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the doctor, 42 per cent, are thrown out in the first two
years ; so that out of one hundred men appearing before the
doctor, at the end of two years twenty-eight per cent, will
be serving and seventy- two will have been rejected. 1 I will

1 In consequence of a conversation which I have had with Sir F.
Maurice since this address was delivered, I hasten to take the opportunity

E



50 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

not harrow your feelings by any calculation as to what are
the numbers of men of this class of the population who, if
the preliminary rejections made by the sergeants were
counted in, would be found wanting in every hundred. Lord
Selborne's figures, kindly given to the Earl of Meath, as
regards the Navy are not more encouraging. The First Lord,
however, openly expresses the reservation which undoubtedly
lies behind the Inspector-General of Eecruiting's report as
follows : This list, he remarks, by no means covers the whole
number of men and boys who apply for entry into the Eoyal
Navy and Marines, as a very large percentage of the applicants
are turned away by the recruiting sergeants for some physical
deficiency, such as defective teeth, without being brought
before the doctor at all. One Admiralty provincial recruiting
officer's statement puts this number unhesitatingly at 50 per
cent. Lord Selborne states that in 1902, at the Koyal Marine
Eecruiting Offices for the Royal Navy and Marines, 6,169 lads
offered themselves, of which number 1,686, or 27 per cent, in
round numbers, were rejected. If the provincial recruiting
officer's statement holds good, and there is very little doubt
that it is based on solid facts, then only about 20 per
cent, of the boy population is fit for service in the Navy.
This, of course, applies to the working classes.

Unfortunately these figures accord with those actually
made out by Mr. J. G. Legge, His Majesty's Inspector of

afforded by proof revision to modify the figures as regards the army given
in this paragraph. Sir F. Maurice points out that he has been mis-
quoted, and that his explicit statement is to be found in the January
1903 number of the ' Contemporary Keview.' It is as follows :
* According to the best estimate I have been able to arrive at, it has been
for many years true that out of every five men who wish to enlist and
primarily offer themselves for enlistment you will find that by the end
of two years' service there are only two men remaining in the army as
effective soldiers.' Sir F. Maurice has included in his estimate the
rejections by the sergeants, so that, according to our present information
for the whole country, of every hundred men who present themselves to
the recruiting sergeant 40 per cent., and not 28 per cent., will be found in
the ranks at the end of two years.



PHYSICAL EDUCATION 51

Industrial and Keformatory Schools. In these schools the
boys at the age of thirteen average four inches less in height
and a stone less in weight than the ordinary public school-
boy of that age. Mr. Legge states that the dimensions of
over 1 ,000 boys of between fourteen and fifteen years of age
were scrutinised with a view to ascertaining how many might
reasonably be expected to reach the naval standard at fifteen
years and three months ; the percentage came to about fifteen.
These are facts which cannot be gainsaid ; what is the
explanation of them ? Some day a Koyal Commission will
tell us its views. I think Lord Selborne has himself furnished
sufficient data to warrant the holding of a Physical Inquest of
the Nation.

Without waiting, then, for the report of the Commission,
we are, I think, able to come to the conclusion that the
physical condition of our people requires urgent attention;
the degeneration which has been ascertained is clearly the
result of environment, of wrong food more than of want of
food, of bad air, want of light and physical exercise. The
degeneration which we have to deal with to-day has been
described by one of the ablest of the Scotch witnesses, Dr.
Leslie Mackenzie, Medical Inspector to the Local Government
Board in Scotland, as generational degeneration, as distinct
from transmissible degeneration. Dr. Mackenzie means
degeneration of a particular generation acted on by special
outside influences, and he maintains that in this kind of
degeneration produced by environment the scope for better-
ment by improved nurture is almost unlimited; conse-
quently the benefit from physical training is almost un-
limited. The only escape from the deterioration which is
the result of the gathering of the population in towns and
cities is to as far as possible restore the conditions of country
life to the urban population. Apart from reforms in the
matter of light, air, and food which must be concurrently
adopted, the healthy exercise which outdoor manual labour
afforded to great masses of the people must be restored in

E 2



52 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

the shape of continuation classes for gymnastics and drill
in suitable well-ventilated buildings, and above all by an
enlightened and comprehensive system of physical training in
our schools.

In times of national danger other nations have seen
salvation in physical training, and have thus renewed their
vigour and spirit. When Napoleon had overrun Europe
Ling started to endeavour to make each Swede equal physi-
cally to two or three Frenchmen, and this was the starting-
point of the celebrated Swedish system of drill, which was
essentially military in its origin. In 1811 Jahn and his
followers, supported by the Prussian minister Stein, estab-
lished a system of physical education throughout Prussia,
the effects of which were made apparent in 1815.

But the greatest of the social problems in connection
with physical training lies in the fact that large numbers
of the children who attend our schools are suffering from
unrecognised disease, and are not supplied with food sufficient
to allow of either physical or intellectual development. It is
quite clear that this difficulty cannot be met by State inter-
ference, and this point is discussed at great length in many
parts of the Scotch Keport. I take it that the solution of this
difficulty is a matter that has probably already engaged in
the past, and must engage in a much larger degree in the
future, the attention of the Council which I have the honour
to address to-day.

It may seem to be a fatuity to discuss in regard to a con-
siderable section of the population which is primarily unfit to
receive any training of any kind, so active a remedial agent as
physical training, but there was an extraordinary consensus
of opinion amongst the witnesses in Scotland that there could
be no sound intellectual and indeed moral education inde-
pendently of it ; there was scarcely a dissentient note in this
common accord.

Not only must physical training be universally enforced,
but a considerable portion of the lesson time must be allo-



PHYSICAL EDUCATION 53

cated to ifc henceforth. There must be no education without
it ; if the children are not sufficiently nourished to undergo
it, then charity must step in and feed them or arrange for
their being fed, since the menace of socialism with its far-
reaching complications which a further extension of State
interference between child and parent might involve has to
be considered.

Physical education will have a much wider effect than the
training of the scholars; it brings in its wake or rather
impels in front of it a general consideration of the fitness
of the child for any education at all, which must involve
remedial measures, and in these remedial measures the
C.O.S. cannot fail to play a leading part. We are under-
going a silent but portentous social revolution. Our reforms
are seldom made as the results of principle ; the corn laws
were repealed not because high policy dictated such a step,
but because there was a famine in Ireland and a failure of
crops elsewhere. Free education was given not on its merits,
but because, having compelled the parents to send the children
to school, the magistrates objected to fine them and punish
them if they were unable to pay the fees. In the matter of
teaching a greater enlightenment has shown us the partial
one-sided and defective character of our education, and has
displayed a chasm of hunger and weakness which must not
be allowed to bar the revival of the nation. But are we to
fling into this chasm a fresh instalment of our individualistic
beliefs ? Are we getting nearer to the recognition of the State
child, with its logical complement of State-selected parents ?
These are problems in connection with physical training
which require prompt and definite solution, and which, I take
it, are essentially fit for the consideration of your honourable
Council.

I have thus at some length considered the first three of
the five headings under which I proposed to deal with my
subject. The fourth point namely, what is being done at
present in elementary schools, the merits and defects of the



54 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

same you will not care to have treated in a technical way ;
for in fact the whole movement is more or less in a state of
solution. Acting up to their lights, at the urgent insistence of
the Lads' Drill Association, the Board of Education, on recog-
nising that the terms chaotic confusion and incompetency
best described the physical training arrangements in large
numbers of schools, issued a Model Course of Physical Train-
ing, which it hoped would be gradually universally adopted
and made the basis of Physical Education. It was based on
the principles that had proved so successful in the Aldershot
gymnasium. The history of this Model Course is somewhat
long and complicated ; it is fully given in the Eeport of the
Lads' Drill Association for 1902. The Eeport of the Scotch
Commission has, however, lifted the whole question on to a
much higher and wider level ; the authorities have recognised
that a universal British system, easily adapted to local
exigencies and the ages and sex of the school children, and
put together in the open, must be devised. Accordingly
the Model Course is in the crucible, and the whole physical
training of the country in so far as the Board of Education
is concerned, though happily not as regards local authorities,
is in a state of suspension. A very able joint committee,
English and Scotch, has been appointed, of which Mr.
Struthers, the Under-Secretary of the Board of Education
in Scotland, is Chairman. It includes such well-known
authorities as Dr. Tuke of Dunfermline and Dr. Ker of the
London School Board, also Colonel Fox, and others repre-
sentative of the various school interests. It is hoped
that during the next month or so this Committee will be
able to issue a handbook of physical training and drill for ex-
perimental use in selected schools, and that within a reason-
able period teachers will have for their guidance a system of
physical training which can be successfully established in all
our schools. The bugbear of militarism which Mr. Macnamara
raised in the House of Commons and in the columns of the
Daily News, but which he himself effectually dissipated in



PHYSICAL EDUCATION 55

the columns of the Manchester Guardian, need not be seriously
considered. The urgent need of the time is a supply of duly
qualified teachers. The remedying of this defect has now been
placed by the Education Act in the hands of the local
authorities. In May last Lord Meath addressed the chairmen
of them all, urging the importance of this duty. As might
naturally be expected, physical training has been popular
with the children, with their parents, and with managing
bodies all these have recognised its advantages. There
has, however, been considerable direct and indirect opposi-
tion by teachers. Now the remodelling of our system of train-
ing constitutes a revolution, and it is absolutely essential that
those who have done their duty well under the old system
should not be ridden over roughshod ; their position deserves
every consideration. The great mass of teachers have loyally
and cheerfully aye, readily done their best to adapt them-
selves at great personal effort and expense to the new
system ; but we must not seek to effect these changes,
salutary as they may be, with too great haste. Any rash or
inconsiderate attempt to create, as it were, the new educa-
tional world by ukase would arouse opposition which must
seriously retard its development.

Local bodies will probably prove far more capable of
dealing with this matter than the Board of Education has
been ; the alarms which have been raised in the bosoms of
most deserving teachers will be allayed, and such arrange-
ments be effected as shall secure the protection of teachers
who from age, want of voice or health, are unable to qualify
for this work, but who are none the less competent instructors
in intellectual matters.

The fifth point in my syllabus is the development of
youths above thirteen, and the advantages which result from
carrying this out on the lines in use in the army.

We have advocated for children in our elementary schools
a system of physical training which shall embrace both sexes,
and shall turn the children out alert, quick, obedient, and



56 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

with a normal muscular system, neither athletes nor soldiers
' mens sana in corpore sano ' to be our object.

The consideration of the lines on which this condition can
be maintained for girls I have not undertaken to deal with
in this paper. The problem of how to deal with the boys is
a sufficiently difficult one ; glad to escape from school
restraint, many run wild and become what in England we
call hooligans. The Chief Constable of Edinburgh, Mr. Koss
who complains very bitterly of the steady increase of
juvenile crime in the modern Athens declines to allow the
larrikins of his city to be called hooligans. A hooligan, he
maintains, is a garrotter and a footpad. We must in the south
continue to associate this word with a class of boys bursting
with animal energy, with no employment, whose playground is
the streets, and whose moral guide is the poisonous literature
which glorifies the highwayman and records with ghastly
details all the crimes and horrors of the police courts and
assizes. Then there is the large mass of well-conducted,
industrious youth who are without means of recreation, and
whose education has rarely fitted them for the keener com-
petition with the foreign workman which is nowadays
demanded of them. Military drill attracts and occupies
young people, it associates them in a manner which enables
them to feel the invigorating influence of comradeship, of
esprit de corps, it enables them to take the first step in fitting
themselves if the necessity should arise to take part in the
defence of their country by land or sea ; in short, it endues
them with the virtues which are essential to a good citizen.
Then why not establish as part of a secondary system of con-
tinuation education the teaching of military drill, the classes
for such teaching being incorporated in cadet companies
and battalions? It is well known that the Boys' Brigades,
the Church Lads' Brigades, and other bodies of the kind which
are, without doubt, doing admirable work, are using military
drill, and ten days in camp in the country, I will not say as
a bait, but as an attraction which serves to group young lads



PHYSICAL EDUCATION 57

around particular religious centres, in much the same way that
the Nonconformist Churches have been compelled to adopt
the Pleasant Sunday Afternoon instead of the assembly for
dogmatic teaching. The machinery of the Salvation Army is
a marvellous instance of how military symbolism may be used
for religious purposes with powerful effect ; but a system
founded on sectarianism cannot be recognised by the State.
This was fully perceived in Scotland, and the continuation
class scheme broke down in connection with the Boys' Bri-
gade. I feel that the public mind is still scarcely prepared
for the further steps that must yet be taken to continue the
education of the boy until he is 18 years old. I would beg all
who recognise that more has yet to be done to study the
Scotch report in this matter. I think that we shall come to
see that this further education must include, besides technical
instruction, advanced physical training, gymnastics, swim-
ming, military drill in cadet bodies, shooting in miniature
ranges, marching, and, as far as possible, organised games,
such as football, cricket, hockey, and running. I am aware
that the self-sacrificing pioneers of these principles are
actively at work, men who devote their time, their talents,
and their means to the establishment of boys' clubs and
other institutions of like kind. The Cadet movement is
everywhere gaining ground, and has undoubtedly received an
impetus from the action of that distinguished soldier and
good citizen, Sir Edward Ward, who is raising a Cadet
Battalion from the boys employed in the Civil Service
offices. In this particular line of progress I cannot, at this
late time, do more than adumbrate and I am not clear
that its advancement lies immediately within the scope
of the Charity Organisation Society. I trust, however, that
the Council will pardon me for having endeavoured to
establish in its presence the thesis that in the elementary
school it has a great, a national, and a patriotic as well as
charitable work to perform well worthy of its most strenuous
efforts. The Secretary to the Board of Education gave



58 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

currency recently in the House of Commons to the state-
ment that there are 60,000 children in London who, from
physical inferiority, are unable to obtain any benefit from
either physical or intellectual training. Here is indicated a
great task. I will conclude my paper by quoting in this con-
nection some eloquent words uttered, not by a dead orator,
but by a living statesman. They were spoken a few days ago
by Sir W. Anson in the House of Commons. He exclaimed :
' Statutes will never create a moral up-rising ; what is wanted
is voluntary effort the work of men and women for men and
women in these poor places, probably as managers of schools,
getting to know the children and trying to impress on parents
the duty they owed to their children. There are well-to-do
people who might occupy themselves in this matter. It would
not be detective work. The work I am suggesting that these
people should do is not on the face of it attractive work the
process of regeneration is bound to be slow and full of dis-
appointment, and to be marred by the frequent conviction of
total failure ; and yet I promise to anyone who will undertake
work of this sort and carry it through that some morning or
other they may wake up and find that though they have
deliberately sacrificed their pleasure, they have found happi-
ness unawares.' To this invocation I say Amen.

0. T. D.

July 1903.



59



A POLICY OF HUSTLING ; OK, THE
LOCK AND KEY

A PLEA FOE A SEARCH INTO THE POWERS OF THE
EXISTING LAWS

THE conclusions arrived at by Sir K. E. Digby, K.C.B.,
Under Secretary for the Home Department, in his ' Memo-
randum upon the Eeport by the Royal Commission on Alien
Immigration,' Vol. I., 1903, page 51, in regard to the question
of overcrowding, are not only so true in regard to the subject
under review, but are equally suitable to a variety of subjects
of paramount importance to every local authority in the
country. Sir K. E. Digby says : c The answer so often
given in the course of this inquiry to the suggestion of
enforcing the law, that it is impossible to turn the lodgers
into the streets, would equally apply to the enforcement of the
law elsewhere, to the great displacements caused by public
and private constructions, and to the operation of similar
legislation which has abated the evils of the terrible over-
crowding in existence when the Legislature first took the
matter in hand. . . .

* It appears to me, therefore, that the true conclusions
to be drawn from the evidence are :

' (1) That in the East End of London the powers given
by the Legislature have never yet been fully exercised.

' (2) That if they were exercised to an extent which is
reasonably possible there is no reason why, notwithstanding



60 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

the influx, overcrowding should not be brought under effective
control.

' (3) That by a thorough and uniform administration of
the existing law, the object aimed at in the recommendation
of preventing newly- arrived aliens adding to the overcrowding
conditions of a district already full would be attained more
effectively than by the method suggested of declaring certain
areas to be prohibited. There would be the additional advan-
tage that no novel or expensive machinery would be required
beyond, what appears necessary, some addition to the number
of inspectors.'

These conclusions are just the sum and substance of
what prevails in the public administration all over the
country, and what is now wanted has been denned in evi-
dence before the recent Municipal Housing Commission in
Glasgow as the Policy of Hustlin ; or, the Lock and
Key.

Acts of Parliament are passed sometimes owing to stress,
or a local municipal authority takes up a sort of hobby which
is sandwiched into a private omnibus Bill, and becomes law,
only to be forgotten the moment that zealous public man
at whose instance the law was created either retires or is
beaten at the Polls. Then again we have amendments upon
recent statutes, following some defeats in the Law Courts,
which are no sooner passed than they are practically laid on
the shelf, only to be referred to as the production of some
active Committee. The provision for the relief of the poor
in England and Scotland goes on apace, the quality of
hospital treatment and nursing increases, and now is far
superior to what was ever contemplated by the framers of the
original Acts. A great deal of wise reading into the Acts has
been made by the Government Departments of the country,
but the moment it is suggested that a suitable case should be
sent to a parish hospital, the members of local bodies are up
in arms at the idea of compelling any one to go, and would
rather give out-door relief in the form of a small sum just to



A POLICY OF HUSTLING; OE, THE LOCK AND KEY 61

pay the rent; they will not read into Acts or Eules when
it becomes an individual or personal question.

The same result comes out in dealing with cases of over-
crowding. The officers may prosecute, but the Magistrate
not a Stipendiary does not convict ; such magistrates have
theories of their own upon everything, including the Housing
problem and the duty of the local authority to provide houses
for certain classes, but sometimes it is not safe to come down
upon a so-called ratepayer who contravenes these and other
bygone Police Acts, or woe betide his Worship at the next
election. Excuses, too, are numerous, and there is no
machinery to inquire into the statements made at the bar of
the Court, which are too often taken as truth statements
made by the shifting class that can never be criticised. The
delinquent, therefore, is merely admonished and moves away
to another district, where the same process goes on. Is it
ever realised that there is constantly a large floating popula-
tion of vagrants and loafers who frequent the cities and towns
and create a housing problem; who go to lodge with the
lowest class of occupiers, and beg and steal when they can?
If this class were hustled along and compelled to retire to
the Poorhouse, failing which to the prison, it would be vastly
cheaper and better than allowing them to be outside. It is
only by a strict, consistent and even-handed justice that this
can be done : justice to the vagrant and the loafer as you
would give education to a child by letting him understand
he is to work ; that if he is ill he will be housed and treated
till better, that he will be saved from disease and early death ;
in this way also doing justly by the law-abiding ratepayer
who is bound to be protected from the inroads of this class,
from begging and stealing, and from all manner of disease
and vermin. What causes the great bulk of our infectious
diseases, small-pox, &c., but the manner of living of these
men and women ? Our towns and cities will not be free as
they should be comparatively till the strong arm of the
law is put in operation. Why in the name of common sense



62 METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE

should the great body of sorely-burdened ratepayers continue


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Online LibraryUnknownMethods of social advance; short studies in social practice by various authors → online text (page 5 of 16)