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Talavera; joined the Jesuits in 1554, and taught in their colleges in
Rome, Sicily, and Paris; returning to Toledo he gave himself to
literature; his "History of Spain" appeared in 1592 and 1605, theological
writings incurred persecution, and his greatest work, "De Rege et Regis
Institutione," in which he defended the right of the people to cast out a
tyrant, was condemned by the general of his order (1536-1624).

MARIE ANTOINETTE, queen of France, fourth daughter of Maria Theresa;
was married in 1770 to the dauphin of France, who in 1774 succeeded to
the throne as Louis XVI.; was a beautiful woman, but indiscreet in her
behaviour; had made herself unpopular and impotent for good when the
Revolution broke out; when matters became serious the queenliness of her
nature revealed itself, but it was in haughty defiance of the
million-headed monster that was bellowing at her feet; the heroism she
showed at this crisis the general mass of the people could not
appreciate, though it won the homage of such men as Mirabeau and Barnave;
all she wanted was a wise adviser, for she had courage to follow any
course which she could be persuaded to see was right; in Mirabeau she had
one who could have guided her, but by his death in 1791 she was left to
herself, and the course she took was fatal to all the interests she had
at heart; fatality followed fatality: first she saw her husband hurried
off to the guillotine, and then she followed herself; hers, if any, was
the most tragic of fates, and any one who has read that heart-moving
apostrophe to her by Carlyle on the way to her doom must know and feel
that it was her fate; she and her husband suffered as the representatives
of the misgovernment of France for centuries before they were born, and
were left a burden on their shoulders which they could not bear and under
which they were crushed to death (1756-1793).

MARIE DE FRANCE, a poetess and fabulist of Henry III.'s time; her
fables are translations into French from an English version of old Greek
tales; a greater work was her "Laïs," consisting of 12 or 14 beautiful
narratives in French verse.

MARIE DE' MEDICI, daughter of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, born at
Florence; was married to Henry IV. of France in 1600, with whom she lived
unhappily till his murder in 1610; she was then regent for seven years;
in 1617 her son assumed power as Louis XIII.; she was for two years
banished from the court, and on her return so intrigued as to bring about
her imprisonment in 1631; though a lover of art she was neither good wife
nor good queen, and escaping from confinement she died in destitution at
Cologne (1573-1642).

MARIENBAD, a high-lying Bohemian watering-place, 18 m. S. of
Carlsbad; it is much frequented for its saline springs.

Boulogne; became professor in the college there in 1841, entered the
Egyptian department of the Louvre in 1849, and next year set out for
Egypt; eight years later he was made keeper of the monuments to the
Egyptian government, and in 1879 was made a pasha; he died at Cairo; he
made many valuable discoveries and excavations, among which were the
burial-place of the Apis bulls, the Sphinx monument, and many temples

MARIO, GIUSEPPE, a celebrated tenor, born in Cagliari; acquired a
large fortune as a professional singer, but lost it through unsuccessful
speculations; in the circumstances a concert was given in London for his
benefit which realised £1000; he was a handsome man and of charming
manners (1808-1883).

MARIOTTE, EDME, a French physicist, born at Dijon; discoverer of the
law named after him, that the volume of a gas is inversely as the
pressure; called also Boyle's; it bears the name of Mariotte's law on the
Continent, and Boyle's in England (1620-1684).

MARIUS, CAIUS, a celebrated Roman general, born near Arpinum, uncle
by marriage to Julius Cæsar and head of the popular party, and the rival
of Sulla; conquered the Teutons and the Cimbri in Gaul, and made a
triumphal entry into Rome; having obtained command of the war against
Mithridates, Sulla marched upon the city and drove his rival beyond the
walls; having fled the city, he was discovered hiding in a marsh, cast
into prison, and condemned to die; to the slave sent to execute the
sentence he drew himself haughtily up and exclaimed, "Caitiff, dare you
slay Caius Marius?" and the executioner fled in terror of his life and
left his sword behind him; Marius was allowed to escape; finding his way
to Africa, he took up his quarters at Carthage, but the Roman prætor
ordered him off; "Go tell the prætor," he said to the messenger sent,
"you saw Caius Marius sitting a fugitive on the ruins of Carthage"; upon
this he took courage and returned to Rome, and along with Cinna made the
streets of the city run with the blood of the partisans of Sulla; died
suddenly (156-88 B.C.).

MARIVAUX, a French dramatist and novelist, born in Paris; was a man
of subtle wit, and his writings reveal it as well as an affectation of
style named _Marivaudage_ after him; his fame rests on his novels rather
than his dramas (1688-1763).

MARK, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO, is mainly a narrative of the doings of
Christ and of the events of His life in their historical sequence; moves
on at an even pace, abounds in graphic touches, and adds minute traits as
if by an eye-witness; it represents Christ as the Son of man, but
manifesting Himself by such signs and wonders as to show that He was also
the Son of God; it is written for Gentile Christians and not for Jewish,
and hence little stress is laid on Old Testament fulfilments or reference
made to those antagonisms to Christianity which had a merely Jewish root.

MARK, JOHN, the author of the second Gospel, the son of Mary,
Barnabas' sister, who ministered to Christ, and whose house in Jerusalem
was a place of resort for the disciples of Christ after the resurrection;
accompanied Paul and his uncle on their first missionary journey,
afterwards accompanied Peter, who calls him "my son," and to him it is
thought he is indebted for his Gospel narrative; he is regarded as the
founder of the Coptic Church, and his body is said to have been buried in
Venice, of which he is the patron saint, and the cathedral of which is
named St. Mark's after him; he is represented in Christian art as a man
in the prime of life accompanied by a winged lion, with his Gospel in his
left hand and a pen in his right.



MARKHAM, CLEMENTS ROBERT, traveller and author, born near York, son
of a clergyman; served in the navy from 1844 to 1851, taking part in the
Franklin search expedition; 1852-1854 he spent exploring Peru; he
introduced the cinchona plant to India 1860, became secretary to the
Royal Geographical Society 1863, served as geographer to the Abyssinian
Expedition of 1867-68, and was then put at the head of the Geographical
department of the India Office; among many books of travels may be named
"The Threshold of the Unknown Region" 1874, and among biographies
"Columbus," 1892; _b_. 1830.

MARLBOROUGH (9), on the Kennet, 38 m. E. of Bristol, a Wiltshire
market-town, with sack and rope making, brewing, and tanning industries;
has an old Norman church, the remains of an old royal residence, and a
college, chiefly for sons of clergymen, founded in 1845.

MARLBOROUGH, JOHN CHURCHILL, DUKE OF, soldier and statesman, born in
Devonshire; joined the Guards as ensign, and served in Tangiers in 1667;
sent in command of a company to help Louis XIV. in his Dutch wars, his
courage and ability won him a colonelcy; he married Sarah Jennings in
1678, and seven years later became Baron Churchill on James II.'s
succession; as general he was employed in putting down Monmouth's
rebellion; he seceded to William of Orange in 1688, and received from him
the earldom of Marlborough; he was in disfavour from 1694 till the
outbreak of the Spanish Succession War, in which he gained his great
renown; beginning by driving the Spaniards from the Netherlands in 1702,
he won a series of important victories - Blenheim 1704, Ramillies 1706,
Oudenard 1708, and Malplaquet 1709, contributed to enhance the military
glory of England; Queen Anne loaded him with honours; large sums of
money, Woodstock estate, Blenheim Palace, and a dukedom were bestowed on
him; his wife was the Queen's closest friend, and the duke and duchess
virtually governed the country, till in 1711 the Queen threw off their
influence, and charges of misappropriation of funds forced him into
retirement; he was restored to many of his offices by George I. in 1714,
but for the last six years of his life he sank into imbecility; one of
England's greatest generals, he was also one of her meanest men

MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER, English dramatist and poet, precursor of
Shakespeare; son of a shoemaker at Canterbury; besides a love poem
entitled "Hero and Leander," he was the author of seven plays,
"Tamburlaine," in two parts, "Doctor Faustus," "The Jew of Malta,"
"Edward the Second," "The Massacre of Paris," and "Dido," the first four
being romantic plays, the fifth a chronicle play, and the last two
offering no particular talent; he dealt solely in tragedy, and was too
devoid of humour to attempt comedy; "In Marlowe," says Prof. Saintsbury,
"two things never fail him long - a strange, not by any means impotent,
reach after the infinite, and the command of magnificent verse"; his life
was a short one (1564-1593).

MARMONT, Duke of Ragusa and marshal of France, served under
Napoleon, and distinguished himself on many a battlefield; received the
title of duke for his successful defence of Ragusa against the Russians;
was present at Wagram, Lützen, Bautzen, and Dresden, but came to terms
with the allies after the taking of Paris, which led to Napoleon's
abdication in 1814; obliged to flee on Napoleon's return, he came back to
France and gave his support to the Bourbons; left Memoirs (1774-1852).

MARMONTEL, JEAN FRANÇOIS, French writer, born at Bort; author of
"Les Incas," "Bélesaire," and "Contes Moraux;" "was," says Ruskin, "a
peasant's son, who made his way into Parisian society by gentleness, wit,
and a dainty and candid literary power; he became one of the humblest yet
honestest, placed scholars at the court of Louis XV., and wrote pretty,
yet wise, sentimental stories in finished French, the sayings and
thoughts in them, in their fine tremulous way, perfect like the
blossoming heads of grass in May" (1723-1799).

MARMORA, SEA OF, 175 m. long and 50 broad, lies between Europe and
Asia Minor, opening into the Ægean through the Dardanelles and into the
Baltic through the Bosphorus; the Gulf of Ismid indents the eastern
coasts; Marmora, the largest island, has marble and alabaster quarries.

MARNE (435) and HAUTE-MARNE (244), contiguous departments in
the N.E. of France, in the upper basin of the Marne River; in both
cereals, potatoes, and wine are the chief products, the best champagne
coming from the N. In the former, capital Châlons-sur-Marne, building
stone is quarried; there are metal works and tanneries; in the latter,
capital Chaumont, are valuable iron mines and manufactures of cutlery and

MAROCHETTI, BARON, Italian sculptor, born in Turin; after working in
Paris, came to this country in 1848, and executed several public statues,
one of the Queen among others (1805-1867).

MARONITES, a sect of Syrian Christians, numbering 200,000, dwelling
on the eastern slopes of Lebanon, where they settled in the 7th century,
and who joined the Roman Catholic Church in 1445, while they retain much
of their primitive character; they maintained a long sanguinary rivalry
with their neighbours the DRUSES (q. v.).

MAROONS, the name given to wild negro bands in Jamaica and Guiana;
those in Jamaica left behind by the Spaniards on the conquest of the
island by the English, 1655, escaped to the hills, and continued
unsubdued till 1795; in Guiana they still maintain independent
communities. To MAROON a seaman is to leave him alone on an
uninhabited island, or adrift in a boat.

MAROT, CLEMENT, French poet, born at Cahors; was valet-de-chambre of
Margaret of Valois; was a man of ready wit and a satirical writer, the
exercise of which often brought him into trouble; his poems, which
consist of elegies, epistles, rondeaux, madrigals, and ballads, have left
their impress on both the language and the literature of France

MARPRELATE TRACTS, a series of clever but scurrilous tracts
published under the name of Martin Marprelate, but which are the work of
different writers in the time of Elizabeth against prelacy, and which
gave rise to great excitement and some inquisition as to their


MARQUESAS ISLANDS (5), a group of 13 small volcanic mountainous
islands in the S. Pacific, 3600 m. W. of Peru, under French protection
since 1842, are peopled by a handsome but savage race, which is rapidly
dying out; Chinese immigrants grow cotton; the more southerly were
discovered by Mendaña in 1595, the more northerly by Ingraham, an
American, in 1791.

MARROW CONTROVERSY, a theological controversy which arose in
Scotland in the 18th century over the teaching of a book entitled "The
Marrow of Modern Divinity," and which led to a secession from the
Established Church on the part of the "Marrow men," as the supporters of
the doctrine of the book were called. It contained an assertion of the
evangelical doctrine of free grace, which was condemned by the Assembly,
and for maintaining which the "Marrow men," headed by the Erskines, were
deposed in 1733, to the formation of the Secession Church.

MARRYAT, FREDERICK, novelist, born at Westminster; after service in
the royal navy, which he entered in 1806, and in which he attained the
rank of commandant, he retired in 1830, and commenced a series of novels;
"Frank Mildmay," the first, proving a success, he resolved to devote the
rest of his life to literature; his novels were numerous, all of interest
for their character sketches and adventures, and "Peter Simple" and
"Midshipman Easy" are reckoned the best; it was by recourse to Marryat's
stories of sea life that Carlyle solaced himself after the burning of the
MS. volume of his "French Revolution," and that he put himself in tune to
repair the loss (1792-1848).

MARS, the exterior planet of the Solar system, nearest the earth, of
one-half its diameter, with a mean distance from the sun of 141,000,000
m., round which it takes 686 days to revolve, in a somewhat centric
orbit, and 24½ hours to revolve on its own axis, which inclines to its
equator at an angle of 29°; examination of it shows that there is four
times as much land as water in it; it is accompanied by two moons, an
outer making a revolution round it in 30 hours 18 minutes, and an inner
in 7 hours and 38 minutes; they are the smallest heavenly bodies known to

MARS, the Roman god of war, the reputed father of Romulus, and the
recognised protector of the Roman State, identified at length with the
Greek Ares.

MARSEILLAISE, THE, the hymn or march of the French republicans,
composed, both words and music, at Strasburg by Rouget de Lisle one night
in April 1792, and singing which the 600 volunteers from Marseilles
entered Paris on the 30th July thereafter. "Luckiest musicial
composition," says Carlyle, "ever promulgated. The sound of which will
make the blood tingle in men's veins, and whole armies and assemblages
will sing it, with eyes weeping and burning, with hearts defiant of
death, despot, and devil."

MARSEILLES (321), third city and first seaport of France, on the
shore of the Gulf of Lyons, 27 m. E. of the mouth of the Rhône; has
extensive dock accommodation; does great trade in wheat, oil, wine,
sugar, textiles, and coal, and manufactures soap, soda, macaroni, and
iron; there is a cathedral, picture-gallery, museum, and library, schools
of science and art; founded by colonists from Asia Minor in 600 B.C., it
was a Greek city till 300 B.C.; after the days of Rome it had many
vicissitudes, falling finally to France in 1575, and losing its privilege
as a free port in 1660; always a Radical city, it proclaimed the Commune
in 1871; a cholera plague devastated it in 1885; six years later great
sanitary improvements were begun; Thiers and Puget were born here.

MARSHAL FORWARDS, a name given to BLÜCHER (q. v.) for the
celerity of his movements and the dash of his attack.

MARSHALL, JOHN, an American judge; served in the army during the
first years of the American War; afterwards entered the legal profession
and became Chief-Justice of the United States; was an authority on
constitutional law (1755-1835).

MARSTON, JOHN, English dramatist, so called, was more of a poet than
a dramatist, and his dramas are remembered chiefly for the poetic
passages they contain; his masterpiece is a comedy entitled "What You
Will" (1575-1634).

MARSTON, JOHN WESTLAND, dramatist, born at Boston, Lincolnshire;
wrote several dramas, "Strathmore" and "Marie de Méranie" among the
number (1819-1890).

MARSTON, PHILIP BOURKE, poet, son of preceding; wrote three volumes
of verse, admired by Rossetti and Swinburne; was blind from boyhood

MARSTON MOOR, 7 m. W. of York; here Cromwell and Fairfax defeated
the Royalists under Prince Rupert, July 2, 1644, and so won the north of
England for the Parliament.

MARSYAS, a Phrygian peasant, who, having found a flute which Athena
had thrown away because playing on it disfigured her face, and which, as
still inspired by the breath of the goddess, yielded sweet tones when he
put his lips to it, one day challenged Apollo to a contest, the condition
being that the vanquished should pay whatever penalty the victor might
impose on him; Apollo played on the lyre and the boor on the flute, when
the Muses, who were umpires, assigned the palm to the former; upon this
Apollo caught his rival up, bound him to a tree, and flayed him alive for
his temerity.

MARTELLO TOWERS, round towers of strong build, erected as a defence
at one time off the low shores of Sussex and Kent; they are of Italian
origin; there is one off the harbour of Leith.

MARTENS, FREDERICK DE, German diplomatist and publicist, born at
Hamburg; author of a "Précis du Droit des Gens" (1756-1821).

MARTENSEN, HANS LASSEN, bishop of Copenhagen, a distinguished
theologian; author of "Meister Eckhart," a study of mediæval mysticism,
"Christliche Dogmatic" and "Christliche Ethic"; was a Hegelian of a
conservative type (1808-1884).

MARTHA, ST., the sister of Mary and Lazarus, the patron saint of
good housewives, is represented, in homely costume, with a bunch of keys
at her girdle, and a pot in her hand. Festival, July 20.

MARTIAL, a Latin poet, born at Bilbilis, in Spain; went to Rome,
stayed there, favoured of the emperors Titus and Domitian, for 35 years,
and then returned to his native city, where he wrote his Epigrammata, a
collection of short poems over 1500 in number, divided into 14 books,
books xiii. and xiv. being entitled respectively Xenia and Apophoreta;
these epigrams are distinguished for their wit, diction, and indecency,
but are valuable for the light they shed on the manners of Rome at the
period (43-104).

MARTIAL LAW, law administered by military force, to which civilians
are amenable during an insurrection or riot.

MARTIN, the name of five popes: M. I., ST., Pope from 649 to
655; M. II., pope from 882 to 884; M. III., Pope from 942 to
946; M. IV., pope from 1281 to 1285; M. V., Pope from 1417 to
1431, distinguished for having condemned Huss to be burned.

MARTIN, AIMÉ, a French writer, born at Lyons, repaired to Paris,
became the pupil and friend of Bernardin de St. Pierre; collected his
works and married his widow; his letters to Sophia on "Natural History,"
&c., highly popular (1781-1844).

MARTIN, HENRI, celebrated French historian, born at Saint-Quentin;
devoted his life to the study of the history of France; wrote an account
of it, entitled "Histoire de France," a magnificent work in 19 volumes;
brought the history down to 1789, and received from the Institute 20,000
francs as a prize (1810-1885).

MARTIN, JOHN, English painter, born near Hexham; was an artist of an
ardent temperament and extraordinary imaginative power; his paintings,
the first "Sadak in Search of the Waters of Oblivion," characterised as
"sublime" and "gorgeous," were 16 in number, and made a great impression
when produced; engravings of some of them are familiar, such as the "Fall
of Babylon" and "Belshazzar's Feast" (1789-1854).


MARTIN, ST., bishop of Tours, was in early life a soldier, and
meeting with a naked beggar one cold day in winter divided his military
cloak in two, and gave him the half of it; was conspicuous both as a monk
and bishop for his compassion on the poor; seated at a banquet on one
occasion between the king and queen, hobnobbed with a poor beggar looking
on, and extended his goblet of wine to him; he is the patron saint of
topers; _d_. 397. Festival, November 11.

MARTIN, SARAH, a philanthropist, born at Great Yarmouth; lived by
dressmaking, and devoted much of her time among criminals in the jails

MARTIN, SIR THEODORE, man of letters, born in Edinburgh; acquired
his first fame under the pseudonym of Bon Gaultier; is author of the
"Life of the late Prince Consort"; wrote along with Aytouna "Book of
Ballads," and translated the Odes of Horace, Dante's "Vita Nuova" and
Goethe's "Faust"; _b_. 1816.

MARTINEAU, HARRIET, English authoress, born at Norwich; a lady with
little or no genius but with considerable intellectual ability, and not
without an honest zeal for the "progress of the species"; she was what is
called an "advanced" thinker, and was a disciple of Auguste Comte; wrote
a number of stories bearing on social questions, and had that courage of
her opinions which commanded respect; it was she who persuaded Carlyle to
try lecturing when his finances were low, and she had a real pride at the
success of the scheme (1802-1876).

MARTINEAU, JAMES, rationalistic theologian, born in Norwich, brother
of the preceding; began life as an engineer, took to theology, and
became a Unitarian minister; was at first a follower of Bentham and then
a disciple of Kant; at one time a materialist he became a theist, and a
most zealous advocate of theistic beliefs from the Unitarian standpoint;
he is a thinker of great power, and has done much both to elevate and
liberate the philosophy of religion; his views are liberal as well as
profound, and he is extensively known as the author of the "Endeavours
after the Christian Life" and "Hours of Thought on Sacred Things"; _b_.

MARTINIQUE (176, of which a few are white), a West Indian French
possession, one of the Lesser Antilles; has a much-indented precipitous
coast; a mountain range in the centre is densely wooded; the plains are
fertile, and produce sugar, coffee, and cotton, which with fruit are the
exports; the climate is hot and not salubrious; the island has been
French, with three short intervals, since 1635.

MARTYN, HENRY, a Christian missionary, born at Truro, in Cornwall;
was a Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; went to India as a
chaplain, settled in various stations and in Persia; translated the New
Testament into Hindi and Persian, as well as the Prayer-book; fell into
broken health; did more than he was able for, caught fever and died

MARVELL, ANDREW, poet and politician, born at Worcester; was first a
lyric poet, and in politics much of a Royalist, at last a violent
politician on the Puritan side, having become connected with Milton and
Cromwell; he wrote a tract "On the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary
Government in England" after the Restoration, which brought him into
trouble; being a favourite with the king, the king sought to bribe him,
but he could not be caught; he died suddenly, and an unfounded rumour was
circulated that he had been poisoned (1621-1678).

MARX, KARL, a German Socialist, born at Trèves, of Jewish descent;
was at first a student of philosophy and a disciple of Hegel, but soon
abandoned philosophy for social economy on a democratic basis and in a
materialistic interest, early adopted socialistic opinions, for his zeal
in which he was driven from Germany, France, and finally Belgium, to
settle in London, where he spent the last 30 years of his life; founded

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