co-operation. After preliminary inquiries interim help was given
her. It appeared that she was of a rough class but honest and
hardworking. ' Could take her glass, but never wasted working
time or became drunk.' The Chairman of the Out-relief Committee
saw her and told her that if she failed to earn her living through
misconduct or slackness she would be offered the workhouse. On
the other hand, it was pointed out to her how much she might
earn if she were to learn some more skilled work. She accepted
the terms and found a place for herself in a laundry as a learner in
collar ironing. After inquiries as to the suitability of the place, a
small premium was paid for her and an allowance granted till the
three months of her training were over. She then earned 10s. a
week, and, as she gains more experience, she will earn more.

Such methods generally adopted and carefully applied
would greatly reduce dependence and pauperism. In this
instance the co-operators in charity were the Board of
Guardians, the Trustees of the Endowed Charities, and the
Charity Organisation Committee, and there can be hardly a
question that charity in this instance was much better than
the allowance of outdoor relief.

Certainly it has now been proved that, if the old endow-
ment be furnished with new thought, the thought of the new
generation, educating itself to become competent in charitable
administration, a social agency for good is placed in the hands
of the community, the utility of which has not been under-
stood hardly, it may be, imagined heretofore.

But there are other charities besides these, located in our



176 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

social organisation in the most diverse ways. Some, though
voluntary, draw half their income from endowments, and so
fall within the province of the Charity Commission. Some
are established under Charter from the Crown, some by
Statute ; some register under the Friendly Societies Acts ;
some register under the Companies Acts as companies
making no profit ; some are certified by the Local Govern-
ment Board ; some by the Board of Education. Outside all
these circles of legislative enactment there are many
charities homes, hospitals, and associations of every kind
and naturally on the part of some of these there has been
a desire to improve their status and to place themselves
under legal inspection and protection.

Some very flagrant cases of bogus homes for children and
of homes exploited by an advertising founder without any
regard for the children's good have come to light from time
to time, and stimulate this desire ; and recently it has been
proposed to place institutions of this kind under the charge of
the Home Office ; to require of any who wish to establish them
to notify the fact within a definite period ; to inspect, and to
require the managers to send in annual reports and accounts.

The position, then, is this. There is a large mass of
miscellaneous endowments, which, on incomplete data, has
been estimated as producing for old age pensions, alms-
houses and doles nearly a million a year, and which pro-
bably is now producing more than that sum. There is a large
number of charitable institutions to which civil status has
been allowed by the most diverse devices, including the
extraordinary method of registering them under the Com-
panies Acts. These, though chartered or registered, are not
inspected or, practically, supervised in any way. There is
also certification in the hands of two departments, the Local
Government Board and the Education Office. (I do not refer
to the Home Office, which has regard to some groups of
charitable institutions, chiefly or at least originally in con-
nection with the prevention and punishment of crime as the



A CHAJtlTIES BOARD 1?7

Prison and Eeformatory Authority of the nation.) There is
an evident desire on the part of some ' Homes ' to find a
place under the official wing. In connection with the
statutory relief of the poor, voluntary charities have of
late years been utilised to a much greater extent. In
evidence of this I need only cite the Metropolitan Associa-
tion for Befriending Young Servants, and the many instances
in which afflicted, feeble-minded and other persons are placed
in homes established and maintained chiefly from voluntary
resources, and paid for in great part by the Guardians out
of the rates. At the same time, while the allowance system
of outdoor relief seems to many very unsatisfactory, the
power of well-directed charity to prevent pauperism is con-
stantly becoming more evident.

There is already in the Charity Commission a Charities
Board dealing in definite and useful ways with one large group
of charities.

This summary suggests two conclusions, which may be
put as questions :

1. If charities are a national resource of social value, is it
not desirable that there should be a Charities Board, which
would do what the Charity Commissioners now do, but
which would also be the registrar and the inspector of all
charitable institutions and societies and promote the general
administrative unity of the whole ? I do not attempt to deal
here with the question of the definition of the charities
which would come within the scope of such a Board, but
the definition does not represent a difficulty too great for
solution. Organised under different conditions, but on lines
which may prove suggestive to those engaged in charitable
work in England, the Charities Boards of many of the
United States are of interest in this respect.

Were this suggestion adopted, on the fulfilment of certain
conditions voluntary as well as endowed charities would have
a recognised status. There is no reason why charities,
remaining independent of grants from rates or taxes and

N



178 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

dependent on voluntary resources, contributions, investments,
or endowments, should not be brought under a law similar to
that which is in force in the case of Friendly Societies. 1
They would thus retain their characteristics of personal
endeavour and spontaneity, as Friendly Societies have done,
and they would also acquire civil rights subject to inspection
and accountancy. The Charitable Trusts Acts plus an Act
for voluntary charities on the lines of the Friendly Societies
Act of 1896, might supply the basis for the change here
suggested. As the Friendly Societies Act now stands, indeed,
' Societies for any benevolent or charitable purpose ' may be
registered under it. But clearly, though such a clause as
this may be of service as supplemental in an Act dealing with
Friendly Societies, charities, taken as a whole, form naturally
quite another and distinct department of thought and work.

Next the question may be asked, whether there should be
one Board for England and Wales and subsidiary boards, or
what ? The suggestion here made is that there should be
one Charities Board or Department for England and Wales.
Subsidiary Boards might be created, as experience and
organisation advanced. The general principle of the City of
London Parochial Charities Act 1883 is applicable to other
places, where endowments are congested and the population is
sparse or has disappeared. Charities harmful in a small
district might, under satisfactory conditions, be extended with
advantage to a county borough or a county.

2. If associated charity has been shown to be better than
the method of statutory outdoor allowances, does not this
alternative lie before us : Either to establish by degrees a
strong and publicly recognised system of associated charity,
to which would be delegated under whatever conditions might
seem best the treatment of the outdoor poor ; or to remodel
the present system, so that Poor Law relief by allowances
should be very greatly restricted, if not abolished, and asso-

1 Friendly Societies Act, 1896, 59 and 60 Viet. 1896.



A CHAEITIES BOAED 179

ciated charity should be linked to the statutory system of
relief and work either on its behalf or in settled relation to it ?
For a generation the problem has been, how can the
charitable educate themselves for this service ? In this
education a definite advance has now been made, and as it
proceeds in the large towns at least, the force required for
the adoption of one or other of these alternatives should be
forthcoming ; and thus a change, which would of course
entail a reform of the Poor Law, might be made by transition
gradually and satisfactorily. If room for variation is allowed,
the different towns or boroughs might adopt the new method
by degrees, as in Germany the Elberfeld system has been
adopted by one town after another. C. S. L.



180 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE



XVI
A SCHOOL OF SOCIOLOGY

IT is always gratifying when an unpopular theory in which
one happens to believe begins to find its way into the fold of
orthodox doctrine. There are signs that this is the case with
a theory which, for more than a generation, has been held in
opposition to the cheerful sentimentality of the age, I mean
the theory that the impulse to do good may, if untrained,
lead straight to evil doing ; that the good heart, unschooled
by the good head, will probably fall into dangerous paths in
a word, that training is as essential for social service as for
other kinds of service. Those who have fought, with faithful
pertinacity, to establish this doctrine may at last congratulate
themselves that the end of the struggle is in sight. Sensible
people, even the people who write in newspapers, are beginning
to accept it as a commonplace that some experience and some
knowledge are useful adjuncts to the equipment of the
reformer and social worker. Guilds are being formed,
societies are coming into existence, courses of lectures are
being arranged sometimes even paid for of which the
object is to spread knowledge of the conditions of social life
and of methods of social betterment. And all this gives real
ground for satisfactions. We have urged that people only need
to learn in order to be wise ; and it is well that people are at
last taking us at our word.

But the moment of success is not seldom the moment of
greatest danger. It is well known that the popular accept-
ance of a new idea involves always the acceptance of all the



A SCHOOL OF SOCIOLOGY 181

error it contains, and the rejection of half its truth. So in this
instance we may know that the popular idea of social training
will fall far short of what we think necessary may embrace,
indeed, little more than a nodding acquaintance with a few
facts of social life, a few theories about plausible remedies, a
few generalisations from present experience. Our duty is
plain enough ; we must

Burnish the shield, blow on the drowsy coal,
Raise still the standard higher, chary of praise
And prodigal of blame

for ourselves of course first, if afterwards for others.

For, after all, we have been content with a rather limited
ideal. We have proclaimed three essentials for the worker ?
and the student, all of them doubtless good and true. First,
he must learn the right attitude to his subject-matter ; that is
to say, he must learn to regard the ' poor ' as persons, as mem-
bers of a society normally related to one another and to him in
various ways, and he must learn to understand these normal
relationships. To this end we have asked him to read certain
books of description and advice written by people who have
shown in their own doings the influence of this attitude and
this understanding.

Secondly, he must be taught a right estimate of social )
1 values,' most of all of the relative importance of comfort '
and character.

And thirdly, he must get a right knowledge of present ]
conditions, at any rate of the localised conditions of the ]
industrial and social life of some one district.

To these essentials have been added some knowledge of
the recent history of methods of relief and administration ;
some acquaintance with the self-guided efforts of the working
classes to raise themselves above the common vicissitudes of
poverty ; and some familiarity with the agencies at work at
the present day.

We have said that these essentials are true and good. We



182 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

may go further and say that the standard of training involved
is good enough for all practical purposes. Well indeed would
it be for the community if all its ' helpers ' had learned so
much.

But from another point of view, it must be urged that the aim
is pitched too low. We have thought only of equipping the worker
for his work, and the education proposed has been the practical
training of a practical age. But it is not now quite adapted
to new requirements, new opportunities and new dangers. In
the first place, the trained workers of to-day must be more
than mere administrators ; they must be the apostles of true
doctrines, and they must preach in the language of their
generation. They may grasp and hold firmly enough the
very essence of the principles outlined above, and yet may
seem too negative and too old fashioned to make converts.
The terms in which our truths are expressed often belong to a
past age ; have we not all been at times uneasily conscious
that the mere appeal to fundamental principles of self-help,
independence, thrift, and the like, has lost much of its force,
and that these principles must be recast, brought into new
connections with current ideas and ways of thinking, clothed
in new language ? For it is unquestionably true that the
present generation is receptive enough, but, as always, demands
a new preparation of its food.

Consider too the present opportunities. Within the last
decade, a new science has come to the front the science of
social life, or Sociology. Among the teachers and thinkers of
all civilised nations it has won its place as a separate (though
not yet clearly defined) subject for study. The conservative
thought of England still lags behind ; but it is significant that
the summer of 1903 has seen the establishment in London
alone of a Sociological Society, a School of Sociology, and a
society for popularising a knowledge of social conditions. This
movement (for it deserves the name) offers the opportunity
we want. We have faith enough to know that, if the new
issues raised are fairly faced and the new avenues of research



A SCHOOL OF SOCIOLOGY 188

fairly followed, the knowledge gained will lead quite surely to
truer practice.

But if the present opportunities are full of promise, they
are also full of danger. Bearing in mind again the incurable
tendency of the popular mind to seize upon the least true
portion of any new theory, we see at once we have unfortu-
nately already seen the misuse which may be made of some
kinds of social inquiry. The subject-matter of the science of
course exposes it to the maximum of danger in this respect ;
and it is only by working unceasingly to preserve the due
balance of all its parts that we can hope to counteract false,
because one-sided, conclusions.

These considerations might be reinforced by others equally
pertinent ; but enough has been said to show that there must
be some remodelling of our system of teaching, some widening
of our horizon, some amplifying of our ideal for the trained
worker. The issue then is clear ; it is the question whether,
and to what extent, the many-sided science of Sociology must
be brought into the scheme of education for social work.

But, first, what is the science understood to include ?
Passing by the vexed questions of its relation to many special
sciences, we may assert, with little fear of contradiction, that
it embraces four main departments of thought and inquiry.
First may be placed Social Science in the special sense, which
will include the natural history of society, the analysis of the
various physical conditions of social life, the development of
national and racial characteristics and habits, &c. From
this point of view Sociology is concerned with society as a
growth, and aims at the interpretation of the process of social
evolution. 1

The second department is at least equally important,

1 Under this head would fall part at least of Anthropology, Ethnology,
and what has been called Biological Sociology. To some extent also the
Social Physics of Comte would correspond, hi so far as Society is treated
as an ordinary natural phenomenon. But the modern emphasis is
undoubtedly laid on the evolutionary process rather than on the mere
physical fact.



184 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

though less often recognised. It corresponds to what may
properly be called Social Philosophy. From this aspect
society is regarded less as a natural growth than as an
embodiment of ideas or an expression of purpose and will.
The inquiry is here no doubt teleological, for it is concerned
with the structure of society, not merely as static, but as sub-
servient to some ideal of human life. The natural forces
which govern its growth and determine its form are not
indeed disregarded ; but they become subordinate to the ideal
forces, especially the social end-in-view, the development of
the fullest spiritual life, regarded as the final cause of the
existence of society in any form. 1

The third department is much more definite and compact.
It is concerned, it is true, both with the development and with
the structure of society ; but in relation to one single group
of facts, as determined, that is, solely by economic necessities
and satisfactions. Under the name of Social Economics,
which fairly indicates both its scope and limitations, the
inquiry is directed to the economic framework of social
life, and the effect upon all social relationships of economic
needs.

The fourth and last department of Social Science is of
recent development. Psychology has only lately been added
to the list of recognised sciences ; but already it has made
good its claim to carry very far the explanation of the pro-
cesses of thought and feeling. Its relation to the problems
of social life is not yet clearly defined ; but, quite apart from
special questions connected with the psychology of social
aggregates, little argument is needed to show the immense

1 That this branch of social inquiry, suggesting as it rightly does the
speculations of Plato and Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Kousseau, and a host
of theorisers and Utopia-makers, has been discredited by some ' scientific '
Sociologists, need not alarm us in the least. Divorced from Sociology in
the sense first described, it is exposed to many obvious dangers. But
hardly less obvious are the dangers of a scientific Sociology which
attempts to explain the whole of social life without any appeal to Social
Philosophy.



^ SCHOOL OF SOCIOLOGY 185

importance of psychological analysis to the Sociologist. To
him, it is true, the structure and functions of the individual
brain matter comparatively little ; but the social relations
among individuals, which alone interest him, are themselves
always and only thought-relations and feeling-relations. The
social affections love of family, loyalty to a group ; the bases
of social action habit, example, imitation, initiative; the
social virtues and dispositions ; even character itself, the root
of all good and all evil in social being and doing ; turn where
he will the Sociologist must still look to psychology for the
first steps on the road to understanding. Not merely Social
Psychology, as it has been called, but psychology in its widest
sense has become essential to the student who would know
something of the hidden forces of social life.

These then we may take as the four main branches of
Social Science. It remains only to illustrate by a few simple
examples how each one of them brings its necessary contribu-
tion to the equipment of the worker.

It is almost a truism to say that we must know what we ?
want the community or an institution or a person to be
before we have any chance of making it that thing, or indeed |
of doing anything effective with it. 1

Secondly, it is hardly less a truism that, when we know
what we want our material to become, we must also under-
stand the conditions both of its present being and of its
becoming. For the understanding of a true ideal will not

1 It is hardly necessary to illustrate the crying want of this first
qualification. Most people's experience is a storehouse of sad examples.
But perhaps after all it is not mere ignorance that is the trouble. Know-
ledge of the truth is there, but it is latent. If forced to answer honestly
what are the first essentials for a State, for an institution, and for an
individual, most mischief-mongers would eventually answer rightly
freedom and strength. And yet by its actions philanthropy almost
universally proclaims an ideal of comfort, or the avoidance of pain, or
even enjoyment, in the case of the first and third, and subservience to
these ends in the case of the second. But whether the fault lies in ignor-
ance or in that mental indolence which will neither ask nor answer urgent
questions, it is still true that the only cure is education.



186 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

carry us far in dealing with a single individual unless we
know what that individual has it in him to become. But
note what is involved. These two simple elements of know-
ledge must be sought, the one in Social Philosophy, the other in
Sociology proper. And more than this : it is not enough that
they should be accepted as the given conclusions of this or
that science ; knowledge so acquired would not stand for a
moment before the weakest opposing prejudice ; they must be
held in connection with part at least of the body of critical and
constructive knowledge of which these sciences consist.

Take another example. Underlying any theory of social
betterment is the fundamental question of the relation of
character to environment. Are we to look for the cause of
drunkenness in the ubiquity of the public-house, in the
monotony of labour, in the want of wholesome food for the
labourers' bodies, or of wholesome interests for their minds, or
in some more subtle and far-reaching character weaknesses ?
The answer to such a question depends upon our knowledge
of the relation of thoughts to things : and it must be sought,
not in any hasty generalisation from social experience, but in
Psychology. For the science of character and habit, ethology,
as J. S. Mill called it, lies at the root of Social Science, and is,
of course, essentially psychological, depending upon the know-
ledge of mental processes in response to external stimuli.

Or a third instance. In the politics of the day, municipal
and governmental activity plays a leading for some people
the only important part. But the dangers of hasty socialistic
theories are distant and trivial by comparison with the dangers
of over-municipalisation. What is the moral? That our
administrators must learn, not only the relation of character
to law, but the economic effect of the collective expenditure
and enterprise on the productive capacity of the individual.
In other words, the question must be approached first of all
on its economic side the side now almost universally neglected.

It is easy to multiply instances. Every social ' problem '
of the day might be analysed in turn and shown to lead us



A SCHOOL OF SOCIOLOGY 187

back at once to one or all of the departments we have postu-
lated to Sociology, to Social Philosophy, to Social Economics,
and to Psychology.

But here the objection of the practical man will make
itself heard. It is one thing doubtless a good thing to
educate people in the theory of reform, or the principles of


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